Spokes 8 : Research References    (Table of Contents)
Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary,, and a plethora of Internet sites (cross-referenced for veracity).

Nisargadatta Maharaj
Nisargadatta Maharaj, I Am That, The Acorn Press (1973).
Robert Powell (editor), The Ultimate Medicine (as prescribed by Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj), North Atlantic Books (1994).
Nisargadatta Maharaj, The Wisdom-Teachings of Nisargadatta Maharaj, edited by Matthew Greenblatt, Inner Directions Publishing (2003).
Ramesh S. Balsekar, Pointers From Nisargadatta Maharaj, The Acorn Press (1982).

Anthony J. Greene, "Making connections," Scientific American Mind 21(3): 22-29 (July/August 2010).
Kelley C. Smith, "Manifest complexity: A foundational ethic for astrobiology?," Space Policy 30(4): 209–214 (November 2014).
Daniel Strain, "8.7 million: a new estimate for all the complex species on earth," Science 333: 1083 (26 August 2011).
Jan Westerhoff, Reality: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2012).
M.W. Ray et al, "Observation of isolated monopoles in a quantum field," Science 348(6234): 544–547 (1 May 2015).
Brian Skinner, "Samuel Beckett’s guide to particles and antiparticles," RibbonFarm (24 September 2015).
Russell J. Donnelly, Quantized Vortices in Helium II, Cambridge University Press (1991).
Alexander L. Fetter, "Rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate," Reviews of Modern Physics (18 May 2009).
Neil W. Ashcroft & N.David Mermin, Solid State Physics, Harcourt (1976).
George Johnson, "Beyond energy, matter, time and space," The New York Times (21 July 2014).
The History of Energy
David Bodanis, "Ancestors of E = mc2," PBS (11 October 2005).
A. Einstein, "Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?," Annalen der Physik 18 (13): 639–641 (1905).
Tamara M. Davis, "Is the universe leaking energy?," Scientific American 303(1): 38–43 (July 2010).
Carlos I. Calle, Superstrings and Other Things, CRC Press (2010).
Bodily Energy.
Samuele M. Marcora et al, "Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans," Journal of Applied Physiology 106(3): 857–864 (1 March 2009).
John S. Malik, "The yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions," Los Alamos National Laboratory report number LA-8819, (September 1985).
Victor J. Stenger, Timeless Reality, Prometheus Books (2000).
Virtual Reality
Georges Lemaître, "The beginning of the world from the point of view of quantum theory," Nature 127: 706 (9 May 1931).
Mark Peplow, "Planck snaps infant universe," Nature 495: 417–418 (28 March 2013).
Andrew Grant, "Universe is a teeny bit older than thought," Science News (21 March 2013).
Tom Siegfried, "Cosmic questions, answers pending," Science News 179(9): 20–21 (23 April 2011).
Ron Cowen, "New study gives dark energy a boost," Science News (16 March 2011).
Glenn G. Kacprzak, "The pristine universe," Science 334 (6060): 1216–1217 (2 December 2011).
"Revamping the size of the universe," Science News (15 May 2014).
Lawrence M. Krauss & Michael S. Turner, "A cosmic conundrum," Scientific American 291(3): 70–77 (March 2010).
Adam Ge Riess et al, "Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant," arXiv:astro-ph/9805201 (15 May 1998).
A. Bazavov et al, "Additional strange hadrons from QCD thermody-namics and strangeness freezeout in heavy ion collisions," Physical Review Letters (11 August 2014).
Haruki Watanabe & Hitoshi Murayama, "Unified description of non-relativistic Nambu–Goldstone bosons," arXiv:1203.0609v2 [hep-th] (22 April 2012).
William J. Marciano, "Particle physics: quarks are not ambidextrous," Nature 506: 43–44 (6 February 2014).
"Theorem unifies superfluids and other weird materials," ScienceDaily (11 June 2012).
The Ground State
Alessandro Bettini, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, 383, Cambridge University Press (2008).
Gordon Kane, "Do the virtual particles in quantum mechanics really exist?," Scientific American 296(3): 104 (March 2008).
Cold Running Hot
S. Braun et al, "Negative absolute temperature for motional degrees of freedom," Science 339(6115): 52–55 (4 January 2013).
Zeeya Merali, "Quantum gas goes below absolute zero," Nature (3 January 2013).
Alexandra Witze, "Negative temperature, infinitely hot," Science News (23 November 2010).
"The dark side of the universe," The Economist (18 February 2012).
"Dark energy, dark matter," NASA Science.
Paul Rincon, "New method 'confirms dark energy'," BBC News (19 May 2011).
