Spokes 6 : Research References    (Table of Contents)
Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary,, and a plethora of Internet sites. (General information found on the Internet is cross-checked for veracity.)

Bradley J. Cardinale et al, "Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity," Nature 486: 59–67 (7 June 2012).
A.S. MacDougall et al, "Diversity loss with persistent human disturbance increases vulnerability to ecosystem collapse," Nature 494: 86–89 (7 February 2013).
Dakota M. Spear et al, "Asteraceae pollen provisions Protect Osmia mason bees (hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from brood parasitism," The American Naturalist (6 April 2016).

Patricia S. Daniels & Stephen G. Hyslop, Almanac of World History, National Geographic (2003).
Neil Kagan (editor), Concise History of the World, National Geographic (2006).
Klaus Berndl et al, Visual History of the World, National Geographic (2005).
Edward McNall Burns, Western Civilizations, W.W. Norton & Company (1963).
Albert M. Craig et al, The Heritage of World Civilizations, Prentice Hall (2007).
Philip J. Alder, World Civilizations, West Publishing Company (1996).
John M. Roberts, History of the World, Oxford University Press (1993).
William H. McNeill, A World History, Oxford University Press (1967).
Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, Oxford University Press (1962).
Will & Ariel Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster (1950).
Trevor I. Williams, A History of Invention, Checkmark Books (2004).
Robert C. Scharff & Val Dusek (editors), Philosophy of Technology, John Wiley & Sons (2014).
Susan Hitchcock (editor), Science of Everything, National Geographic (2013).
Peter James & Nick Thorpe, Ancient Inventions, Random House (1994).
John Brockman, The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years, Phoenix (2001).
Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology, The MIT Press (2000).
Julian Birkinshaw, "Why corporate giants fail to change," Fortune (8 May 2013).
Washington Post Staff, "The history of the mobile phone," The Washington Post (9 September 2014).
"5 major moments in cellphone history," CBC News (3 April 2015).
WebdesignerDepot staff, "The evolution of cell phone design between 1983 – 2009," WebdesignerDepot (22 May 2009).
Alexandra Chang, "5 reasons why Nokia lost its handset sales lead and got downgraded to 'junk'," Wired (27 April 2012).
Sam Grobart, "How Samsung became the world's No. 1 smartphone maker," Bloomberg (2016).
Paul Thorrott, "Analysis: Microsoft is scaling back on Windows phone dramatically," Thorrot (8 July 2015).
Zach Epstein, "Microsoft CEO tries to convince the world that Windows phone’s failure doesn’t matter," BGR (31 December 2015).
Brian S. Hall, "The real reason Windows phone is failing," Readwrite (4 April 2013).
Joe Wilcox, "The measure of Windows phone's failure is...," Betanews (2013).
Enrica N. Ruggs et al, "Weight isn’t selling: the insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings," Applied Psychology 100(5): 1483–1496 (September 2015).
Heat Engines
Robert Henry Thurston, A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine, D. Appleton and Company (1886).
"Average operating heat rate for selected energy sources," US Energy Information Administration (2014).
Internal Combustion Engines
Nick Georgano (editor), The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile, Routledge (2000).
Stan Augarten, Bit by Bit, Tichnor & Fields (1984).
George Ifrah, The Universal History of Computing, John Wiley & Sons (2001).
Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought, MIT Press (2000).
George Dyson, Turing's Cathedral, Pantheon Books (2012).
Ron White, How Computers Work, Que (2015).
Personal Computers
Paul Frieberger, Fire in the Valley, Osborne/McGraw-Hill (1984).
Ted Nelson, Geeks Bearing Gifts, Mindful Press (2009).
Daniel Ichbiah & Susan Knepper, The Making of Microsoft, Prima Lifestyles (1991).
Apple Computer
Original Macintosh computer photo courtesy of w:User:Grm wnr.
Kathleen Burton, "Anatomy of a Colossus, Part II," PC Magazine (February 1983).
Martyn Williams & Paul Kallender, "China's Lenovo to buy IBM's PC business," InfoWorld (7 December 2004).
Bill Synder, "IBM says bye-bye to hardware and hello to the cloud," InfoWorld (25 February 2015).
Edsger W. Dijkstra, "Go to statement considered harmful," Communications of the ACM 11(3): 147–148 (March 1968).
Software History
Donald E. Knuth, "Structured programming with go to statements," Computing Surveys 6(4): 261–301 (1974).
Object Orientation
Ann L. Winblad et al, Object-Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley (1990).
Margaret A. Ellis & Bjarne Stroustrup, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual, AT&T (1990).
Stephen C. Dewhurst & Kathy T. Stark, Programming in C++, Prentice-Hall (1989).
Mark D. Gerl, "As easy as A, B, OOPC?," MacTech (January 1993).
Sonya E. Keene, Object-Oriented Programming in Common Lisp, Addison-Wesley (1989).
Andreas Paepcke, Object-Oriented Progamming – The CLOS Perspective, MIT Press (1993).
Gary Odom, "Comparing C-based object systems," MacTech (November 1992).
The Internet
James Gillies & Robert Cailliau, how the web was born, Oxford University Press (2000).
Stephen Bryant, The Story of the Internet, Pearson Education (2000).
Katie Hafner & Matthew Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late, Simon & Schuster (1996).
John S. Quarterman & Smoot Carl-Mitchell, The Internet Connection, Addison-Wesley (1994).
"From diggers to data centres," The Economist (2 January 2016).
"Internet world stats," (2017).
World Wide Web
Dave Raggett et al, "Raggett on HTML," Addison Wesley Longman (1998).
Tim Berners-Lee, "Information management: a proposal," (May 1990).
Donelle Gan, "May 26, 1995: Gates, Microsoft Jump on 'Internet Tidal Wave'," Wired (26 May 2010).
Adobe Flash
"Adobe updates Flash amid renewed exploit fear," (28 December 2015).
Steve Jobs, "Thoughts on Flash," HotNews on (10 April 2010).
John Sullivan, "Pot, meet kettle: a response to Steve Jobs’ letter on Flash," Ars Technica (30 April 2010).
Terri Stone, "Creative suite pricing varies throughout world," (8 May 2007).
John Hock, "Adobe ate me baby!!," John Hock on Adobe (28 December 2007).
Mike Masnick, "Adobe spying on its customers," TechDirt (28 December 2007).
Edd Bott, "Adobe and Skype top my Foistware Hall of Shame," The Ed Bott Report (28 April 2011).
Bill Brenner, "That was stupid, Adobe," CSO (14 May 2012).
Thomas Brewster, "Adobe backtracks on patching ‘PR disaster’," TechWeek Europe (14 May 2012).
Luke Hopewell, "Don't believe the Adobe price cut hype, it's still gouging you silly," Gizmodo Australia (13 February 2013).
Ben Grubb, "Adobe has its head in the clouds over pricing," The Age – Digital Life (15 February 2013).
David Kocieniewski, "Adobe announces security breach," The New York Times (3 October 2013).
"Adobe in source code and customer data security breach," BBC News (4 October 2013).
Woody Leonhard, "Adobe fesses up to hack but fudges on details," InfoWorld (4 October 2013).
Barb Darrow, "Ruh-roh: Adobe breach is just the beginning, researcher says," Gigaom Research (7 October 2013).
Jeremy Kirk, "Adobe's source code was parked on hackers' unprotected server," PC World (11 October 2013).
Rachel King, "Adobe security breach actually affected closer to 38 million users," ZDNet (29 October 2013).
"Adobe hack: at least 38 million accounts breached," BBC News (30 October 2013).
Gareth Halfacree, "Adobe data breach far worse than first claimed," Bit-Tech (5 November 2013).
Jim Finkle, "Trove of Adobe user data found on Web after breach: security firm," Reuters (7 November 2013).
Craig Timberg, "A flaw in the design," The Washington Post (30 May 2015).
Michael E. Whitman & Herbert J. Mattord, Principles of Information Security, Course Technology (2014).
Gary McGraw, Software Security: Building Security In, Addison-Wesley (2006).
Jason Grembi, Secure Software Development: A Security Programmer's Guide, Delmar Cengage Learning (2008).
Matt Bishop, Computer Security: Art and Science, Addison-Wesley (2002).
Barry K. Shelton & Chris R. Johnson, "A brief history of encryption," TechNewsWorld (19 July 2010).
Tony M. Damico, "A brief history of cryptography," Student Pulse (2009).
Jeremy Kirk, "LogJam is closely related to the FREAK security vulnerability and involves downgrading TLS connections to a weak key," InfoWorld (20 May 2015).
Timothy B. Lee, "How a grad student trying to build the first botnet brought the Internet to its knees," The Washington Post (1 November 2013).
Brian X. Chen, "Apple account break-in highlights security weakness," The New York Times (6 August 2012).
Brendan Sasso, "The NSA Isn’t just spying on us, it’s also undermining internet security," National Journal (29 April 2014).
Robert Lemos, "More than 80% of mobile apps have encryption flaws, study finds," eWeek (3 December 2015).
Jacob Aron, "Five ways to rob a bank using the internet," New Scientist (3 October 2013).
"Oracle says Micros credit card readers hacked," (9 August 2016).
"Cybercrime costs up to $500 bn: study," (22 July 2013).
Dan Tynan, "The state of cyber security: we’re all screwed," The Guardian (8 August 2016).
"When back doors backfire," The Economist (2 January 2016).
Neil MacFarquhar, "A Russian cybersleuth battles the ‘Dark Ages’ of the Internet," The New York Times (10 June 2016).
Nicole Perlroth, "Internet attack spreads, disrupting major websites," The New York Times (21 October 2016).
Sam Thielman & Chris Johnston, "Major cyber attack disrupts internet service across Europe and US," The New York Times (22 October 2016).
David E. Sanger & Nicole Perlroth, "A new era of internet attacks powered by everyday devices," The New York Times (22 October 2016).
Nicky Woolf, "DDoS attack that disrupted internet was largest of its kind in history, experts say," The Guardian (26 October 2016).
"The hacking epidemic," The Week (4 November 2016).
"Internet of Things: the web's Achilles' heel?," The Week (4 November 2016).
David Glance, "Is someone really trying to find out if they can destroy the internet?," The Conversation (4 November 2016).
David Pogue, "What happened to user manuals?," Scientific American (April 2017).
Technical Support Kate Murphy, "Why tech support is (purposely) unbearable," The New York Times (3 July 2016).

2015 GDP per capita map courtesy of Rossenne, based upon World Bank data.
Thomas Sowell, Basic Economics, Basic Books (2015).
Charles H. Ferguson, Predator Nation, Crown Business (2012).
Matt Taibbi, Grifopia, Random House (2010).
Ha-Joon Chang, Economics: The User's Guide, Bloomsbury Press (2014).
Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company (2010).
Jeffry A. Frieden, Global Capitalism, W.W. Norton & Company (2007).
The Founding of Economics
Rondo Cameron, A Concise Economic History of The World, Oxford University Press (1993).
Ethical Qualms
Jerry Z. Muller, The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought, Anchor (2003).
William Ebenstein & Alan O. Ebenstein, Great Political Thinkers, Harcourt Brace (1951).
Ernestine Giesecke, From Seashells to Smart Cards, Heinemann Library (2003).
Frank W. Elwell, Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change, Au Press (2013).
Nur Balkan-Atli, "One of the earliest centers of obsidian trade: Göllü Dag (Central Anatolia)," in Volume 3 of Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East (May 2009).
Vincent Lannoye, The History of Money for Understanding Economics, Vincent Lannoye (2011).
Felix Martin, Money: The Unauthorized Biography, Alfred A. Knopf (2013).
Catherine Eagleton & Jonathan Williams, Money: A History, British Museum Press (2007).
Glyn Davies, A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, University of Wales Press (2002).
Jonathan Williams (editor), Money: A History, St. Martin's Press (1997).
Jack Weatherford, The History of Money, Crown Publishers (1997).
Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World, Penguin Books (2008).
Christine Desan, Making Money: Coin, Currency, and the Coming of Capitalism, Oxford University Press (2015).
C.L. Fábri, "The punch-marked coins: a survival of the Indus civilization," The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2: 307–318 (April 1935).
"The history of money," Nova (26 October 1996).
Charles James Jackson, English Goldsmiths and Their Marks, Macmillan and Co. (1905).
Walter Thornbury, Old and New London: Volume 1, Cassell, Petter & Galpin, London (1878).
Andrew Lawler, "Uncovering civilization's roots," Science 335 (6070): 790–793 (17 February 2012).
Waterwheels & Windmills
Roger D. Hansen, "Water wheels," (undated).
Waterwheels & Windmills
Industrial Innovation Theodore A. Wertime, The Coming of the Age Of Steel, University of Chicago (1962).
Méline Tariff
"Agriculture and demography: the toll of tariffs," The Economist (16 April 2016).
Zoë Carpenter, "Big Coal is bankrupt. Who will pay to clean up its mess?," The Nation (22 March 2016).
"W. Va. spill exposes a new risk to water from coal," (18 January 2014).
Michael Corkery, "Regulators fear $1 billion coal cleanup bill," The New York Times (6 June 2016).
Ottmar Edenhofer, "King Coal and the queen of subsidies," Science 349(6254): 1286–1287 (18 September 2015).
Suzanne Goldenberg & Helena Bengtsson, "Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change," The Guardian (13 June 2016).
"Solar energy: follow the sun," The Economist (16 April 2016).
Nuclear Power
James Mahaffey, Atomic Awakening: A New Look at the History and Future of Nuclear Power, Pegasus (2010).
James Mahaffey, Atomic Accidents, Pegasus Books (2014).
Michael H. Fox, Why We Need Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press (2014).