Mark Van Raamsdonk, "Building up spacetime with quantum entanglement," arXiv:1005.3035v1 (17 May 2010).
Adam Becker, "Wormhole entanglement gives space-time the bends," New Scientist (26 July 2013).
Mark Van Raamsdonk, "Evaporating firewalls," arXiv:1307.1796v1 (6 July 2013).
Guillaume Aubrun et al, "Entanglement thresholds for random induced states," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics (23 May 2013).
"Einstein's 'spooky action' common in large quantum systems," ScienceDaily (28 May 2013).
"'Spooky action at distance': physicists develop first conclusive test to better understand high-energy particles correlations," ScienceDaily (16 January 2012).
Beatrix C. Hiesmayr et al, "Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics," The European Physical Journal C, 72(1) (2012).
C. Gross et al, "Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states," Nature 480: 219–223 (8 December 2011).
James Lovelock, Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine, Gaia Books (1991).
Toby Tyrell, "My verdict on Gaia hypothesis: beautiful but flawed," New Scientist (30 October 2013).
"Earth's interior cycles contribute to long-term sea-level and climate change, researchers find," ScienceDaily (18 May 2013).
Michael Ruse, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, University of Chicago Press (2013).
Mind Meld
Alejandro Pérez et al, "Brain-to-brain entrainment: EEG interbrain synchronization while speaking and listening," Scientific Reports (23 June 2017).
"Our brains synchronize during a conversation," ScienceDaily (20 July 2017).
Synchronized Heartbeats
Jonathan L. Helm et al, "Assessing cross-partner associations in physiological responses via coupled oscillator models," Emotion 12(4): 748–762 (August 2012).
"Lovers' hearts beat in sync," ScienceDaily (13 February 2013).
Emilio Ferrer & Jonathan L. Helm, "Dynamical systems modeling of physiological coregulation in dyadic interactions," International Journal of Psychophysiology 88(3): 296–308 (June 2013).
Jacob D. Bekenstein, "Information in the holographic universe," Scientific American 289(2): 58–65 (August 2003).
Holographic Existence
Arjun Bagchi et al, "Entanglement entropy in Galilean conformal field theories and flat holography," Physical Review Letters (19 March 2015).
"Expanding universe can emerge in remarkably simple way, scientists say," (13 December 2013).
Arjun Bagchi et al, "Cosmic evolution from phase transition of 3-dimensional flat space," arXiv: 1305.2919v2 [hep-th] (16 October 2013).
Jenna Iacurci, "Is the 3D universe just a hologram?," Nature World News (27 April 2015).
Ron Cowen, "Simulations back up theory that universe is a hologram," Nature (10 December 2013).
Marcus Chown, "Existence: am I a hologram?," New Scientist (28 July 2011).
Nathan Seiberg, "Emergent spacetime," arXiv:hep-th/0601234v1 (21 January 2006).
The Spectral Gap
Toby S. Cubitt, David Perez-Garcia & Michael M. Wolf, "Undecidability of the spectral gap," Nature (9 December 2015).
"Quantum physics problem proved unsolvable," ScienceDaily (9 December 2015).
Semiconductor Sandwich
"Explanation for strange magnetic behavior at semiconductor interfaces," ScienceDaily (25 August 2013).
Sumilan Banerjee et al, "Ferromagnetic exchange, spin–orbit coupling and spiral magnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface," Nature Physics (25 August 2013).
Richard Hildner et al, "Quantum coherent energy transfer over varying pathways in single light-harvesting complexes," Science 340(6139): 1448–1451 (21 June 2013).
Darius Abramavicius & Shaul Mukamel, "Quantum oscillatory exciton migration in photosynthetic reaction centers," The Journal of Chemical Physics (13 August 2010).
"Scientists unlock some key secrets of photosynthesis," ScienceDaily (2 July 2012).
A.I. Oparin (translated by Sergius Morgulus), The Origin of Life, Macmillan (1938).
Wolfgang Nitschke & Michael J. Russell, "The inevitable journey to being," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (10 June 2013).
Solmaz Barazesh, "Scientists identify chemical reactions that could be responsible for the origin of life," Science News 175(12): 5–6 (6 June 2009).
Jack W. Szostak, "Origins of life: Systems chemistry on early Earth," Nature 459: 171–172 (14 May 2009).
Matthew W. Powner et al, "Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions," Nature 459: 239–242 (14 May 2009).
"The origin of the language of life," (19 December 2014).
Paul Davies, "Are we alone in the universe?," The New York Times (18 November 2013).
"Mutations are random" web page of the site Understanding Evolution, University of California (2016) | link: The site was rewritten in late 2016.
Thomas Nagel, "Conceiving the impossible and the mind-body problem," Royal Institute of Philosophy lecture (18 February 1998).
Eugene P. Wigner, "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 13(1): 1–14 (February 1960).
Stephen Priest, Theories of the Mind, Penguin Books (1991).
Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (editors), Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience, Psychology Press (1994).
Christof Koch, "The Footprints of consciousness," Scientific American Mind 28(2): 53-59 (March/April 2017).
Peter W. Halligan & David A. Oakley, "Consciousness evolved for the greater good, not just the self," New Scientist (12 August 2015).
Peter W. Halligan & David A. Oakley, "Greatest myth of all," New Scientist (18 November 2000).
Caroline Williams, "Think like a child to learn faster," New Scientist (8 October 2014). e.g. (in the article): "Learning is what your brain does naturally."
D.F. Swaab, We Are Our Brains, Spiegel & Grau (2014).
Terence W. Deacon, Incomplete Nature, W.W. Norton & Company (2011).
Jim Blascovich & Wendy Berry Mendes, "Social psychophysiology and embodiment," in Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume 1, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
Morton Hunt, The Story of Psychology, Anchor Books (2007).
Steven Pinker, How The Mind Works, W.W. Norton & Company (1997).
John B. Meixner & J. Peter Rosenfeld, "Detecting knowledge of incidentally acquired, real-world memories using a p300-based concealed-information test," Psychological Science (17 September 2014).
Greg Miller, "How are memories retrieved?," Science 338: 30–31 (5 October 2012).
Jakob Pietschnig et al, "Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: how strong are they and what do they mean?," Social Science Research Network (21 October 2015).
"Larger brains do not lead to high IQs, new meta-analysis finds," ScienceDaily (14 October 2015).
"Research solves mystery of memory and mood," ScienceDaily (31 May 2015).
Dhanisha J. Jhaveri et al, "Purification of neural precursor cells reveals the presence of distinct, stimulus-specific subpopulations of quiescent precursors in the adult mouse hippocampus," The Journal of Neuroscience 35 (21): 8132–8144 (27 May 2015).
There are thousands of references which outrageously assert that neurons in the brain generate mental attributes. In the afore-cited Neuroscience article, Indian scientist and philosopher Dhanisha J. Jhaveri, proclaimed: "Distinct areas within the hippocampus control mood." Beyond confusing correlation with causality, such tripe shows ignorance about the fundamental nature of existence. Modern theories of science that address causality strictly within an empirical sphere are nothing but meritless religious proclamations.
Jon Han, "Consciousness as art," Scientific American Mind 26(3): 65–69 (May 2015).
Plants Take A Chance
Joanna Klein, "Lacking brains, plants can still make good judgments about risks," The New York Times (30 June 2016).
Efrat Dener et al, "Pea plants show risk sensitivity," Current Biology 26: 1–5 (11 July 2016).
Slime Mold.
Chris R. Reid et al, "Decision-making without a brain: how an amoeboid organism solves the two-armed bandit," Interface (8 June 2016).
"Slime mold gives insight into intelligence of neuron-less organisms," ScienceDaily (8 June 2016).
Susan Milius, "Pulsing blob makes memories sans brain," Science News (9 October 2012).
"How slime moulds keep track," Nature 490: 147 (11 October 2012).
Tom Stafford, "Can you live a normal life with half a brain?," BBC (18 December 2014).
Lionel Feuillet et al, "Brain of a white-collar worker," The Lancet 370(9583): 262 (21 July 2007).
"Man with tiny brain shocks doctors," New Scientist (20 July 2007).
"Woman of 24 found to have no cerebellum in her brain," New Scientist (10 September 2014).
Lizzie Parry, "The woman with half her brain missing but who managed to live an almost normal life," Daily Mail (12 September 2014).
Charles Choi, "Strange but true: when half a brain is better than a whole one," Scientific American (24 May 2007).
Kelly Marshall & Eric Marrapodi, "Born with half a brain, woman living full life," CNN (12 October 2009).
Shocking Expectation
Richard E Nisbett & Stanley Schachter, "Cognitive manipulation of pain," Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2(3): 227–236 (July 1966).
Anne Harrington, The Cure Within: A History of Mind-Body Medicine, W.W. Norton & Company (2008).
Maj-Britt Niemi, "Cure in the mind," Scientific American Mind 20(1): 42-49 (February/March 2009).
Joseph T. Hallinan, Kidding Ourselves: The Hidden Power of Self-Deception Crown Publishers (2014).