Helen Caldicott, Nuclear Power Is Not The Answer, The New Press (2006).
Martin Cohen & Andrew McKillop, The Doomsday Machine: The High Price of Nuclear Energy, The World's Most Dangerous Fuel, Palgrave Macmillan (2012).
Charles D. Ferguson, Nuclear Energy, Oxford University Press (2011).
"Backgrounder on nuclear waste," United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (April 2015).
"The long term storage of radioactive waste: safety and sustainability," International Atomic Energy Agency (June 2003).
"Nuclear power: still not viable without subsidies," Union of Concerned Scientists (February 2011).
"Direct federal financial interventions and subsidies in energy in fiscal year 2013," US Department of Energy (March 2015).
"Federal electricity subsidies," United States Government Accountability Office (October 2007).
"Relative subsidies to energy sources: GSI estimates," International Institute for Sustainable Development (19 April 2010).
Doug Koplow, "Subsidies to nuclear power in the United States," UNEP Energy Policy Discussion (27 May 2008).
Adam Vaughan, "Westinghouse bankruptcy move casts shadow over world nuclear industry," The Guardian (29 March 2017).
Diane Cardwell & Jonathan Soble, "Westinghouse files for bankruptcy, in blow to nuclear power," The New York Times (29 March 2017).
Steven Powell, "Chernobyl, three decades on," (26 April 2016).
"Chernobyl 30 years on: Soviet apocalypse," The Economist (30 April 2016).
Nuclear Power in Japan
"Nuclear power in Japan," World Nuclear Association (April 2016).
Mark Willacy, "Japan nuclear companies stacked public meetings," ABC News (2 October 2011).
Rebecca Smith et al, "Japan plant had troubled history," The Wall Street Journal (21 March 2011).
Chester Dawson, "Japan plant had earlier alert," The Wall Street Journal (15 June 2011).
"Fukushima disaster was preventable, study suggests," ScienceDaily (21 September 2015).
Costas Synolakis & Utku Kânoglu, "The Fukushima accident was preventable," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (21 September 2015).
Richard Stone, "Near miss at Fukushima is a warning for U.S.," Science 352(6289): 1039–1040 (27 May 2016).
"Experts link higher incidence of children’s cancer to Fukushima radiation," Science Alert (12 October 2015).
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu et al, "An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident," Environment International 85: 213–228 (December 2015).
"Fukushima water handling 'sloppy': nuclear watchdog," (29 August 2013).
"Japan's nuclear future: don't look now," The Economist (20 April 2013).
Norimitsu Onishi & Martin Fackler, "In nuclear crisis, crippling mistrust," The New York Times (12 June 2011).
Steve Featherstone, "Fukushima: five years later," Popular Science (March/April 2016).
"Japan reverses its withdrawal from nuclear power," (13 April 2014).
"Western Isles: thousands of litres of diesel lost from grounded rig," The Guardian (11 August 2016).
Adam Nagourney et al, "Oil again fouling California coast near site of historic spill," The New York Times (21 May 2015).
Elaine Landau, Oil Spill!: Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, Millbrook Press (2011).
Daniel Jacobs, Blowout: The Inside Story of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Brookings Institution Press (2016).
Stephen Testa & James Jacobs, Oil Spills and Gas Leaks: Environ-mental Response, Prevention and Cost Recovery, McGraw-Hill Educa-tion (2014).
"Leak blamed as Mexico explosion death toll rises," The Guardian (11 August 2016).
Olvier Milman, "Shell working to repair leak that spilled 2,000 barrels of oil into Gulf of Mexico," The Guardian (16 May 2016).
John Vidal, "Niger delta oil spill clean-up launched – but could take quarter of a century," The Guardian (1 June 2016).
Barbara Fraser, "Oil in the forest," Science 353(6300): 641–643 (12 August 2016).
Joshua Robertson, "Great Barrier Reef oil spill: foreign ship faces prosecution after 12-month hunt," The Guardian (27 July 2016).
Sarah L. Alderman, "Effects of diluted bitumen exposure on juvenile sockeye salmon," Environmental Toxicology (22 June 2016).
Michael Bloch, "Effects of oil spills," Green Living Tips (4 August 2010).
Renewable Energy
Mason Inman, The Oracle of Oil, W.W. Norton & Company (2016).
Thomas Sumner, "Pioneering geophysicist’s theory of peak oil still debated," Science News (29 May 2016).
Andrew Morriss et al, The False Promise of Green Energy, Cato Institute (2011).
Ozzie Zehner, Green Illusions, University of Nebraska Press (2012).
Robert Bryce, Power Hungry, Public Affairs (2010).
Vaclav Smil, Energy Myths and Realities, The AEI Press (2010).
John Matson, "Renewable energy's hidden costs," Scientific American (October 2013).
Jörn P.W. Scharlemann & William F. Laurance, "How green are biofuels?," Science 319(5859): 43–44 (4 January 2008).
Joseph Fargione et al, "Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt," Science 319(5867): 1235 –1238 (29 February 2008).
Duncan Graham-Rowe, "Agriculture: beyond food versus fuel," Nature (22 June 2011).
"What happened to biofuels?," The Economist (7 September 2013).
David Tilman et al, "Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass," Science 314(5805): 1598 –1600 (8 December 2006).
Timothy Searchinger et al, "Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change," Science 319(5867): 1238 –1240 (29 February 2008).
Isabel L. Jones et al, "Extinction debt on reservoir land-bridge islands," Biological Conservation 199: 75–83 (July 2016).
"Current list of hydro power plants," Global Energy Observatory (1 June 2016).
Wind Power
Chinese wind farm photo courtesy of Chris Lim.
John Schwartz, "When bats look for meals near wind power, bats die," The New York Times (7 November 2016).
Paul R. Lintott et al, "Ecological impact assessments fail to reduce risk of bat casualties at wind farms," Current Bilogy 26(21): R1135–R1136 (7 November 2016).
"Companies sued over bird deaths," The Guardian (14 January 2004).
J.W. Pearce-Higgins et al, "Towards understanding the population-level effects of wind farms on birds," Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 386–394 (April 2012).
Severin Carrell, "Windfarms do not cause long-term damage to bird populations, study finds," The Guardian (12 April 2012).
Jessica Shankleman, "Seabirds 'steer clear' of offshore wind farms Seabirds 'steer clear' of offshore wind farms," The Guardian (18 December 2014).
Patrick Barkham, "It’s not just rightwingers – gannets hate wind farms too," The Guardian (28 September 2015).
Tom Zeller Jr., "For those near, the miserable hum of clean energy," The New York Times (5 October 2010).
Rupert Neate, "Germany delays windfarm over threat to porpoises," The Guardian (16 August 2012).
Amanda S. Adams & David W. Keith, "Are global wind power resource estimates overstated?," Environmental Research Letters (25 February 2013).
"Rethinking wind power," ScienceDaily (13 February 2013).
"Energy subsidies in the European Union: a brief overview," European Environmental Agency (2 June 2004).
Randy T. Simmons, "What do we have to show for government subsidies of wind power?," (24 February 2015).
Fiona Harvey, "The truth behind the wind power subsidies row," The Guardian (13 February 2015).
Stanley Reed, "Britain plans to cut subsidies for renewable energy," The New York Times (22 July 2015).
"Earlier end to subsidies for new UK onshore wind farms," BBC News (18 June 2015).
Louise Lerner, "Solar panel manufacturing is greener in Europe than China, study says," Argonne National Laboratory (29 May 2014).
Dajun Yue et al, "Domestic and overseas manufacturing scenarios of silicon-based photovoltaics: Life cycle energy and environmental comparative analysis," Solar Energy 105: 669–678 (July 2014).
Luc Viatour, "Potential environmental impacts and obstacles of solar energy," (1 July 2013).
Erik A. Alsema & Mariska J. de Wild-Scholten, "Environmental impacts of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production," CIPR International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (31 May 2006).
"Potential health and environmental impacts associated with the manufacture and use of photovoltaic cells," Electric Power Research Institute (November 2003).
"Toward a just and sustainable solar energy industry," Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (14 January 2009).
Dustin Mulvaney, "Hazardous materials used in silicon PV cell production: a primer," Solar Industry Magazine Sl1309 (2013).
Jenq Renn Chen, "Characteristics of fire and explosion in semiconduc-tor fabrication processes," Process Safety Progress 21(1): 19–25 (March 2002).
Jenq Renn Chen et al, "Analysis of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant," Process Safety Progress 25(3): 237–244 (Septem-ber 2006).
Yo-Yu Chang et al, "Revisiting of a silane explosion in a photovoltaic fabrication plant," Process Safety Progress 26(2): 155–158 (June 2007).
Christina Nunez, "How green are those solar panels, really?," National Geographic (11 November 2014).
W. Lloyd Warner & Paul S. Lunt, The Status System of a Modern Community, Yale University Press (1942).
Kyoji Fukao et al, "Real GDP in pre-war east Asia: a 1934-36 bench-mark purchasing power parity comparison with the US," Hi-totsubashi University (February 2007).
Takatoshi Ito & Frederic S. Mishkin, "Two decades of Japanese monetary policy and the deflation problem," National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER Working Paper No. 10878) (November 2004).
"Japan nears deflation as consumer prices stop rising," BBC News (27 March 2015).
"Ending deflation in Japan: an old problem," The Economist (10 February 2011).
Kenji Nishizaki et al, "Chronic deflation in Japan," Bank of International Settlements (2012).
Masazumi Harada et al, Minamata Disease, Minamata Disease Patients Alliance (2004).
The 1997 East Asian Crisis
Stanley Fischer, "The IMF and the Asian crisis," International Monetary Fund (20 March 1998).
Gareth Austin, "African economic development and colonial legacies," International Development Policy, The Graduate Institute, Geneva (January 2010).
"Dark days ahead," The Economist (30 May 2015).
"A glimpse of Africa's future," The Economist (11 July 2015).
Amadou Sy, "Five questions answered on Africa’s rising economic growth," Brookings (3 February 2014).
Mark Anderson, "Aid to Africa: donations from west mask '$60bn looting' of continent," The Guardian (15 July 2014).
"No need to dig," The Economist (2 November 2013).
"The twilight of the resource curse?," The Economist (10 January 2015).
"Few and far between," The Economist (24 October 2015).
"Africa to spew half world's particle pollution by 2030, study says," (11 March 2014).
The Gold Standard
Kwasi Kwarteng, War and Gold, Public Affairs (2014).
"Inside vaults of Bank of England," The Sun (2 February 2012).
"Status report of U.S. government gold reserve," Bureau of the Fiscal Service, U.S. Department of the Treasury (29 February 2016).
Nikolai Kondratiev, The World Economy and its Conjunctures During and After the War (1922).
Economic Cycles
Joseph Kitchin, "Cycles and trends in economic factors," Review of Economics and Statistics 5(1): 10–16 (1923).
"Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP)," The World Bank (2015).
Network Effects
"Free exchange: The consensus crumbles," The Economist (2 July 2016).
Daron Acemoglu et al, "Networks and the macroeconomy: an empirical exploration," National Bureau of Economic Research (July 2015).
"How network effects hurt economies: study reveals how woes in one industry can harm others, too," ScienceDaily (6 April 2016).
Wenzhou, China
"Wenzhou’s economy: it once was lost," The Economist (11 June 2016).
Joseph E. Stiglitz and Members of a UN Commission of Financial Experts, The Stiglitz Report, The New Press (2010).
The Great Depression
Saral Sarkar, The Crises of Capitalism, Counterpoint (2012).
Robert A. Margo, "Employment and unemployment in the 1930s," Journal of Economic Perspectives 7(2): 41–59 (Spring 1993).
Charles P. Kindleberger, The World in Depression 1929–1939, Allen Lane (1973).
Oil Shock
Terry Macalister, "Background: what caused the 1970s oil price shock?," The Guardian (3 March 2011).
Evans Witt, "Energy crisis still doubted by public," Associated Pres (4 May 1979).
Black Monday (19 October 1987)
Donald Bernhardt & Marshall Eckblad, "Black Monday: the stock market crash of 1987," Federal Reserve History (22 November 2013).
C. Eugene Emery Jr. "Loughlin says Reagan's 1981 tax cuts led to exponential economic growth," Politifact Rhode Island (5 September 2010).
" Reagonomics or 'voodoo economics'?," BBC News (5 June 2004).
Jeff Macke, "Black Monday: The 1987 market crash revisited," Yahoo! Finance (19 October 2012).
William Glaberson, "The market plunge; fall stuns corporate leaders," The New York Times (20 October 1987).
"Group of 7, meet the group of 33," The New York Times (26 December 1987).
The Dot-Com Bubble
Gary Rivlin, "A retail revolution turns 10," The New York Times (10 July 2005).
Ernst Malmstn et al, Boo Hoo : A Story from Concept to Catastrophe, Random House (2001).
America Online
Tom Johnson, "That's AOL folks," CNN Money (20 January 2000).
"Microsoft wants to purchase Yahoo," BBC News (1 February 2008).
"Suveillance: Yahoo's email snooping," The Week (21 October 2016).
Reuters & Nicky Woolf, "Yahoo secretly monitored emails on behalf of the US government – report," The Guardian (4 October 2016).
Dominic Rushe, "US threatened Yahoo with $250,000 daily fine over NSA data refusal," The Guardian (11 September 2014).
"Online surveillance: they're watching Yahoo," The Economist (8 October 2016).
Vindu Goel, "Yahoo says 1 billion user accounts were hacked," The New York Times (14 December 2016).
"Reports: Microsoft and Yahoo end on-again off-again talks to combine forces," Associated Press (4 May 2007).
Ina Fried, "Microsoft bids $44.6 billion for Yahoo," CNET (1 February 2008).