Placebo Belief
Erick Vance, "Mind over matter," National Geographic (December 2016).
"Know it's a placebo? Study shows the 'medicine' could still work," ScienceDaily (24 July 2015).
Scott M. Schafer et al, "Conditioned placebo analgesia persists when subjects know they are receiving a placebo," Journal of Pain 16(5): 412–420 (May 2015).
Trisha Gura, "When pretending is the remedy," Scientific American Mind 23(2): 34-39 (March/April 2013).
Mr. Wright
Sandra Blakeslee, "Placebos prove so powerful even experts are surprised; new studies explore the brain's triumph over reality," The New York Times (1998 October 1998).
James F. Holland, "The krebiozen story," Quackwatch (29 February 2000).
Knee Pain
J. Bruce Moseley, M.D et al, A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee," The New England Journal of Medicine (11 July 2002).
Melinda T. Willis, "Knee surgery no better than placebo," ABC News (10 July 2002).
"Arthroscopic surgery is no better than placebo (sham surgery) in treating the pain and dysfunction of osteoarthritis of the knee," John Hopkins Arthritis Center (13 April 2005).
Parkinson's Disease
Cynthia McRae et al, "Effects of perceived treatment on quality of life and medical outcomesin a double-blind placebo surgery trials," JAMA Psychiatry 61(4):412-420 (April 2004).
Alla Katsnelson, "Experimental therapies for Parkinson's disease: why fake it?," Nature, 476: 142-144 (10 August 2011).
Poison Ivy
Yujiro Ikemi & Shunji Nakagawa, "A psychosomatic study of contagious dermatitis," Kyushu Journal of Medical Science 13: 335-350 (1962).
Visual Expectation
"Infants use expectations to shape their brains," ScienceDaily (20 July 2015).
Lauren L. Emberson et al, "Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months," PNAS (20 July 2015).
Ilan S. Wittstein et al, "Neurohumoral features of myocardial stunning due to sudden emotional stress," The New England Journal of Medicine (10 February 2005).
Bruno Bettelheim, The Informed Heart, Avon (1971).
Bruno Bettelheim, "Individual and mass behavior in extreme situations," Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 38(4): 417-452 (October 1943).
William E. Major, "Brainwashing: the ultimate weapon," (4 October 1956).
Sugar, Willpower & Belief
Veronika Job et al, "Beliefs about willpower determine the impact of glucose on self-control," PNAS (19 August 2013).
Jessica Shugart, "Power of sugar may come from the mind," Science News (19 August 2013).
Happy Bone.
Päivi H. Rauma et al, "Life satisfaction and bone mineral density among postmenopausal women," Psychosomatic Medicine 76 (9): 709–715 (November-December 2014).
"Sleepwalkers feel no pain, remain asleep despite suffering injuries," ScienceDaily (2 November 2015).
Régis Lopez et al, "Pain in sleepwalking: a clinical enigma," Sleep 38(11): 1693–1698 (2015).
Cellular Effects of Meditation
Linda E. Carlson et al, "Mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy maintain telomere length relative to controls in distressed breast cancer survivors," Cancer (3 November 2014).
"Gene expression changes with meditation," ScienceDaily (8 December 2013).
Jill Sakai, "Study reveals gene expression changes with meditation," University of Wisconsin-Madison Press Release (4 December 2013).
Perla Kaliman et al, "Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators," Psychoneuro-endocrinology 40: 96–107 (February 2014).
Anthony W. Blanchfield et al, "Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance perfor-mance," Frontiers of Human Neuroscience (December 2014).
"Optimistic people have healthier hearts, study finds," ScienceDaily (9 January 2015).
Rosalba Hernandez et al, "Optimism and cardiovascular health: multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis," Health Behavior and Policy Review, 2(1): 62–73 (January 2015).
Out-of-Body Experiences
Dean Shields, "A cross-cultural study of beliefs in out-of-the-body experiences,” Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 49: 697–741 (1978).
Frederick Aardema, Explorations in Consciousness: A New Approach to Out-of-Body Experiences, Mount Royal Publishing (2015).
Robert A. Monroe, Journeys Out of the Body, Doubleday (1971).
Erika Bourguignon, "Dreams and altered states of consciousness in anthropological research,” in Psychological Anthropology, edited by F.L.K. Hsu, Schenkman (1972).
Celia Green, Out-of-the-Body Experiences, Institute of Psychophysical Research (1968).
"First out-of-body experience induced in laboratory setting," ScienceDaily (24 August 2007).
Andra M. Smith & Claude Messier, "Voluntary out-of-body experience: an fMRI study," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (10 February 2014).
Gillian Mohney, "Woman has 'out of body' experiences whenever she wants," ABC News (8 March 2014).
Near-Death Experiences
Robin Marantz Henig, "The crossing," National Geographic (April 2016).
"Near-death experiences? Results of the world's largest medical study of the human mind and consciousness at time of death," ScienceDaily (7 October 2014).
Sam Parnia et al, "AWARE – AWAreness during Resuscitation – a prospective study," Resuscitation (6 October 2014).
David Bennett, Voyage of Purpose: Spiritual Wisdom from Near-Death back to Life, Findhorn Press (2011).
Untitled story in the section "It wasn't all bad", The Week (21 November 2014).
"Near-death experiences are overwhelmingly peaceful," New Scientist (25 June 2014).
Melinda Beck, "Seeking proof in near-death claims," The Wall Street Journal (25 October 2010).
Jimo Borjigin et al, "Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain," PNAS (12 August 2013).
Pierre Bourdin et al, "A virtual out-of-body experience reduces fear of death," PLoS One (9 January 2017).
Jessica Hamzelou, "Virtual out-of-body experience reduces your fear of death," New Scientist (30 January 2017).
Pupil Dilation
Bruno Laeng & Unni Sulutvedt, "The eye pupil adjusts to imaginary light," Psychological Science (27 November 2013).
Rita Carter et al, The Human Brain Book, DK Books (2009).
Thomas L. Adelman et al, "The information content of receptive fields," Neuron 40(4): 823-833 (13 November 2003).
Chaipat Chunharas & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, "Out of the shadows," Scientific American Mind 27(4): 56-61 (July/August 2015).
Davide Castelvecchi, "Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision," Nature (15 June 2015).
Victor Leong et al, "Time-resolved scattering of a single photon by a single atom," Nature Communications (29 November 2016).
"Shape matters when light meets atom," ScienceDaily (2 December 2016). Deborah Netburn, "The human eye can detect a single photon, study finds," Los Angeles Times (19 July 2016).
Roger N. Clark, "Notes on the resolution and other details of the human eye," (31 January 2016).
Percy W. Cobb, "The retinal processes concerned with visual acuity and color vision," American Journal of Ophthalmology 15(6): 565 (June 1932).
Michael C. Hout & Stephen D. Goldinger, "To see or not to see," Scientific American Mind 24(3): 61-67 (July/August 2013).
Stephen L. Macknik & Susana Martinez-Conde, "Filling in the _," Scientific American Mind 25(1): 21 (January/February 2014).
Ariel Bleicher, "Edges of perception," Scientific American Mind 23(1): 46-53 (March/April 2012).
Simon Thorpe et al, "Speed of processing in the human visual system," Nature 381: 520–522 (6 June 1996).
Michel Millodot, "Do blue-eyed people have more sensitive corneas than brown-eyed people?," Nature 255: 151–152 (8 May 1975).
Davide Castelvecchi, "Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision," Nature (15 June 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Color vision strategy defies textbooks," Science News (15 October 2016).
Ruanak Sinha et al, "Cellular and circuit mechanisms shaping the perceptual properties of the primate fovea," Cell (168(3): 413-426 (26 January 2017).
"A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates," ScienceDaily (22 February 2017).
Jean-Rémi King et al, "Brain mechanisms underlying the brief maintenance of seen and unseen sensory information," Neuron 92(5): 1122–1134 (7 December 2016).
Marte Otten et al, "The uniformity illusion," Psychological Science (14 November 2016).
Forest staircase photo courtesy of Charline Radcliff.
"Illusion reveals that the brain fills in peripheral vision," ScienceDaily (8 December 2016).
"Scientists shed new light on how the brain processes, maintains what we don't see," ScienceDaily (7 December 2016).
Denise Chow, "How your brain tracks moving object," Live Science (8 May 2013).
Gerrit W. Maus et al, "Motion-dependent representation of space in area MT+," Neuron 78(3): 554–562 (8 May 2013).
Gerrti W. Maus et al, "Target displacements during eye blinks trigger automatic recalibration of gaze direction," Current Biology (19 January 2017).
"Why the lights don't dim when we blink," ScienceDaily (19 January 2017).
Lisa Olson, "How often and why do people's eyes blink?," The Boston Globe (14 May 2007).
Mary C. Potter et al, "Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture," Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 76(2): 270–279 (February 2014).
Dafna Sussman et al, "Eye model for the ground squirrel," Journal of Modern Optics (18 November 2011).
Dick Dubielzig, "Ocular anatomy and variations in laboratory animals," School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin (2008).