Juan Carlos Perez & Elizabeth Montalbano, "Microsoft offers to buy Yahoo for $44.6 billion," Macworld (1 February 2008).
Dino Grandoni, "Hackers exploit 'Flash' vunerability in Yahoo ads," The New York Times (3 August 2015).
Vindu Goel, "Verizon announces $4.8 billion deal for Yahoo’s internet business," The New York Times (25 July 2016).
"Verizon buys Yahoo: does it ad up?," The Economist (30 July 2016).
Dominic Rushe, "Marissa Mayer hits out at 'gender bias' as Yahoo is sold for $5bn," The Guardian (25 July 2016).
Vindu Goel & Michael J. de la Merced, "Verizon to pay $4.8 billion for Yahoo's core business," The New York Times (24 July 2016).
"Through the portal: Verison calls time on Yahoo by buying it," The Economist (25 July 2016).
"What went wrong at Yahoo?," The Week (22 April 2016).
John Herrman, "Marissa Mayer's media problem at Yahoo is now Verizon's to solve," The New York Times (26 July 2016).
Ben Rooney, "Verizon buys AOL for $4.4 billion," CNN Money (12 May 2015).
"The parable of Yahoo: from dotcom hero to zero," The Economist (30 June 2016).
"Yahoo CEO could get $555M in severance pay in potential sale," (29 April 2106).
John Markoff, Google cars drive themselves, in traffic," The New York Times (9 October 2010).
Elizabeth Gibney, "Google masters Go," Nature 529: 445–446 (28 January 2016).
David Silver et al, "Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search," Nature 529: 484–489 (28 January 2016).
Tom DeGrace, "The dot com bubble burst that caused the 2000 stock market crash," StockPicksSystem (11 April 2011).
Gary P. Pisano & Willy C. Shih, "Restoring American competitive-ness," Harvard Business Review (July-August 2009).
Michael McLeay et al, "Money creation in the modern economy," Quarterly Bulletin of the Bank of England (Q1 2014).
Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report; Final Report of the National Commission on the Causes of the Financial And Economic Crisis in the United States, US Government Printing Office (January 2011).
Matt Taibbi, Griftopia, Spiegel & Grau (2010).
Tweaking Financial Vitality
"How does the Fed determine interest rates to control the money supply?," Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (February 2005).
"What are the tools of U.S. monetary policy?," Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (6 February 2004).
"Calling to accounts," The Economist (5 October 2013).
The 2008 Recession
Wolfgang Münchau, The Meltdown Years, McGraw Hill (2010).
"Tax model," Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (3 June 2003).
Nathaniel Popper, "Goldman mortgage settlement is much less than meets the eye," The New York Times (11 April 2016).
Jessica Silver-Greenberg & Ben Protess, "JPMorgan settlement offers look into mortgage machine," The New York Times (19 November 2013).
"Dealing with household debt," International Monetary Fund (April 2012).
Kirk Shinkle, "The crash of 2008," U.S. News & World Report (17 October 2008).
Thomas M. Hoenig, "Too big has failed," The New York Times (6 March 2009). Robin Sidel & Damian Paletta, "Industry is remade in a wave of mergers," The Wall Street Journal (30 September 2008).
Nathaniel Popper & Peter Eavis, "Regulators warn 5 top banks they are still too big to fail," The New York Times (14 April 2016).
Mark J. Perry & Robert Dell, "How government failure caused the great recession," American Enterprise Institute (26 December 2010).
Jack Rasmus, Epic Recession, Pluto Press (2010).
Bess Levin, "Is Wall Street comprised of a bunch of crackwhores who can’t help themselves, crying out for help? John Mack says yes," Dealbreaker (19 November 2009).
Niall Ferguson, The Great Degeneration, Penguin Press (2013).
William Greider, Secrets of the Temple: How the Federal Reserve Runs the Country, Simon & Schuster (1989).
sources for average US wealth chart: Edward N. Wolff, "Recent trends in household wealth in the United States," Levy Economics Institute at Bard College (March 2010) "Survey of consumer finances," Federal Reserve Board, Washington D.C..
"The slow recovery of the labor market," Congressional Budget Office (4 February 2014).
Wells Fargo
Chris Arnold, "Wells Fargo to pay $142 million to customers hurt by bogus accounts," NPR (10 July 2017).
Gretchen Morgenson, "Wells Fargo is accused of making improper changes to mortgages," The New York Times (14 June 2017).
Stacy Cowley & Jennifer A Kingson, "Wells Fargo to claw back $75 million from 2 former executives," The New York Times (10 April 2017).
Stacy Cowley & Matthew Goldstein, "Accusations of fraud at Wells Fargo spread to sham insurance policies," The New York Times (9 December 2016).
Stacy Cowley, "'Lions hunting zebras': ex-Wells Fargo bankers describe abuses," The New York Times (20 October 2016).
Michael Corkery, "Wells Fargo fined $185 million for fraudulently opening accounts," The New York Times (8 September 2016).
Bill Chappell, "Wells Fargo fined $185 million over creation of fake accounts for bonuses," NPR (8 September 2016).
Kathy Kristof, "Wells Fargo fined for opening millions of fake accounts," The Washington Post (8 September 2016).
"Wells Fargo scandal: protecting your accounts," The Week (7 October 2016).
Kate Gibson, "Wells Fargo slapped for cheating student borrowers," CBS News (22 August 2016).
Chris Arnold, "Who snatched my car? Wells Fargo did," NPR (2 August 2017).
Lonnie Shekhtman, "Wells Fargo to pay $4.1 million fine for cheating student borrowers," The Christian Science Monitor (23 August 2016).
William D. Cohan, "Wells Fargo scandal may be sign of a poisonous culture," The New York Times (16 September 2016).
Michael Corkery & Stacy Cowley, "Wells Fargo warned workers against sham accounts, but ‘they needed a paycheck’," The New York Times (16 September 2016).
Stacy Cowley, " Wells Fargo workers claim retaliation for playing by the rules," The New York Times (26 September 2016).
Michael Corkery & Stacy Cowley, "Wells Fargo chief abruptly steps down," The New York Times (12 October 2016).
"Wells Fargo’s boss stands down: Stumpfed," The Economist (15 October 2016).
Credit Card Companies
David Stout, "Senate passes bill to restrict credit card practices," The New York Times (19 May 2009).
Ylan Q. Mui, "Final phase of federal law restricting credit card fees, interest rates begins," The Washington Post (22 August 2010).
Leah McGrath Goodman, "The new loan sharks," Newsweek (26 August 2016).
Bernard Shusman, "US credit card debt nears $1 trillion," VOA (7 April 2016).
Fred Imbert, "US credit card debt balloons to $917B: what it means," CNBC (10 March 2016).
Jessica Silver-Greenberg, "Problems riddle moves to collect credit card debt," The New York Times (12 August 2012).
"California accuses JPMorgan of fraud in credit-card-debt collection," CNN Money (9 May 2013).
Michael Corkery & Ben Protess, "Rigging of foreign exchange market makes felons of top banks," The New York Times (20 May 2015).
Liz Moyer, "Barclays to pay $150 million more in currency inquiry," The New York Times (18 November 2015).
Thomas Sowell, On Classical Economics, Yale University Press (2006).
Harry Landreth & David C. Colander, History of Economic Thought, Houghton Mifflin (1994).
Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital (1847).
Karl Marx, Theories of Surplus Value (1862).
Karl Marx, Capital (3 volumes) (1867 – 1894).
Jonathan Sperber, Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life, Liveright (2013).
Francis Wheen, Karl Marx: A Life, W.W. Norton & Company (2000).
Gareth Stedman Jones, Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion, Allen Lane (2016).
"Karl Marx: false consciousness," The Economist (27 August 2016).
Ronald Coase
"One of the giants," The Economist (7 September 2013).
Ronald Coase photo courtesy of Coase-Sandor Institute for Law and Economics, University of Chicago Law School.
The Nature of the Firm
"The cap doesn’t fit," The Economist (19 June 2013).
"ETS, RIP?," The Economist (20 April 2013).
John Kenneth Galbraith
John Kenneth Galbraith photo courtesy of Hans van Dijk.
John Kenneth Galbraith & Henry S. Dennison, Modern Competition and Business Policy (1938).
John Kenneth Galbraith, American Capitalism: The Concept of Countervailing Power (1952).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Great Crash, 1929 (1954).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (1958).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State (1967).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Economics and the Public Purpose (1973).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went (1975).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Socialism In Rich Countries And Poor (1975).
John Kenneth Galbraith, The Nature of Mass Poverty (1979).
John Kenneth Galbraith, Economics in Perspective: A Critical History (1987).
John Kenneth Galbraith, A Short History of Financial Euphoria (1990).
Paul Samuelson
Paul Smauelson photo courtesy of Innovation & Business Architectures, Inc.
Paul Samuelson, Foundations of Economic Analysis, Harvard University Press (1947).
Paul Samuelson, Economics, MacGraw-Hill (1948).
Alfred E. Kahn
Alfred E. Kahn, The Economics of Regulation, Volumes 1 & 2, Cornell University (1970).
Richard Adams, "Alfred Kahn obituary," The Guardian (12 January 2011).
"Alfred Kahn," The Economist (20 January 2011).
Susan S. Lang, "Economist Alfred Kahn, 'father of airline deregulation' and former presidential adviser, dies at 93," Cornell University Chronicle (27 December 2010).
Ben Wattenberg, "Alfred E. Kahn Interview," PBS (undated).
Robert Kuttner, "How the airlines became abusive cartels," The New York Times (17 April 2017).
Editorial Board, "Fear of flying, for good reason," The New York Times (11 April 2017).
"United Airlines: the not-so-friendly skies," The Week (21 April 2017).
SCOTUS, Nader v. Allegheny Airlines (426 US 290) (1976).
Julian L. Simon, "Origins of the airline oversales auction system," Regulation 2: 48-60 (1994).
Jack Nicas, "A stingy spirit lifts airline's profit," The Wall Street Journal (11 May 2012).
"Airlines in America: a cosy club," The Economist (23 January 2016).
"AA jettisons some excess baggage," The Economist (29 November 2011).
"Landing with a bump," The Economist (15 August 2002).
"Was deregulation bad?," The Economist (20 August 2013).
"Get ready to squeeze," The Economist (17 June 2013).
David Reifschneider & Peter Tulip, "Gauging the uncertainty of the economic outlook using historical forecasting errors: the Federal Reserve's approach," US Federal Reserve (24 February 2017).
Robert J. Sameulson, "Why economists can't forecast," The Washington Post (8 March 2017).
Economics In Context
Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, Pargrave Macmillan (1890).
David A. Mayer, The Everything Economics Book, Adams Media (2010).
Yves Smith, Econned, Palgrave Macmillan (2011).
James Goldsmith, The Trap, Carroll & Graf (1994).
Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky, "Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk," Econometrica 47 (2): 263–291 (1979).
George Szpiro, "Value judgements," Nature 500: 521–522 (29 August 2013).
Steve Keen, Debunking Economics, Zed Books (2011).
Philip H. Wicksteed, The Common Sense of Political Economy, Including a Study of the Human Basis of Economic Law, Macmillan and Co. (1910).
Frederic Lee, Post-Keynesian Price Theory, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Dynamic Pricing
"Flexible figures," The Economist (30 January 2016).
M Thea Singer, "Northeastern researchers find that Amazon might not always be pitching you the best prices," Northeastern University (2 June 2016).
Alternative Pricing
Lorraine Luk, "In Hong Kong, Apple’s iPhone 6 Plus price premium jumps to over $1,000," The Wall Street Journal (19 September 2014).
Samantha Nielson, "Apple’s premium pricing strategy and product differentiation," Market Realist (6 February 2014).
Gyres of Waste
"Chinese property: for whom the bubble blows," The Economist (12 March 2016).
Jennifer Hiller, "A 21st-century oil boom in the Lone Star State," San Antonio Express-News (25 February 2013).
Chip Brown, "North Dakota went boom," The New York Times Magazine (31 January 2013).
Richard Rubin, "In North Dakota, boom, bust and oil," The New York Times (9 August 2015).
Leonard Brecken, "How shale is becoming the .com bubble of the 21st century," (30 April 2015).
"Bonanza or bane," The Economist (2 May 2013).
"Running on empty," The Economist (5 December 2015).
Mara Van Ells, "A North Dakota oil boom goes bust," The Atlantic (27 June 2015).
Price & Externalities
Michael Cipriano, Thomas S. Gruca, "The power of priors: how confirmation bias impacts market prices," Prediction Markets 8(3) (2014).
"See! I was right: people are reluctant to change their minds, even when facts don’t match what they believe," ScienceDaily (16 November 2015).
Ulrich Sonnemann et al, "How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field," PNAS (1 July 2013).
The Rational Animal
George A. Akerlof & Robert J. Shiller, Animal Spirits, Princeton University Press (2009).
Robert A. Haugen, The New Finance: Overreaction, Complexity and Their Consequences, Prentice Hall (1995).
"Drop of the pops: beware of heavily-traded stocks," The Economist (17 January 2015).
Roger G. Ibbotson & Thomas M. Idzorek, "Dimension of popularity," Journal of Portfolio Management 40(5): 68–74 (2014).
"Are market bubbles caused by traders' testosterone levels?," ScienceDaily (1 March 2017).
Dow Jones Industrial Average chart courtesy of (2016).
Edgar E. Peters, Fractal Market Analysis: Applying Chaos Theory to Investment and Economic, Wiley (1994).
Ladislav Kristoufek, "Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence," Scientific Reports (4 October 2013).
Michael J. Burry, "I saw the crisis coming. Why didn't the Fed?," The New York Times (4 April 2010).
Brian Blackstone, "Greenspan admits some mistakes amid grilling by House lawmakers," The Wall Street Journal (23 October 2008).