Philip S. Corbet, A Biology of Dragonflies, Quadrangle Books (1962).
David O'Carroll, "Feature-detecting neurons in dragonflies," Nature 362: 541-543 (8 April 1993).
GrrlScientist "30,000 facets give dragonflies a different perspective: the big compound eye in the sky," ScienceBlogs (8 July 2009).
Catherine Brahic, "Dragonfly eyes see the world in ultra-multicolour," New Scientist (28 February 2015).
Ryo Futahashi et al, "Extraordinary diversity of visual opsin genes in dragonflies," PNAS (23 February 2015).
Paloma T. Gonzalez-Bellido et al, "Eight pairs of descending visual neurons in the dragonfly give wing motor centers accurate population vector of prey direction," PNAS (3 December 2012).
Arlene Klingman & Richard L. Chappell, "Feedback synaptic interaction in dragonfly ocellar retina," The Journal of General Physiology 71: 157-175 (1978).
Stephanie Pappas, "Dragonfly shows human-like power of concentration," Live Science (27 December 2012).
Richard Berry et al, "The mapping of visual space by dragonfly lateral ocelli," Journal of Comparative Physiology A 193(5): 495-513 (May 2007).
Vivek Jayaraman, "Visual neuroscience: a moving story of neuro-modulation," Current Biology 22(24): R1057–R1059 (18 December 2012).
Mark M. Schira et al, "Brain mapping: the (un)folding of striate cortex," Current Biology 22(24): R1051–R1053 (18 December 2012).
Adylne Kang, "Dragonfly vision & perception," (31 October 2012).
R.M. Olberg et al, "Eye movements and target fixation during dragonfly prey-interception flights," Journal of Comparative Physiology A 193(7): 685-693 (July 2007).
Robert M. Olberg, "Visual control of prey-capture flight in dragonflies," Current Opinion in Neurobiology 22(2): 267-271 (April 2012).
R.M. "Prey size selection and distance estimation in foraging adult dragonflies," Journal of Comparative Physiology A 191(9): 791-797 (September 2005).
Jill Sillsby, Dragonflies of the World, Smithsonian Institution Press (2001).
Forrest L. Mitchel & James L. Lasswell, A Dazzle of Dragonflies, Texas A&M University Press (2005).
Robber Flies
Robber fly photo courtesy of Thomas Shahan.
Trevor J. Wardill et al, "A novel interception strategy in a miniature robber fly with extreme visual acuity," Current Biology 27: 1-6 (20 March 2017). Steph Yin, "The rice-size fly that hits the bull's-eye every time," The New York Times (10 March 2017). "Detect. Lock on. Intercept. The remarkable hunting ability of the robber fly," University of Cambridge (9 March 2017).
Stephanie Pappas, "Jaw-dropping vision helps tiny flies snag prey in under a second," Live Science (9 March 2017).
Anmo J. Kim et al, "Quantitative predictions orchestrate visual signaling in Drosophila," Cell 168(1-2): 280-294 (12 January 2017).
"Clues into how brain shapes perception to control behavior," ScienceDaily (6 January 2017).
Insect Night Vision
Eric Warrant, "How do animals see in the dark?," The Conversation (13 March 2017).
Anna Lisa Stöckl et al, "Neural summation in the hawkmoth visual system extends the limits of vision in dim light," Current Biology (3 March 2016).
Eric J. Warrant et al, "Nocturnal vision and landmark orientation in a tropical halictid bee," Current Biology 14(5): 1309–1318(10 August 2004).
Almut Kelber et al, "Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths," Nature 419: 922-925 (31 October 2002).
Simon Sponberg et al, "Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light," Science 348(6240): 1245-1248 (12 June 2015).
Marie Dacke et al, "Animal behaviour: insect orientation to polarized moonlight," Nature 424: 33 (3 July 2003).
Marie Dacke et al, "Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation," Current Biology 23(4): 298-300 (18 February 2013).
Jan Westerhoff, "Reality: is matter real?," New Scientist (2 October 2012).
Vlatko Vedral, "Living in a quantum world," Scientific American 304(6): 38–44 (June 2011).
The Language of Reality
Max Tegmark, Our Mathematical Universe, Random House (2014).
Eugene Wigner, "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences," Pure and Applie Mathematics 13(1) (February 1960).
R.W. Hamming, "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics," The American Mathematical Monthly, 87(2): 81-90 (February 1980).
Derek Abbott, "The reasonable ineffectiveness of mathematics," Proceedings of the IEEE 101(10): 2147-2153 (October 2013).
Edward Frenkel, "Is the universe a simulation," The New York Times (14 February 2014).
A. Garret Lisi & James O. Weatherall, "A geometric theory of everything," Scientific American 303(6): 55–61 (December 2010).
Amanda Gefter, "Reality: is everything made of numbers?," New Scientist (2 October 2012).
Clara Moskowitz, "Equations are art inside a mathematician's brain," Nature (5 March 2014).
Phase Transitions
Gabriel Popkin, "Magnets, boiling kettles and the secret code underlying reality," New Scientist (15 February 2017).
Slava Rychkov, "Conformal Bootstrap in three dimensions?," arXiv:1111.2115 [hep-th] (9 November 2011).
A.A. Belavin et al, "Infinite conformal symmetry in two-dimensional quantum field theory," Nuclear Physics B 241(2): 333-380 (23 July 1984).
Riccardo Rattazzi et al, "Bounding scalar operator dimensions in 4D CFT," Journal of High Energy Physics (9 December 2008).
"Influence of religion and predestination on evolution and scientific thinking," ScienceDaily (30 April 2016).
Aldemaro Romero Jr. "The influence of religion on science: the case of the idea of predestination in biospeleology," Research Ideas and Outcomes 2: e9015 (27 April 2016).
Addy Pross, "Life’s restlessness," Aeon Magazine (29 April 2014).
Peter Godfrey-Smith, Theory and Reality, The University of Chicago Press (2003).
The Nature of Reaility
Nick Bostrom, "Are you living in a computer simulation?," Philosophical Quarterly 53(211): 243–255 (2003).
Silas R. Beane et al, "Constraints on the universe as a numerical simulation," arXiv:1210.1847v2 [hep-ph] (9 November 2012).
Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God: Oriental Mythology, Viking Penguin (1962).
Subjectivity & Objectivity.
Tara Callaghan et al, "Synchrony in the onset of mental-state reasoning: evidence from five cultures," Psychological Science 16(5): 378–384 (May 2005).

The Mind
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Ist meditation overrated?," Scientific American Mind 25(3): 12 (May/June 2014).
Jermoe L. Singer & Vivian G. McCraven, "Some characteristics of adult daydreaming," The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied 51(1): 151-164 (July 2010).
Jermome L. Singer, Daydreaming: An introduction to the experimental study of inner experience, Random House (1966).
Jerome L. Singer, "Navigating the stream of consciousness: research in daydreaming and related inner experience," American Psychologist 30: 727-738 (July 1975).
Kalina Christoff et al, "Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering," PNAS (11 May 2009).
Kerri Smith, "Idle minds," Nature 489: 356–358 (3 July 2014).
Timothy D. Wilson et al, "Just think: the challenges of the disengaged mind," Science 345(6192): 75–77 (4 July 2014).
Lauren Hitchings, "Idle minds succumb to temptation of electric shocks," New Scientist (4 July 2014).
Heidi Ledford, "We dislike being alone with our thoughts," Nature (3 July 2014).
Mind-Body Association
John R. Searle, Mind, Oxford University Press (2004).
A.G. Cairns-Smith, Evolving the Mind, Cambridge University Press (1996).

Linda Geddes, "What makes you conscious – and where is it in your brain?," New Scientist (16 March 2016).
Anthony Campbell, Seven States of Consciousness, Harper & Row (1974).
Nikos Konstantinou et al, "Visual short-term memory load reduces retinotopic cortex response to contrast," Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (28 September 2012).
"How memory load leaves us 'blind' to new visual information," ScienceDaily (1 October 2012).
Steven B. Most, "What’s “inattentional” about inattentional blindness?," Consciousness and Cognition 19(4): 1102–1104 (December 2010).
Steven Laureys and Giulio Tononi, The Neurology of Consciousness, Academic Press (2008).
Tori Rodriguez, "Therapy in the air," Scientific American Mind 22(5): 16 (November/December 2011).
Anil Ananthaswamy, "Sparks of consciousness mapped in most detail yet," New Scientist (9 April 2015).

The Soul
Israel Drazin, "The concept of the soul and the after-life," History in Review web site(7 April 2010).
Meredith F. Small, "The human soul: an ancient idea," Live Science (28 November 2008).
Stewart Goetz & Charles Taliaferro, A Brief History of the Soul, Wiley-Blackwell (2011).
Angela Mendelovici, review of A Brief History of the Soul, in Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews (16 April 2012).
Alan F. Segal, Life After Death, Doubleday (2004).
Laurie Sue Brockway, "An interview with famous 'ghost hunter' Hans Holzer," (undated).
Hans Holzer, Ghosts: True Encounters with the World Beyond, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers (1997).