David Wessel, "Greenspan sees bottom in housing, criticizes bailout," The Wall Street Journal (14 August 2008).
Alan Greenspan, "The challenge of central banking in a democratic society," Annual Dinner and Francis Boyer Lecture of The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (5 December 1996).
"Unfamiliar ways forward," The Economist (20 February 2016).
Unrealistic Assumptions
Buttonwood, "Interest rates and investment returns," The Economist (2 March 2017).
Global pension fund statistics from OECD.
"The bottom line," The Week (9 December 2016). (on aloe vera sales scam)
Hiroko Tabuchi, "E.P.A. accuses Fiat Chrysler of secretly violating emissions standard," The New York Times (12 January 2017).
Michael Biesecker, "VW just the latest in long history of cheating car companies," (29 September 2015).
Jack Ewing & Neal E. Boudette, "As VW pleads guilty in U.S. over diesel scandal, trouble looms in Europe," The New York Times (10 March 2017).
Jack Ewing & Hiroko Tabuchi, "Volkswagen’s tentative $4.3 billion deal with U.S. includes guilty plea on emissions," The New York Times (10 January 2017).
"The Volkswagen scandal: a mucky business," The Economist (26 September 2015).
Jad Mouawad, "E.P.A. finds more VW cheating software, including in Porsches," The New York Times (2 November 2015).
Ronnie Greene & Ryan J. Foley, "In VW inquiry, states scrutinize ads to build case," (4 November 2015).
Jason Keyser, "US regulator missed its best chance to catch VW cheating," (2 October 2015).
Erin Dooley et al, "Takata to pay $1 Billion, plead guilty in airbag fraud case," ABC News (13 January 2017).
Hiroko Tabuchi, "3 Takata executives face criminal charges over exploding airbags," The New York Times (13 January 2017).
David Barboza, "As China battles corruption, Glaxo lands in the cross hairs," The New York Times (1 November 2016).
Hester Plumridge & Laurie Burkitt, "GlaxoSmithKline found guilty of bribery in China," The Wall Street Journal (19 September 2014).
Denise Roland, "GSK bribery scandal could cause 'irreparable damage', says China," The Telegraph (16 May 2014).
J.D. Heyes, "GlaxoSmithKline engaged in bribery, corruption planet-wide," Natural News (20 May 2014).
David Barboza, "GlaxoSmithKline accused of corruption by China," The New York Times (11 July 2013).
"GlaxoSmithKline to plead guilty and pay $3 billion to resolve fraud allegations and failure to report safety data," US Department of Justice (2 July 2012).
"Economies of scale and scope," The Economist (20 October 2008).
Reem Heakal, "What are economies of scale?," Investopedia (19 April 2017).
T. Boone Pickens, Boone Houghton Mifflin (1988).
Market Power
Germán Gutiérrez & Thomas Philippon, "Declining competition and investment in the U.S.," (March 2017).
"America’s uncompetitive markets harm its economy," The Economist (27 July 2017).
James Saft, "Are high profits here to stay?," Reuters (3 May 2017).
"The appy trucker," The Economist (5 March 2016).
"A.P. Moller-Maersk: profits overboard," The Economist (10 September 2016).
David Leonhardt, "Our broken economy, in one simple chart," The New York Times (8 August 2017).
Thomas Fuller, "In a California valley, healthy food everywhere but on the table," The New York Times (23 November 2016).
"Working for the few," Oxfam International (20 January 2014).
Michael Hotchkiss,"Movin' on up? Views on social mobility shape Americans' faith in the status quo," (17 January 2017).
Martin V. Day & Susan T. Fiske, "Movin' on up? How perceptions of social mobility affect our willingness to defend the system," Social Psychological and Personality Science (22 November 2016).
François Bourguignon, The Globalization of Inequality, Princeton University Press (2015).
Anthony Atkinson, Inequality: What Can Be Done?, Harvard University Press (2015).
Malcolm Maiden, "US in a bind as traditional drivers of economic recovery are broken," Sydney Morning Herald (14 December 2011).
Thomas Piketty, Capital, Harvard University Press (2014).
"The bottom line," The Week (16 December 2016).
Bill Chappell Twitter, "U.S. kids far less likely to out-earn their parents, as inequality grows," NPR (9 December 2016).
Adam Nossiter, " A new generation’s anger resounds from a packed plaza in Paris," The New York Times (29 April 2016).
"An election in the Philippines: siren song of the strongmen," The Economist (30 April 2016).
Peter Baker, "Rise of Donald trump tracks growing debate over global fascism," The New York Times (28 May 2016).
"The bottom line," The Week (29 July 2016).
"National average wage index," US Social Security Administration (2016).
Thomas Schulz, "On the way down: the erosion of America's middle class," Spiegel (19 August 2010).
"Economic stress played role in increasing U.S. death rate," ScienceDaily (9 December 2016).
Quoctrung Bui, "Where the middle class is shrinking," The New York Times (12 May 2016).
Ron Haskins & Isabel Sawhill, Creating an Opportunity Society, Brookings Institution Press (2009).
Brenda Cronin, "Research confirms you can't be too rich," The Wall Street Journal (29 April 2013).
Sabrint Tavernise, "Disparity in life spans of the rich and the poor is growing," The New York Times (12 February 2016).
"Nearly half of American children living near poverty line," (2 March 2016).
"American children, the poorest in the developed world," Le Figaro (3 November 2009).
Jason Deparle & Robert M. Gebeloff, "Living on nothing but food stamps," The New York Times (25 February 2007).
"Child hunger facts," Feeding America (2015).
Rebecca Klein, "You’ll be shocked by how many kids are too hungry to learn in class," The Huffington Post (27 August 2013).
David Smith, "US teens often forced to trade sex work for food, study finds," The Guardian (12 September 2016).
Susan J. Popkin et al, "Impossible choices: teens and food insecurity in America," Urban Institute (12 September 2016).
Angus Deaton, "The threat of inequality," Scientific American 315(3):49-53 (September 2016).
"Keeping up with the Wangs," The Economist (9 July 2016).
Daniel Gross, "What happened to pay raises?," The Week (28 July 2017).
Hedge Funds
Alexandra Stevenson, "Hedge funds faced choppy waters in 2015, but chiefs cashed in," The New York Times (10 May 2016).
Alexandra Stevenson & Matthew Goldstein, "Hedge funds struggle with steep losses and high expectations," The New York Times (28 December 2015).
Andrew Ross Sorkin, "A wish list for fixing Wall Street," The New York Times (13 May 2008).
Walter Frick, "Big companies are getting stingier," The Week (24 February 2017).
"A new paper finds China more unequal than France but less so than America," The Economist (16 February 2017).
"Equatorial Guinea: palace in the jungle," The Economist (12 March 2016).
Peter Okwoche, "Equatorial Guinea: Inequality sees 'poverty thrive'," BBC News (18 February 2015).
Afua Hirsch, "Transparency in Equatorial Guinea," The Guardian (13 June 2013).
Samuel James, "In Nigeria, oil divides the rich and poor," Global Post (18 February 2013).
"Insecurity in Nigeria: fighting on all fronts," The Economist (2 April 2016).
Femi Asu, "Nigeria’s economy faces danger as inequality rises," Business Day (10 December 2013).
"Falling poverty and rising income inequality in Nigeria," The Economist Intelligence Unit (12 September 2014).
"Lagos population in 2017," WOrld Population Review (26 October 2016).
Claire Provost, "Nigeria expected to have larger population than US by 2050," The Guardian )(13 June 2013).
Hadassah Egbedi, "Which are the world's two most polluted cities – and why?," The Guardian (13 February 2017).
John Vidal & Saeed Kamali Dehghan, "Which are the world's two most polluted cities – and why?," The Guardian (12 May 2016).
George R. Tyler, What Went Wrong, Benbella Books (2013).
Jill Treanor, "Warren Buffett: cutting jobs is standard capitalist formula," The Guardian (8 May 2017).
Nicole Maestas et al, "Working conditions in the United States," Rand Corporation (2017).
"American workplace is physically and emotionally taxing, survey finds," ScienceDaily (14 August 2017).
"The bottom line," The Week (11 November 2016).
"Suicide: the saddest trend," The Economist (30 April 2016).
Barak Obama, "The way ahead," The Economist (8 October 2016).
"Ageing and income: silver-haired in clover," The Economist (7 May 2016).
Source for "US % Changes" chart: US Census Bureau.
"The bottom line," The Week (30 December 2016).
Ben Austen, "End of the road," Harper's Magazine (August 2009). "Employment rate: aged 25-54: all persons for the United States," Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2015).
"Overview of BLS statistics on unemployment," US Bureau of Labor Statistics web site (2016).
Sarah Kendzior, "The illusion of full employment," The Week (6 May 2016).
"The definition of “maximum employment” needs updating," The Economist (28 January 2017).
Timothy M. Smeeding, “Poorer by comparison,” Pathways (Winter 2008).
Floyd Norris, "The number of those working past 65 is at a record high," The New York Times (18 May 2012).
US manufacturing employment from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Gabor Steingart, "A superpower in decline: America’s middle class has become globalization’s loser," Der Spiegel (24 October 2006).
Tyler Cowen, "The sad statistic that trumps the others," The New York Times (20 August 2011).
"Labour pains," The Economist (2 November 2013).
David Wessel, "Big US firms shift hiring abroad," The Wall Street Journal (29 April 2011).
Kate Bronfenbrenner & Stephanie Luce, “The changing nature of corporate global restructuring: the impact of production shifts on jobs in the US, China, and around the world,” U.S.– China Economic and Security Review Commission (14 October 2004).
"Skill demands and mismatch in U.S. manufacturing," Industrial and Labor Relations Review (2016).
Phil Ciciora, "Skills gap for US manufacturing workers mostly a myth, paper says," (15 August 2016).
Nancy Folbre, "Super sad true jobs story," The New York Times (2 May 2011).
Jon Jeter, Flat Broke in the Free Market: How Globalization Fleeced Working People, W.W. Norton & Company (2009).
Apple Computer
Charles Duhigg & Keith Bradsher, "How the U.S. lost out on iPhone work," The New York Times (21 January 2012).
Julliette Garside, "Apple's factories in China are breaking employment laws, audit find," The Guardian (29 March 2012).
Richard Bilton, "Apple 'failing to protect Chinese factory workers'," BBC News (18 December 2014).
"Bangladesh’s clothing industry: bursting at the seams," The Economist (26 October 2013).
Gordon Fairclough, "Factory paychecks trump danger, long days for Bangladesh women," The Wall Street Journal (22 June 2013).
Rana Plaza Collapse
"Corporate social responsibility: disaster at Rana Plaza," The Economist (4 May 2013).
"Disaster in Bangladesh: rags in the ruins," The Economist (4 May 2013).
Jason Burke, "Majority of Bangladesh garment factories 'vulnerable to collapse'," The Guardian (3 June 2013).
Jim Yardley, "Justice elusive in a Bangladesh factory disaster," The New York Times (29 June 2013).
"Schumpeter: the great divergence," The Economist (12 November 2016).

The Fruits of Civilization
Clive Ponting, A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations, Penguin Books (2007).
Donald Worster, Nature's Economy (Studies in Environment and History), Cambridge University Press (1994).
S. Kathleen Lyons et al, "Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts," Nature (16 December 2015).
Samantha Mathewson, "Humans and farming: environment was altered long before Industrial Revolution," Nature World News (28 December 2015).
Nicole L. Boivin et al, "Ecological consequences of human niche construction: examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions," PNAS 113(23): 6388–6396 (7 June 2016).
"'Pristine' landscapes haven't existed for thousands of years due to human activity," ScienceDaily (6 June 2016).
"Scientists peg Anthropocene to first farmers," (17 December 2015).
Easter Island
Easter Island moai ranko raraku (stone statue) photo courtesy of Aurbina.
Jared Diamond, Collapse, Viking (2005).
Peter Bellwood, The Polynesians – Prehistory of an Island People, Thames and Hudson (1987).
Yanqing Xia, "An empirical research on the interactions of China's energy consumption, pollution emissions and economic growth," International Journal of Global Energy Issues 35(5): 411–425 (May 2016).
"Climate change: can China clean up fast enough," The Economist (10 August 2013).
"Seeing red: Chinese women rage about unsafe sanitary towels," The Economist (5 November 2016).
Edward Wong, "Chinese poultry factory was considered a model," The Wall Street Journal (4 June 2013).
Te-Ping Chen, "Threat to rice fuels latest Chinese uproar," The Wall Street Journal (20 May 2013).
Melissa Breyer, "Food fraud: 10 counterfeit products we commonly consume," Mother Nature Network (4 April 2013).
Peter Foster, "Top 10 Chinese food scandals," The Telegraph (27 April 2011).
Stanley Lubman, "Why Americans should worry about China’s food safety problems," The Wall Street Journal (21 May 2013).
"China and the environment: the East is grey," The Economist (10 August 2013).
Aaron Back & Josh Chin, "Wen urges clean-air action as China's skies clog again," The Wall Street Journal (29 January 2013).
Edward Wong, "As pollution worsens in China, solutions succumb to infighting," The New York Times (21 March 2013).
Fergus Ryan et al, "China explosions: death toll rises to 50 as troops dispatched to assist cleanup," The Guardian (13 August 2015).
Brian Spegele & Wayne Ma, "China's pollution fight faces resistance," The Wall Street Journal (22 January 2013).
Edward Wong, "China lets media report on air pollution crisis," The New York Times (14 January 2013).
"China's environmental ministry acknowledges 'cancer villages'," Science 339 (1 March 203).
"Climate change: warmed-up numbers," The Economist (23 June 2012).
Steven Mufson, "Power-sector emissions of China to top U.S.," The Washington Post (27 August 2008).
"Forest area (% of land area)," The World Bank (2016).
"China admits pollution brought about 'cancer villages'," RT News (25 February 2013).
Water Quality
Chris Buckley & Vanessa Piao, "Rural water, not city smog, may be China's pollution nightmare," The New York Times (12 April 2016).
Paul Mozur, "China scrutinizes 2 Apple suppliers in pollution probe," The Wall Street Journal (4 August 2013).
"Oil company blamed for toxic tap water in China," (12 April 2014).
Ian Taylor, "China's environmental footprint in Africa," China Dialogue (2 February 2007).
Tania Branigan, "China 'wants to set up factories in Africa'," The Guardian (4 December 2009).
Sean Williams, "Chinese factory accused of poisoning Somaliland water supplies," The Guardian (2 July 2013).
Chunmiao Zheng & Jie Liu, "Chain's 'Love Canal' moment?," Science 340: 810 (17 May 2013).
Xuejun Liu et al, "Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China," Nature (20 February 2013).
Jane Qiu, "Nitrogen pollution soars in China," Nature News (20 February 2013).
Jonathan Ansfield & Keith Bradsher, "China report shows more pollution in waterways," The New York Times (9 February 2010).
Jonathan Watts, "Chinese farms cause more pollution than factories, says official survey," The Guardian (9 February 2010).
Brett Walton, "Chinese farms generate more water pollution than factories," Circle of Blue (10 February 2010).
Jianguo Liu & Wu Yang, "Water sustainability for China and beyond," Science 337: 649–650 (10 August 2012).
Pigs Afloat
Nicola Davison, "Rivers of blood: the dead pigs rotting in China's water supply," The Guardian (29 March 2013).
Jennifer Duggan, "Dead pigs floating in Chinese river," The Guardian (17 April 2014).
"China arrests 110 people suspected of selling contaminated port," The Guardian (11 January 2015).
"Number of dead pigs found in Chinese rivers rises to 16,000," The Guardian (22 March 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, "Thousands of dead pigs found floating in Chinese river," The Guardian (11 March 2013).
"Hundreds more pigs found in Chinese river," The Guardian (15 March 2013).
Nancy Huehnergarth, "China’s food safety issues worse than you thought," Food Safety News (11 July 2014).
Algae Blooms
Richard Stone, "On Lake Taihu, china moves to battle massive algae blooms," Yale Environment 360 (21 July 2011).
Karl Mathiesen, "China's largest algal bloom turns the Yellow Sea green," The Guardian (4 July 2013).
Jim Yardley, "To save Olympic races, China fights algae," The New York Times (1 July 2008).
"Photos: algae blankets China beaches; dead zone brewing?," National Geographic (31 July 2007).
Andrew Jacobs, "With surf like turf, huge algae bloom befouls China coast," The New York Times (5 July 2013).
Soil Quality
Ruishan Chen et al, "China's soil pollution: farms on the frontline," Science 344: 691 (16 May 2014).
Christina Larson, "China gets serious about its pollutant-laden soil," Science 343: 146–146 (28 March 2014).
Edward Wong, "Good earth no more: soil pollution plagues Chinese countryside," The New York Times (20 December 2013).
Edward Wong, "Spill in China underlines environmental concerns," The New York Times (2 March 2013).
"Rare-earth mining in China comes at a heavy cost for local villages," The Guardian (7 August 2012).
John Vidal, The UK's new rubbish dump: China," The Guardian (20 September 2004).
Peter Ford, "China puts up a green wall to US trash," The Christian Science Monitor (19 June 2013).
Gwynn Guilford, "US states banned from exporting their trash to China are drowning in plastic," Quartz (21 August 2013).
"70% of annual global e-waste dumped in China," (24 May 2012).
Xianbing Liu, "Electrical and electronic waste management in China: progress and the barriers to overcome," Waste Management & Research 24(1): 92–101 (February 2006).
"Waste disposal: keep the fires burning," The Economist (25 April 2015).
Jonathan Watts, "The clean-up begins on China's dirty secret – soil pollution," The Guardian (12 June 2012).
Gao Shengke & Wang Kai, "The houses build on China's 'poisoned' land," The Guardian (6 June 2013).
Yijun Yao, "Pollution: spend more on soil clean-up in China," Nature (25 May 2016).
Hong Yang et al, "China's soil pollution: urban brownfields," Science 344: 691–692 (16 May 2014).
Air Pollution
Edward Wong, "China's plan to curb air pollution sets limits on coal use and vehicles," The Guardian (12 September 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, "China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists," The Guardian (25 February 2014).
"Wrapped in smog: something in the air?," The Economist (19 January 2013).
"Hong Kong suffers worst air pollution in two years," The Guardian (2 August 2012).
"Pollution in China: clearing the air," The Economist (11 February 2012).
"Air pollution in China is killing 4,000 people every day, a new study finds," The Guardian (14 August 2015).
"Beijing raises pollution alert as smog smothers capital," Nature World News (22 February 2014).
Edward Wong, "In China, breathing becomes a childhood risk," The New York Times (22 April 2013).
"Heavy pollution hits Shanghai, delaying flights," (6 Decem-ber 2013).
Yuyu Chen, "Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on life expectancy from China's Huai River policy," PNAS (8 July 2013).
Richard A. Lovett, "China's coal burning cutting lives short by years," Nature News (8 July 2013).
Edward Wong, "Pollution leads to drop in life span in northern China," The New York Times (8 July 2013).
Jonathan Kaiman, "Chinese struggle through 'airpocalypse' smog," The Guardian (16 February 2013).
Jintai Lin et al, "China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States," PNAS (21 January 2014).
"Made in China for us: air pollution as well as exports," UCI News (20 January 2014).
William Wan, "Study: pollution from Chinese factories is harming air quality on U.S. west coast," The Washington Post (21 January 2014).
Edward Wong, "China exports pollution to U.S., study finds," The New York Times (20 January 2014).
"Landmark case on lead poisoning in children begins in China," The Guardian (12 June 2015).
Keith Bradsher, "China tries to clean up toxic legacy of its rare earth riches," The New York Times (22 October 2013).
Joseph Kahn & Jim Yardley, "As China roars, pollution reaches deadly extremes," The New York Times (26 August 2007).
Jonathan Watts, "Further anti-pollution riots break out in China," The Guardian (2 September 2009).
Jonathan Watts, "Chinese villagers storm factory blamed for lead poisoning of 600 children," The Guardian (17 August 2009).
Edward Wong, "China: confrontation over coal plant enters 3rd day," The New York Times (22 December 2011).
Jane Perlez, "Waste project is abandoned following protests in China," The New York Times (28 July 2012).
Andrew Jacobs, "Village revolts over inequities of Chinese life," The New York Times (14 December 2011).
"Tobacco in China," World Health Organization (2016).
"China's cigarette threat," BBC News (2003).
"China tells local meteorological bureaus to stop smog alerts," (18 January 2017).
United States
Chip Jacobs & William Kelly, Smogtown: The Lung-Burning History of Pollution in Los Angeles, Overlook (2008).
"History of smog," LA Weekly (22 September 2005).
Sarah Gardner, "LA smog: the battle against air pollution," Marketplace (14 July 2014).
Roger Revelle & Hans E. Suess, "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades," Tellus 9(1):18–27 (February 1957).
President's Science Advisory Committee, "Restoring the quality of our environment," US Government Printing Office (1965).
Dana Nuccitelli, "Scientists warned the President about global warming 50 years ago today," The Guardian (5 November 2015).
Elmer Robinson & R.C. Robbins, "Sources, abundance, and fate of gaseous atmospheric pollutants," Stanford Research Institute (1968).
Oliver Milman, "Oil industry knew of 'serious' climate concerns more than 45 years ago," The Guardian (13 April 2016).
Neela Banerjee et al, "CO2's role in global warming has been on the oil industry's radar since the 1960s," Inside Climate News (13 April 2016).
The Anthropocene
Giacomo Certini & Riccardo Scalenghe, "Holocene as Anthropocene," Science 349(6245): 246 (17 July 2015).
Colin N. Waters et al, "The Anthropocene is functionally and strati-graphically distinct from the Holocene," Science 351(6269): 137 (8 January 2016).
Victoria Jaggard, "Have humans really created a new geologic age?," Smithsonian (30 September 2014).
"The Anthropocene: a man-made world," The Economist (26 May 2011).
Gaia Vince, "A sign of our times," Science 334: 37 (7 October 2011).
Gaia Vince, "A global perspective on the Anthropocene," Science 334: 34–37 (7 October 2011).
James E. Hansen, "The greenhouse effect: impacts on current global temperature and regional heat waves," Statement presented to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (23 June 1988).
Philip Shabecoff, "Global warming has begun, expert tells Senate," The New York Times (23 June 1988).
David Corn, "Gore warms up," The Nation (25 May 2006).
Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin, "Geological evidence for the Anthropocene," Science 349(6245): 246 (17 July 2015).
William F. Ruddiman, "Response," Science 349(6245): 247 (17 July 2015).
Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin, "Defining the Anthropocene," Nature (11 March 2015).
"Scientists pinpoint exact date when humans began to dominate Earth," Nature World News (12 March 2015).
Michael Balter, "Archeologists say the 'Anthropocene' is here – but it began long ago," Science 340: 261–262 (19 April 2013).
Paul Voosen, "Anthropocene pinned to postwar period," Science 353(6302): 852–853 (26 August 2016).
"Epoch-defining study pinpoints when humans came to dominate planet Earth," UCL News (11 March 2015).
Jan Zalasiewiz et al, "When did the Anthropocene begin? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal," Quaternary International (12 January 2015).
William F. Ruddiman et al, "Defining the epoch we live in," Science 348(6230): 38–39 (3 April 2015).
Richard Monastersky, "Anthropocene: the human age," Nature (11 March 2015).
Rowan Hooper, "All hail the Anthropocene, the end of Holocene thinking," New Scientist (13 March 2015).
Capitalist Incentive
Russell Grantham, "GE chief acknowledges changeover at annual meeting," Atlanta Journal and Constitution (26 April 2001).
"Clean Up GE"
Climate Change Justin Gillis, "How high could the tide go?," The New York Times (21 January 2013).
Carl Sagan & George Mullen, "Earth and Mars: evolution of atmos-pheres and surface temperatures," Science 177(4043): 52–56 (7 July 1972).
Minik T. Rosing et al, "No climate paradox under the faint early Sun," Nature 464: 744–747 (9 February 2010).
Noah J. Planavsky et al, "Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event," Nature Geoscience (23 March 2014).
Tanai Cardona et al, "Origin and evolution of water oxidation before the last common ancestor of the cyanobacteria," Molecular Biology and Evolution (4 February 2015).
Jena E. Johnson et al, "Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria," PNAS 110(28): 11238–11243 (9 July 2013) Ariel D. Anbar et al, "A whiff of oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event?," Science 317(5846): 1903–1906 (28 September 2007).
Armen Y. Mulkidjanian et al, "The cyanobacterial genome core and the origin of photosynthesis," PNAS (21 August 2006).
Rowan Hooper, "Revealing the dawn of photosynthesis," ," New Scientist (16 August 2006).
Akiko Tomitani et al, "The evolutionary diversification of cyanobacteria: molecular–phylogenetic and paleontological perspectives," PNAS (28 March 2006).
Katharine Davis, "Photosynthesis got a really early start," New Scientist (2 October 2004).
Daniel B. Mills et al, "Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals," PNAS (18 March 2014).
Michael Marshall, "The history of ice on Earth," New Scientist (24 May 2010).
William F. Ruddiman, "Late Holocene climate: natural or anthropo-genic?," Reviews of Geophysics (29 December 2015).
"Early agriculture staved off global cooling, mounting evidence suggests," ScienceDaily (19 January 2016).
Michael E. Mann et al, "Influence of anthropogenic climate change on planetary wave resonance and extreme weather events," Scientific Reports (27 March 2017).
Chris Mooney, "One of the most troubling ideas about climate change just found new evidence in its favor," The Washington Post (27 March 2017).
"Expect more deadly heat from climate change, study says," (27 March 2017).
Tom K.R. Matthews et al, "Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress," PNAS (27 March 2017).
The Mekong River Delta
Mekong River watershed map courtesy of Pfly.
"Vietnam’s drying delta: salt of the earth," The Economist (30 April 2016).
Joacim Rocklöv, "Climate science: misconceptions of global catastro-phe," Nature 532: 317–318 (21 April 2016).
Patrick J. Egan & Megan Mullin, "Recent improvement and projected worsening of weather in the United States," Nature 532: 357–360 (21 April 2016).
Patrick J. Egan & Megan Mullin, "Global warming feels quite pleasant," The New York Times (21 April 2016).
bomb illustration courtesy of Nevit Dilmen.
Global Warming
"Slim hopes for Paris climate target," The Week (18 August 2017).
"Two degrees of warming already baked in," ScienceDaily (31 July 2017).
Anette Saliken, Cocktail Party Guide to Global Warming, Heritage (2009).
Thomas R. Karl & Kevin E. Trenberth, "Modern global climate change," Science 302(5651): 1719–1723 (5 December 2003).
"Fifth Assessment Report," Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014).
Gabrielle Walker & David King, The Hot Topic, Harcourt (2008).
Damian Carrington, "Sea-level rise 'could last twice as long as human history'," The Guardian (8 February 2016).
Marianne Lavelle, "Scientists: global warming likely to surpass 2°c target," National Geographic (28 February 2014).
"Carbon emissions to impact climate beyond the day after tomorrow," ScienceDaily (5 August 2013).
Richard E. Zeebe, "Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions," PNAS (5 August 2013).