Hans Holzer, Ghost Hunter (1963).
Pierre Bourdin et al, "A virtual out-of-body experience reduces fear of death," PLoS One (9 January 2017).
Jessica Hamzelou, "Virtual out-of-body experience reduces your fear of death," New Scientist (20 January 2017).
William Grimes, "Hans Holzer, ghost hunter, dies at 89," The New York Times (29 April 2009).
Leslie Rule, Ghosts Among Us: True Stories of Spirit Encounters, Andrews McMeel Publishing (2004).
Leslie Rule, Coast to Coast Ghosts: True Stories of Hauntings Across America, Andrews McMeel Publishing (2001).
Mary Roach, Spook, W.W. Norton & Company (2005).
Joseph Head & S.L. Cranston, Reincarnation: The Phoenix Fire Mystery, Warner Books (1979).
Ian Stevenson, Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation, University of Virginia Press (1980).
Carol Bowman, Children's Past Lives: How Past Life Memories Affect Your Child, Bantam (2012).
Ian Stevenson, Children Who Remember Previous Lives: A Question of Reincarnation, McFarland (2000).
Jim Tucker & Ian Stevenson, Life Before Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children's Memories of Previous Lives, St. Martin's Press (2005).

James Kingsland, Siddhartha's Brain: Unlocking the Ancient Science of Enlightenment, William Morrow Paperbacks (2017).
Andrew Newberg & Mark Robert Waldman, How Enlightenment Changes Your Brain: The New Science of Transformation, Avery (2016).
Baruch Fischhoff, "For those condemned to study the past: heuristics and biases in hindsight," in Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, Cambridge University Press (1982).
Bertrand Russell, The Analysis of Mind, George Allen & Unwin (1921).
Graham Lawton, "I believe: your personal guidebook to reality," New Scientist (31 March 2015).
Sarah Estes & Jesse Graham, "Does your biology influence your vote?," New Scientist (7 November 2012).
"Post-traumatic stress disorder: We need more awareness about events that trigger it," ScienceDaily (19 May 2014).
Christopher J. Merritt et al, " Trauma type affects recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder among online respondents in the UK and Ireland," Journal of Affective Disorders 164: 123–129 (1 August 2014).
"For combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, 'fear circuitry' in the brain never rests," ScienceDaily (18 May 2013).
J. Ramsay Macdonald, Syndicalism, Constable & Co. (1912).
Christina Zelano et al, "Nasal respiration entrains human limbic oscillations and modulates cognitive function," The Journal of Neuroscience 36(49): 12448-12467 (7 December 2016).
Mo Costandi, "Breathing modulates brain activity and mental function," The Guardian (23 December 2016).
Amishi P. Jha, "Being in the now," Scientific American Mind 23(3): 26-33 (March/April 2013).
Miguel Farias & Catherine Wikholm, "Panic, depression and stress: the case against meditation," New Scientist (14 May 2015).
Hal Arkowitz & Scott O. Lilienfeld, "Is mindfulness good medicine?," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 74–75 (September/October 2014).
J.D. Creswell et al, "Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress," Psychoneuroendocrinology (23 February 2014).
Aleksandra Zgierska et al, "Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: a systematic review," Substance Abuse 30(4): 266–294 (October-December 2009).
Daniel Strein, "Meditators can concentrate the hurt away," Science News (5 April 2011).
Willem Kuyken et al, "Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial," The Lancet (20 April 2015).
Arthur M. Nezu, "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevent-ing relapse in recurrent depression: a randomized dismantling trial," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82(2): 275–286 (April 2014).
D.H. Shapiro Jr., "Adverse effects of meditation: a preliminary investigation of long-term meditators," International Journal of Psychosomatics 39(1-4):62–67 (1992).
Matthew Hutson, "The richness of routine," Scientific American Mind 26(4): 8 (July/August 2015).
Empire Builder
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Thoughts of a Yogi, Amazon Media (2014). {transcribed from audiotapes before 1973.
Lily Koppel, "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, spiritual leader, dies," The New York Times (6 February 2008).
"Maharishi Mahesh Yogi," The Economist (14 February 2008).
Sean McCloud, Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives and Journalists, 1955–1993, University of North Carolina Press (2004).
Allan Kozinn, "Meditation on the man who saved the Beatles," The New York Times (7 February 2008).
Arthur Max, "A yogi's plan for today's troubled world," Los Angeles Times (19 February 2006).
Miscellaneous References
Measuring the Immeasurable, Sounds True (2006).
George Makari, Soul Machine, W.W. Norton & Company (2015).