Carbon Dioxide
"Carbon dioxide levels race past troubling milestone," ScienceDaily (5 October 2016).
Damian Carrington, "Global carbon dioxide in atmosphere passes milestone level," The Guardian (10 May 2013).
"Global warming: Earth’s plants are countering some of the effects of climate change," The Economist (12 November 2016).
Madeleine Rubenstein, "Emissions from the cement industry," Columbia University Earth Institute (9 May 2012).
"Cement manufacturers: cracks in the surface," The Economist (27 August 2016).
"Cement technology roadmap 2009," International Energy Agency (2009).
Michael J. Gibbs et al, "CO2 emissions from cement production," IPCC (2001).
Lisa J. Hanle et al, "CO2 emissions profile of the US cement industry," US EPA (2004).
Euan G. Nisbet et al, "Methane on the rise – again," Science 343: 493–495 (31 January 2014).
Stefan Schwietzke et al, "Upward revision of global fossil fuel me-thane emissions based on isotope database," Nature (5 October 2016).
"Methane emissions," US EPA (2014).
"Methane emissions higher than thought across much of the US," ScienceDaily (15 May 2013).
"Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from natural sources," US EPA (April 2010).
Kirsten Zickfeld et al, "Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases," PNAS (9 January 2017).
Jennifer Chu, "Short-lived greenhouse gases cause centuries of sea-level rise," (9 January 2017).
Eric A. Kort et al, "Four corners: the largest US methane anomaly viewed from space," Geophysical Review Letters (9 October 2014).
Richard Harris, "Methane causes vicious cycle in global warming," NPR (26 January 2016).
"Global meat production and consumption continue to rise," World-watch Institute (11 October 2011).
"Rising meat consumption takes big bite out of grain harvest," Earth Policy Institute (22 November 2011).
Felicity Brown, "Meat consumption per capita," The Guardian (2 September 2009).
"Stopping the big burp," The Economist (16 January 2016).
The Ozonosphere Ruth A. Reck, "Stratospheric ozone effects on temperature," Science 182(4239): 557–559 (7 May 1976).
Darryn W. Waugh et al, "Recent changes in the ventilation of the Southern Oceans," Science 339(6119): 568–570 (1 February 2013).
"Ozone thinning has changed ocean circulation," ScienceDaily (31 January 2013).
Ralph J. Cicerone et al, "Stratospheric ozone destruction by man-made chlorofluoromethanes," Science 185(4157): 1165 –1167 (27 September 1974).
Bruce E. Johansen, The Global Warming Desk Reference, Greenwood (2001).
Ocean Warming
Di Qi et al, "Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean," Nature Climate Change (27 February 2017).
"International team reports ocean acidification spreading rapidly in Arctic Ocean," (27 February 2017).
Tim Wallace, "Oceans are absorbing almost all of the globe’s excess heat," The New York Times (12 September 2016).
Thomas Sumner, "Ocean heating doubles," Science News (20 February 2016).
Karen Weintraub, "Scientists sample the ocean and find tiny additions to the tree of life," The New York Times (21 May 2015).
Mridul K. Thomas et al, "A global pattern of thermal adaptation in marine phytoplankton," Science 338: 1085–1088 (23 November 2012).
Lionel Guidi et al, "Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean," Nature (10 February 2016).
P. Bork et al, "Tara Oceans studies plankton at planetary scale," Science 348(6237): 873 (22 May 2015).
Shinichi Sunagawa et al, "Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome," Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Colomban de Vargas et al, "Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean," Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Gipsi Lima-Mendez et al, "Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome," Science 348(6237) (22 May 2015).
Chris Samoray, "Ocean flora flunk photosynthesis test," Science News (20 February 2016).
Sara Rivero-Calle et al, "Multidecadal increase in North Atlantic coccolithophores and the potential role of rising CO2," Science 350(6267): 1533–1537 (18 December 2015).
"Increased carbon dioxide enhances plankton growth," ScienceDaily (16 February 2016).
"Arctic found to play unexpectedly large role in removing nitrogen," (26 October 2016).
N.D. McTigue et al, "Biotic and abiotic controls on co-occurring nitrogen cycling processes in shallow Arctic shelf sediments," Nature Communications (26 October 2016).
Hanzhi Lin et al, "The fate of photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the global ocean," Science 351(6270): 264–267 (15 January 2016).
Sigrún Huld Jónasdóttir et al, "Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic," PNAS 112(39): 12122–12126 (29 September 2015).
Gautam Naik, "Rising temperatures harm ocean plant life, research finds," The Wall Street Journal (28 July 2010).
"Warming oceans imperil iconic marine species," (12 September 2016).
Denis Gilbert, "Environmental science: oceans lose oxygen," Nature 542: 303–304 (16 February 2017).
Sunke Schmidtko et al, "Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades," Nature 542: 335–339 (16 February 2017).
Deglaciation & Rising Sea Level
Chelsea Harvey, "One of the last Obama-era climate reports had a troubling update about the rising seas," The Washington Post (23 January 2017).
Michael Oppenheimer & Richard B. Alley, "How high will the seas rise?," Science 354(6318): 1375-1377 (16 December 2016).
"GLboal and regional sea level rise scenarios for the United States," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (January 2017).
Thomas Sumner, "Sea levels could rise twice as fast as previously predicted," Science News (6 April 2016).
Robert E. Kopp et al, "Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era," PNAS (22 February 2016).
Stefan Lovgren, "Greenland melt may swamp LA, other cities, study says," National Geographic News (8 April 2004).
Kevin Fleming et al, "Refining the eustatic sea-level curve since the Last Glacial Maximum using far- and intermediate-field sites," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163(1–4): 327–342 (November 1998).
"Sea level," NASA (October 2015).
"Window to reduce carbon emissions is small, scientists say," ScienceDaily (11 February 2016).
Peter U. Clark et al, "Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change," Nature Climate Change (8 February 2016).
Peter U. Clark et al, "The Last Glacial Maximum," Science 325(5941): 710–714 (7 August 2009).
Carling C. Hay et al, "Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise," Nature (14 January 2015).
Justin Gillis, "New research may solve puzzle in sea level's rise," The New York Times (14 January 2015).
James Hansen et al, "Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern ob-servations that 2 ºC global warming could be dangerous," Atmospher-ic Chemistry and Physics 16: 3761–3812 (March 2016).
"Decade of rising seas slowed by land soaking up extra water," ScienceDaily (11 February 2016).
J.T. Reager et al, "A decade of sea level rise slowed by climate-driven hydrology," Science 351(6274): 699–703 (12 February 2016).
Robert E. Kopp et al, "Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era," PNAS (22 February 2016).
Robert M. DeConto & David Pollard, "Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise," Nature 531: 591–597 (31 March 2016).
Andy Isaacson, "Into thin ice," National Geographic 229(1): 98–117 (January 2016).
Justin Gillis, "Seas are rising at fastest rate in last 28 centuries," The New York Times (22 February 2016).
Warren Cornwell, "Sea ice shrinks in step with carbon emissions," Science 354(6312): 533–534 (4 November 2016).
Chris Mooney, "The Arctic is showing stunning winter warmth, and these scientists think they know why," The Washington Post (24 December 2016).
Jennifer A. Francis & Stephen J. Vavrus, "Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes," Geophysical Research Letters (2012).
James E. Overland et al, "Warm Arctic—cold continents: climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea," Polar Research (29 December 2011).
Thomas Sumner, "Human CO2 emissions put Arctic on track to be ice-free by 2050," Science News (3 November 2016).
Eric V. Regehr, "Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines," Biology Letters (7 December 2016).
Gretel Kauffman, "What's the future of polar bears? Studies say they may soon be extinct," The Christian Science Monitor (2 July 2015).
Jane Palmer, "Will polar bears become extinct?," BBC News (5 November 2014).
Damian Carrington, "Toxic air pollution particles found in human brains," The Guardian (5 September 2016).
Jane Wakefield, "Tomorrow's cities: what can be done to improve air quality?," BBC News (25 January 2017).
Nicholas Rees, "Clear the air for children," UNICEF (October 2016).
Janet Raloff, "Traffic hydrocarbons linked to lower IQs for kids," Science News (23 July 2009).
"Exposure to traffic air pollution in infancy impairs lung function," ScienceDaily (12 October 2012).
"Pollution: 300 million children breathing toxic air - UNICEF report," UNICEF (31 October 2016).
"Pollution 'major factor in deaths of 600,000 children every year': UNICEF," NDTV (31 October 2016).
Geeta Anand, "300 million children breathe highly toxic air, Unicef report," The New York Times (30 October 2016).
Germán Plascencia-Villa et al, "High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease," Scientific Reports (28 April 2016).
"Obscure truths," The Economist (16 January 2016).
Lauren Hitching, "Traffic funes cost rich countries $0.8 trillion a year," New Scientist (28 May 2014).
Kimiko de Freytas-Tamura, "A push for diesel leaves London gasping amid record pollution," The New York Times (17 February 2017).
Geeta Anand, "Farmers’ unchecked crop burning fuels India’s air pollution," The New York Times (2 November 2016).
Adam Vaughan, "China burns half of coal consumption worldwide, figures show," The Guardian (30 January 2013).
Ian Urbina, "Piles of dirty secrets behind a model ‘clean coal’ project," The New York Times (5 July 2016).
Ian Austen, "Technology to make clean energy from coal is stumbling in practice," The New York Times (29 March 2016).
Yuan Wang et al, "Asian pollution climatically modulates mid-latitude cyclones following hierarchical modelling and observational analysis," Nature Communications (21 January 2014).
"Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease," World Health Organization (2016).
"92% of the world’s population exposed to unsafe levels of air pollution," ScienceDaily (27 September 2016).
Alan Yuhas, "Scientists: air pollution led to more than 5.5 million premature deaths in 2013," The Guardian (12 February 2016).
Dan Levin, "Study links polluted air in China to 1.6 million deaths a year," The New York Times (13 August 2015).
"Air pollution levels rising in many of the world’s poorest cities," World Health Organization (12 May 2016).
"State of the air 2016," American Lung Association (2016).
Oliver Milman, "More than half US population lives amid dangerous air pollution, report warns," The Guardian (20 April 2016).
Charlie Cooper, "Air pollution linked to one in 12 deaths in London – and it takes six months off the average Briton's life expectancy," The Independent (10 April 2014).
Jon Stone, "Air pollution to blame for 60,000 early deaths per year, Government to be warned," The Independent (30 November 2014).
John Vidal, "Air pollution in Britain: state-sanctioned mass poison-ing," The Guardian (14 November 2011).
"Pollution in India: worse than Beijing," The Economist (12 November 2016).
Jennifer Burney & V. Ramanathan, "Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Indian agriculture," PNAS (3 November 2014).
Azeen Ghorayshi, "India air pollution 'cutting crop yields by almost half'," The Guardian (3 November 2014).
Ross Chainey, "Which is the world’s most polluted city?," World Economic Forum (25 June 2015).
Shibaji Roychoudhury, "Thirteen of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are Indian," Quartz (7 December 2014).
Gardiner Harris, "Cities in India among the most polluted, W.H.O. says," The New York Times (8 May 2014).
Gardiner Harris, "Beijing’s bad air would be step up for smoggy Delhi," The New York Times (8 May 2014).
Diksha Madhok, "Here is why India has no clue how bad its air pollution problem is," Quartz (16 October 2014).
Jeffrey Bartholet, "Swept from Africa to the Amazon," Scientific American 306(2): 44–49 (February 2012).
Janet Raloff, "Ill winds: dust storms ferry toxic agents between countries and even continents," 160(14): 218–220 Science News (6 October 2001).
Stefan Mulitza et al, "Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region," Nature 466: 226–228 (8 July 2010).
Sid Perkins, "Africa's bumper crop of dust," Science News 178(3): 14 (31 July 2010).
I. Nagelkerken et al, "Widespread disease in Caribbean sea fans," Marine Ecology Progress Series 160: 255–263 (1997).
David I. Kline & Steven V. Vollmer, "White Band Disease (type I) of endangered Caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria," Scientific Reports (14 June 2011).
Jaons R. Westrich et al, "Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters," PNAS (9 May 2016).
"Saharan dust affects marine bacteria, potential pathogen Vibrio: Vibrio can cause serious illness in humans, other marine organisms," ScienceDaily (9 May 2016).
Gerry Mullany, "Dust storms blanket Beijing and northern China," The New York Times (5 May 2017).
Josh Haner et al, "Living in China’s expanding deserts," The New York Times (2017).
Natasha Geiling, "Huge toxic algal bloom shuts down west coast fisheries," Climate Progress (18 June 2015).
Amanda Schupak, "Toxic algae bloom in Pacific Ocean could be largest ever," CBS News (17 June 2015).
Dusted Oceans
Sid Perkins, "Dust, the thermostat," Science News (25 September 2001).
T. Ito et al, "Acceleration of oxygen decline in the tropical Pacific over the past decades by aerosol pollutants," Nature (16 May 2016).
"Polluted dust can impact ocean life thousands of miles away," ScienceDaily (16 May 2016).
Aral Sea
Mark Synnott, "Sins of the Aral Sea," National Geographic (June 2015).
Owens Lake Kirk Siegler, "Owens Valley salty As Los Angeles water battle flows into court," NPR (11 March 2013).
Ruth Albert Spencer, "The unbearable noise of the city," The New York Times (27 July 2012).
Cara Buckley, "Working or playing indoors, New Yorkers face an unabated roar," The New York Times (19 July 2012).
Susan Milius, "Noise made by humans can be bad news for animals," Science News (9 February 2015).
Graeme Shannon, "How noise pollution is changing animal behaviour," (18 December 2015).
"Lost in translation: Traffic noise disrupts communication between species," (31 January 2017).
Heidi E. Ware et al, "A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation," PNAS 112(39): 12105–12109 (29 September 2015).
"Parks Service surveys the environment's accoustical health," NPR (22 February 2015).
Susan Milius, "Chicks do worse in noisy nests," Science News (28 February 2012).
Alizée Meillère et al, "Traffic noise exposure affects telomere length in nestling house sparrows," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (16 September 2015).
Ian Sample, "Noise pollution is making us oblivious to the sound of nature, says researcher," The Guardian (16 February 2015).
Agence France-Presse, "Noisy roads linked to higher stroke risk," The Guardian (23 June 2015).
Sarah Boseley, "Aircraft noise may increase risk of heart disease, say researchers," The Guardian (8 October 2013).
Guillaume Huet des Aunaya et al, "Urban noise undermines female sexual preferences for low-frequency songs in domestic canaries," Animal Behavior 87(1): 67–75 (January 2014).
Caitlin R. Kight & John P. Swaddle, "Eastern bluebirds alter their song in response to anthropogenic changes in the acoustic environment," Integrative and Comparative Biology (20 August 2015).
"Persist and shout: male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise," (21 August 2015).
David A. Luther & Elizabeth P. Derryberry, "Birdsongs keep pace with city life: changes in song over time in an urban songbird affects communication," Animal Behavior 83(4): 1059–1066 (April 2012).
Marcel Eens et al, "Are low-frequency songs sexually selected, and do they lose their potency in male–female interactions under noisy conditions?," PNAS (31 January 2012).
Wouter Halfwerk et al, "Low-frequency songs lose their potency in noisy urban conditions," PNAS (30 August 2011).
Alejandro Ariel Ríos-Chelén, "Bird song: the interplay between urban noise and sexual selection," Oecologia Australis (January 2009).
Graeme Shannon, "What prairie dogs tell us about the effects of noise pollution," (15 April 2016).
Undersea Noise
"Boat noise stops fish from finding home," ScienceDaily (28 June 2013).
Sophie Holles et al, "Boat noise disrupts orientation behaviour in a coral reef fish," Marine Ecology Progress Series 485:295–300 (27 June 2013).
"Motorboat noise gives predators a deadly advantage: the rate that fish are captured by predators can double when boats are motoring nearby," ScienceDaily (5 February 2016).
Emma Brown, "Marine life needs protection from noise pollution," Nature News (11 September 2015).
Scott Veirs et al, "Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales," PeerJ (2 February 2016).
Oliver Milman, "Ships' noise is serious problem for killer whales and dolphins, report finds," The Guardian (2 February 2016).
William J. Broad, "A rising tide of noise is now easy to see," The New York Times (10 December 2012).
"Boat noise impacts development, survival of sea hares," ScienceDaily (31 July 2014).
Navy Sonar
Janice Malcolm, "Navy ordered to limit sonar use in order to protect marine life," Inquisitr (11 October 2015).
Julie Watson & Alicia Chang, "Navy to expand sonar testing despite marine-life concerns," The Seattle Times (16 December 2013).
Jeremy A. Goldbogen et al, "Blue whales respond to simulate mid-frequency military sonar," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (3 July 2013).
Lauren Sommer, "Navy sonar criticized for harming marine mammals," NPR (26 April 2013).
Kieran Mulvaney, "Navy admits whales and dolphins in harm's way," Discovery News (6 July 2012).
"Does military sonar kill marine wildlife?," Scientific American (10 June 2009).
"Navy sonar and marine mammals," Navy Office of Information (23 January 2007).
SCOTUS, Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council (555 U.S. 7) (2008).
Adam Liptak, "Supreme Court rules for Navy in sonar case," The New York Times (12 November 2008).
Pete Yost, "U.S. Navy wins dispute over sonar, whales," National Geographic (13 November 2008).
Steven Solomon, Water, Harper (2010).
David Sedlak, Water 4.0, Yale University Press (2015).
Charles Fishman, The Big Thirst: The Secret Life and Turbulent Future of Water, Free Press (2012).
Fred Pearce, When the Rivers Run Dry: Water – The Defining Crisis of the Twenty-first Century, Beacon Press (2007).
"Toxic pollutants found in fish across the world's oceans," ScienceDaily (28 January 2016).
Lindsay T. Bonito et al, "Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish," PeerJ (28 January 2016).
Richard Schiffman, "Plankton can save the ocean. But who will save the plankton?," New Scientist (8 March 2017).
Oliver N. Ross & Jonathan Sharples, "Swimming for survival: a role of phytoplankton motility in a stratified turbulent environment," Journal of Marine System 70(3-4): 248-262 (April 2008).
Laruen Morello, "Phytoplankton population drops 40 percent since 1950," Scientific American (29 July 2010).
Weniger Suerstoff, "Global ocean de-oxygenation quantified," Geomar (15 February 2017).
Anupam Sengupta et al, "Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues," Nature (15 March 2017).
Stephanie Dutkiewicz et al, "Impact of ocean acidification on the structure of future phytoplankton communities," Nature Climate Change (20 July 2015).
Daniel Padfield, et al, "Rapid evolution of metabolic traits explains thermal adaptation in phytoplankton," Ecology Letters (26 November 2015).
Michael J. Behrenfeld, "Climate-mediated dance of the plankton," Nature Climate Change (25 September 2014).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Phytoplankton on decline in Southern Ocean," The New York Times (30 March 2015).
"Plankton decline across oceans as waters warm," BBC News (28 July 2010).
David Gutierrez, "Phytoplankton in decline across world's oceans," Natural News (2 April 2011).
"Phytoplankton decline," California Academy of Sciences (28 July 2010).
Meike Vogt, "Adrift in an ocean of change," Science 350:6267: 1466-1467 (18 December 2015).
Kelton W. McMahon et al, "Millennial-scale plankton regime shifts in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean," Science 350:6267: 1530-1533 (18 December 2015).
Sara Rivero-Calle et al, "Multidecadal increase in North Atlantic coccolithophores and the potential role of rising CO2," Science 350:6267: 1533-1537 (18 December 2015).
Daniel G. Boyce et al, "Global phytoplankton decline over the past century," Nature (9 June 2010).
Catherine Brahic, "Warming oceans produce less phytoplankton," New Scientist (6 December 2006).
The Deep Ocean
Alan J. Jamieson et al, "Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the deepest ocean fauna," Nature Ecology & Evolution (13 February 2017).
"Banned chemicals from the '70s found in the deepest reaches of the ocean," Newcastle University (13 February 2017).
Damian Carrington, "'Extraordinary' levels of pollutants found in 10km deep Mariana trench," The Guardian (13 February 2017).
Andrew K. Sweetman et al, "Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems," Elementa (23 February 2017).
Nicola Davis, "Deep sea life faces dark future due to warming and food shortage," The Guardian (23 February 2017).
"The new plastics economy," World Economic Forum (January 2016).
Jenna R. Jambeck et al, "Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean," Science 347(6223): 768–771 (13 February 2015).
Beth Mole, "Millions of tons of plastic end up in oceans each year," Science News (12 February 2015).
"Charting the plastic waters," The Economist (13 December 2014).
Ivana Kottasova, "More plastic than fish in oceans by 2050," CNN (19 January 2016).
Boris Worm, "Silent spring in the ocean," PNAS 112(38): 11752–11753 (22 September 2015).
Thomas Moore, "Health fears over microplastics in our seafood," Sky News (25 January 2017).
Lauren Tousignant, "If you eat seafood, you are eating thousands of pieces of plastic," New York Post (25 January 2017).
"Seabirds duped by plastic waste," Nature (10 September 2015).
Matthew S. Savoca et al, "Marine plastic debris emits a keystone infochemical for olfactory foraging seabirds," Science Advances (9 November 2016).
Qamar A. Schuyler et al, "Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles," Global Change Biology (14 September 2015).
Sarah Baulch & Clare Perry, "Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans," Marine Pollution Bulletin 80(1–2): 210–221 (15 March 2014).
Peter Davison & Rebecca G. Asch, "Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre," Marine Ecology (27 June 2011).
Bettina Wassener, "Fish ingsting plastic waste, study finds," The New York Times (8 July 2011).
Marina Codina-Garcia et al, "Plastic debris in Mediterranean sea-birds," Marine Pollution Bulletin 77(1–2): 220–226 (25 October 2013).
Chris Wilcox et al, "Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing," PNAS (31 August 2015).
Rossana Sussarellu et al, "Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics," PNAS (1 February 2016).
Imogen E. Napper et al, "Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics," Marine Pollution Bulletin (2015).
Marcus Eriksen et al, "Plastic pollution in the world's oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea," PLoS One (10 December 2014).
Erik van Sebille et al, "A global inventory of small floating plastic debris," Environmental Research Letters (8 December 2015).
Chelsea M. Rochman et al, "Anthropogenic debris in seafood: plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption," Scientific Reports (24 September 2015).
Karl Gruber, "Plastic in the food chain: artificial debris found in fish," New Scientist (25 September 2015).
Andrés Cózar et al, "Plastic debris in the open ocean," PNAS 111(28): 10239–10244 (15 July 2014).
Ashely Yeager, "Plastic trash travels up to Arctic waters," Student Science (8 November 2015).
Melanie Bergmann et al, "Observations of floating anthropogenic litter in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait, Arctic," Polar Biology (21 October 2015).
Eric Hand, "Trillions of plastic pieces may be trapped in Arctic ice," Science (22 May 2014).
Amy L. Lusher et al, "Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples," Scientific Reports (8 October 2015).
Jan-Gunnar Winther, "Environmental challenges in the Polar Regions," Adjacent Government (16 October 2014).
Matthew J. Hoffman & Eric Hittinger, "Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes," Marine Pollution Bulletin (15 December 2016).
Imogen E. Napper et al, "Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics," Marine Pollution Bulletin 99(1-2): 178-185 (15 October 2015).
"Millions of plastic particles exist in cosmetic products," ScienceDaily (26 August 2015).
"Ban on microbeads offers best chance to protect oceans, aquatic species," Oregon State University (16 September 2015).
Brian Stallard, "Ocean pollution: 8 trillion microbeads a day from US," Nature World News (25 September 2015).
Henderson Island
Jennifer L. Lavers & Alexander L. Bond, "Exceptional and rapid accumulation of anthropogenic debris on one of the world’s most remote and pristine islands," PNAS (15 May 2017).
Amy B. Wang, "No one lives on this remote Pacific island — but it’s covered in 38 million pieces of our trash," The Washington Post (16 May 2017).
Austin Ramzy, "A remote pacific island awash in tons of trash," The New York Times (16 May 2017).
Alkaly Doumbouya et al, "Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring control and surveillance of illegal fishing: the case of West Africa," Frontiers in Marine Science (7 March 2017).
The Editorial Board, "China wants fish, so Africa goes hungry," The New York Times (3 May 2017).
"One-quarter of grouper species being fished to extinction," ScienceDaily (9 May 2012).
United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Report (2010).
"Fisheries factsheet," The Humane Society of the United States (25 September 2009).
John Hocevar, "12 (not so) fun facts about overfishing," Greenpeace (19 August 2013).
Carmel Finley, All the Boats on the Ocean: How Government Subsidies Led to Global Overfishing, University of Chicago Press (2017).
Margaret Goud Collins, "Fisheries science: sea change," Science 355(6329): 1030 (10 March 2017).
Christopher Costello et al, "Status and solutions for the world’s unassessed fisheries," Science 338(616): 517–520 (26 October 2012).
Francisco Ramirez et al, "Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity," Science Advances 3(2) (1 February 2017).
"Still waters: the global fish crisis," National Geographic (April 2007).
Michael Parfit, "Diminishing returns," National Geographic (November 1995).
Arnold H. Taylor, The Dance of Air and Sea, Oxford University Press (2011).
"Patagonian Toothfish," Greenpeace (26 August 2003).
Juliet Eilperin, "Down on the farm, more and more fish," The Washington Post (20 September 2009).
Jennifer Levitz, "Duel erupts on the high seas," The Wall Street Journal (24 October 2013).
"Trawling for trouble," The Economist (16 April 2016).
"How China's trawlers are emptying Guinea's oceans," BBC News (8 July 2016).
"Dolphin killings rise in Peru due to Asia shark fin sales," (19 October 2013).
Jesse R. Zaneveld et al, "Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales," Nature Communications (7 June 2016).
"A thousand cuts," The Economist (13 February 2016).
Douglas J. McCauley et al, "Marine defaunation: animal loss in the global ocean," Science 347(6219) (16 January 2015).
Carl Zimmer, "Ocean life faces mass extinction, broad study says," The New York Times (15 January 2015).
Coral Reefs
"Corals in hot water," New Scientist (25 February 2017).
"Shallow reefs teeter on the brink," New Scientist (1 April 2017).
John M. Pandolfi et al, "Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification," Science 333: 418–422 (22 July 2011).
Christopher Knaus & Nick Evershed, "Great Barrier Reef at 'terminal stage': scientists despair at latest coral bleaching data," The Guardian (9 April 2017).
Glenn De'ath et al, "The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes," PNAS 109(44): 17995–17999 (30 October 2012).
Don R. Levitan et al, "Long-term reduced spawning in Orbicella coral species due to temperature stress," Marine Ecology Progress Series 515: 1–10 (November 2014).
Rebecca Albright et al, "Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification," Nature (24 February 2016).
"Ocean acidification slowing coral reef growth, study confirms," The Guardian (24 February 2016).
C. Mark Eakin et al, "Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005," PLoS One (15 November 2010).
Melissa Gaskill, "Coral bleaching goes from bad to worse," Nature (19 November 2010).
Dennis Normile, "El Niño's warmth devastating reefs worldwide," Science 352(6281): 15–16 (1 April 2016).
"El Niño prolongs longest global coral bleaching event," ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
John P. Rafferty, "Severe bleaching strikes Great Barrier Reef," Encyclopedia Britannica (21 March 2016).
Damien Cave & Justin Gillis, "Large sections of Australia’s great reef are now dead, scientists find," The New York Times (15 March 2017).
Terry P. Hughes et al, "Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals," Nature (15 March 2017).
"Worst bleaching on record for Great Barrier Reef," (29 March 2016).
Mila Zinkova, "Corals moving north," Science News (21 January 2011).
Hiroya Yamano et al, "Rapid poleward range expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface temperatures," Geophysical Research Letters (17 February 2011).
Paul R. Muir et al, "Limited scope for latitudinal extension of reef corals," Science 348(6239): 1135–1337 (5 June 2015).
"Coral reefs threatened by a deadly combination of changing ocean conditions," ScienceDaily (7 January 2015).
Thomas M. DeCarlo et al, "Coral macrobioerosion is accelerated by ocean acidification and nutrients," Geology (14 November 2014).
J. Silverman et al, "Community calcification in Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: a 33 year perspective," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 144: 72–81 (1 November 2014).
Mohsen Kayal et al, "Predator crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) outbreak, mass mortality of corals, and cascading effects on reef fish and benthic communities," PLoS One (8 October 2012).
"Coral-killing starfish decimate entire coral reefs, reason for spread unclear," ScienceDaily (1 February 2013).
Molly A. Timmers et al, "There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central Pacific are regionally derived and independent events," PLoS One (17 February 2012).
M. Carreiro-Silva et al, "Effects of inorganic nutrients and organic matter on microbial euendolithic community composition and micro-bioerosion rates," Marine Ecology Progress Series 392: 1–15 (2009).
Miriam Weber et al, "Mechanisms of damage to corals exposed to sedimentation," PNAS (21 May 2012).
Kathyrn Patterson Sutherland et al, "Human pathogen shown to cause disease in the threatened eklhorn coral Acropora palmate," PLoS One (17 August 2011).
Gisela Telis, "Human excrement to blame for coral decline," Science (17 August 2011).
Lester Kwiatkowski et al, "Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions," Nature Geoscience (7 April 2013).
R.D. Norris et al, "Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change," Science (2 August 2013).
The Chinese in the South China Sea
"How a Chinese fishing fleet creates facts on the water," The Economist (23 March 2017).
"Rejuvenating reefs," The Economist (13 February 2016).
The Americans in South Florida
"US only barrier reef severely damaged by million dollar Miami Port dredging project," Nature World News (3 May 2016).
Lizette Alvarez, "Dredging of Miami port badly damaged coral reef, study finds," The New York Times (1 May 2016).
"Water scarcity: liquidity crisis," The Economist (5 November 2016).
Cornelia Dean, "Plenty of water, but little to drink," The New York Times (7 October 2013).
David Soll, Empire of Water: An Environmental and Political History of the New York City Water Supply, Cornell University Press (2013).
Peter H. Gleick (editor), Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, Oxford University Press (1993).
"Aquifers: deep waters, slowly drying up," The Economist (7 October 2010).
"Vital water graphics," United Nations Environment Programme (2008).
"Water use in the United States," The USGS Water Science School (2 May 2016).
"Water use by sectors," European Environment Agency (18 February 2008).
"Un-habitat: number of slum dwellers grows to 863 million," Cordaid (10 February 2014).
Michael E. Webber, "Will drought cause the next blackout?," The New York Times (23 July 2012).
Sara Reardon, "Thirsty clean energy may add to water stressed world," New Scientist (19 July 2013).
Nichole Abrashinsky, "Domestic use of water," Water is Life web site (Spring 2004).
Mesfin M. Mekonnen & Arjen Y. Hoekstra, "Four billion people facing severe water scarcity," Science Advances 2:e1500323 (12 February 2016).
Jan Eliasson, "The rising pressure of global water shortages," Nature 517: 6 (1 January 2015).
Tom Gleeson et al, "Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint," Nature 488: 197–200 (9 August 2012).
"Global freshwater consumption crossing its planetary boundary," ScienceDaily (16 June 2015).
Richard Taylor, "When wells run dry," Nature 516: 179-180 (11 December 2014).
"Earth's biggest groundwater basins are in trouble," Nature World News (17 June 2015).
Fernando Jaramillo & Georgia Destouni, "Developing water change spectra and distinguishing change drivers worldwide," Geophysical Research Letters (5 December 2014).
Fernando Jaramillo & Georgia Destouni, "Comment on 'Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet,'" Science 348(6240): 1217-1218 (12 June 2015).
Fiona Harvey, "Global majority faces water shortages 'within two generations'," The Guardian (24 May 2013).
Richard Damania et al, "High and dry: climate change, water, and the economy," World Bank (2016).
Suzanne Goldenberg, "Global water shortages to deliver 'severe hit' to economies, World Bank warns," The Guardian (3 May 2016).
John Vidal, "Global threat to food supply as water wells dry up, warns top environment expert," The Observer (6 July 2013).
Quirin Schiermeier, "Water risk as world warms," Nature 505: 10–11 (2 January 2014).
J.S. Famiglietti, "The global groundwater crisis," Nature Climate Change (29 October 2014).
Tap Water in America
"A timeline of the water crisis in Flint, Michigan," StarTribune (20 April 2016).
Monica Davey & Mitch Smith "2 Flint ex-emergency managers charged over tainted water," The New York Times (20 December 2016).
Ed White, "Ex-Michigan official gets probation in Flint water probe," Associated Press (13 March 2017).
Joanna Walters, "Flint mayor declares 'manmade disaster' over lead-tainted water supply," The New York Times (15 December 2015).
Monica Davey, "Flint officials are no longer saying that water is fine," The New York Times (7 October 2015).
Charles M. Blow, "The poisoning of Flint's water," ," The New York Times (21 January 2016).
Editorial Board, "Depraved indifference toward Flint," The New York Times (22 January 2016).
Matt Latimer, "Republicans ignore a poisoned city," The New York Times (21 January 2016).
Oliver Milman & Ryan Felton, "Flint water crisis: Michigan officials ignored EPA warnings about toxicity," The Guardian (3 February 2016).
Editorial Board, "Michigan's failure to protect Flint," The New York Times (20 January 2016).
Ryan Felton, "Flint water crisis was 'environmental injustice', governor's taskforce finds," The Guardian (23 March 2016).
Julie Bosman et al, "As water problems grew, officials belittled complaints from Flint," The New York Times (20 January).
Joanna Walter, "Flint water crisis: governor's brand of corporate politics set stage for disaster," The Guardian (21 January 2016).
Amanda Emery, "Two state DEQ workers arraigned on criminal charges in Flint water crisis," M Live (20 April 2016).
Liam Stack, "Lead levels in Flint water drop, but residents still can’t drink it," The New York Times (24 January 2017).
"Poisoned water: that Flinty taste," The Economist (23 January 2016).
Jessica Glenza, "Philadelphia's water-testing procedures are 'worse than Flint' – expert The Guardian (28 January 2016).
Oliver Milman & Jessica Glenza, "At least 33 US cities used water testing 'cheats' over lead concerns," The Guardian (2 June 2016).
Snow goose photo courtesy of Manjithkaini.
Jim Robbins, "Hordes of geese die on a toxic lake in Montana," The New York Times (12 December 2016).
California's Central Valley
"Water supply: difference engine: from torrent to trickle," The Econo-mist (4 October 2013).
Patricia Leigh Brown, "The problem is clear: the water is filthy," The New York Times (13 November 2012).
Twilight Greenaway, "Tapped out: water in California’s farm country is dangerously polluted," (13 March 2012).
Eli Moore & Eyal Matalon, "The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin valley," Pacific Institute (March 2011).
Mike Gaworecki, "Confirmed: California aquifers contaminated with billions of gallons of fracking wastewater," Desmog (7 October 2014).
Felicity Barringer, "Why federal efforts to ensure clean tap water fail to reach faucets nationwide," The New York Times (10 May 2013).
California Going Dry
"California must ration water to avoid drought disaster," New Scientist (18 March 2015).
"California has about one year of water stored. Will you ration now?," The Los Angeles Times (12 March 2015).
Thomas Sumner, California drought worst in at least 1,200 years," Science News (6 December 2014).
Henry Fountain, "California's cycles of drought," The New York Times (13 April 2015).
Ian Lovett, "California braces for unending drought," ," The New York Times (9 May 2016).
Laruen Gambino, "California restricts water as snowpack survey finds 'no snow whatsoever'," The Guardian (1 April 2015).
Jack Healy & Adam Nagourney, "Californians who conserved wonder if state can overcome those who didn't," The New York Times (2 April 2015).
Adam Nagourney & Ian Lovett, "In sharp reversal, California suspends water restrictions," The New York Times (18 May 2016).
Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert, Viking (1986).
Thomas Fuller, "California, parched for 5 years, is now battered by water," The New York Times (18 February 2017).
Erin McCann, "California braces for more rain. how bad can it get?," The New York Times (20 February 2017).
Julia Rosen, "California rains put spotlight on atmospheric rivers," Science (24 February 2017).
Bruce Bower, "Earliest evidence of fire making in Europe found," Science News (2 June 2016).
Naama Goren-Inbar et al, "Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel," Science 304, 725 (2004).
Roger LeB. Hooke, "On the history of humans as geomorphic agents," Geology 28(9): 843–846 (2000).
Jenna Iacurci, "Leaving our mark: the age of humans," Nature World News (14 October 2014).
Oscar Venter et al, "Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation," Nature Communications (23 August 2016).
"New map shows alarming growth of the human footprint," James Cook University (25 August 2016).
Roger LeB. Hooke & José F. Martín-Duque, "Land transformation by humans: a review," GSA Today 22(12): 4–10 (December 2012).
Helmut Haberl et al, "Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems," PNAS 104(31): 12942–12947 (31 July 2007).
Hanqin Tian et al, "The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere," Nature (9 March 2016).
Richard Woldendorp et al, The World of Mining, CRC Press (2011).
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Michael Coulson, The History of Mining, Harriman House (2012).
"Mining impacts," Greenpeace (15 April 2010).
Meg Leta Jones, The Strip Mining Handbook (13 August 2009).
Ian C. Runge, Mining Economics and Strategy, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (2003).
James Whyte, Mining Explained: Discovery, Extraction, Refining, Marketing, Investing, The Nothern Miner (2007).
Emily S. Bernhardt et al, "How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of central appalachian rivers by surface coal mining," Environmental Science & Technology 46 (15): 8115–8122 (2012).
"One in five streams damaged by mine pollution in southern West Virginia," ScienceDaily (30 July 2012).
Zoë Carpenter, "Big coal is bankrupt. Who will pay to clean up its mess?," The Nation (21 March 2016).
Alistair Macdonald & Edward Welsch, "Next frontier: mining minerals in the deep sea," The Wall Street Journal (4 June 2012).
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"Learn about lead," US Environmental Protection Agency (undated).
"Lead toxicity: what are the physiologic effects of lead exposure?," Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (20 August 2012).
Roger Howard, "Is the U.S. fracking boom a bubble," Newsweek (14 July 2014).
Russell Gold, The Boom: How Fracking Ignited the American Energy Revolution and Changed the World, Simon & Schuster (2014).
Alex Prud'homme, Hydrofracking: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press (2013).
Russell Gold, "Fracking gives U.S. energy boom plenty of room to run," The Wall Street Journal (14 September 2014).
David E. Newton, Fracking : a reference handbook, ABC-CLIO (2015).
Michelle Bamberger, The Real Cost Of Fracking : How America's Shale-Gas Boom Is Threatening Our Families, Pets, And Food, Beacon Press (2014).
Richard Heinberg, Snake Oil : How Fracking's False Promise Of Plenty Imperils Our Future, Post Carbon Institute (2013).
Gary Sernovitz, The Green And The Black : The Complete Story Of The Shale Revolution, The Fight Over Fracking, And The Future Of Energy, St. Martin's Press (2016).
Sara Souther et al, "Biotic impacts of energy development from shale: research priorities and knowledge gaps," Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12: 330–338 (August 2014).
"Oil drills and spill," The New York Times (29 November 2014).
Kevin Begos, "4 states confirm water pollution from drilling," USA Today (5 January 2014).
Margie Alt, "The scary facts about fracking," Huffpost Green (31 October 2013).
Carol Davenport, "Reversing course, E.P.A. says fracking can contaminate drinking water," The New York Times (13 December 2016).
L. Blair Paulik et al, "Impact of natural gas extraction on PAH levels in ambient air," Environmental Science & Technology (26 March 2015).
"Fracking may affect air quality, human health," Nature World News (13 May 2015).
Stephen G. Osborn et al, "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing," PNAS 108(20): 8172–8176 (17 May 2011).
Ian Urbina, "One tainted water well, and concern there may be more," The New York Times (3 August 2011).
Jenna Iacurci, "Some fracking fluids toxic to mammals," Nature World News (14 August 2013).
Andy Coghlan, "Fracking operations triggered 100 quakes a year," Science News (19 August 2013).
Won-Young Kim, "Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio," Journal of Geophysical Research (19 July 2013).
Jeff Tollefson, "Is fracking behind contamination in Wyoming ground-water," Nature News (4 October 2012).
Ryan Tracy, "Energy companies faulted on fracturing," The Wall Street Journal (31 January 2011).
Jenna Iacurci, "Fracking flowback may lead to contaminated ground-water," Nature World News (26 June 2014).
Kimberly M. Parker et al, "Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies," Environmental Science & Technology (9 September 2014).
Erik Stokstad, "Will fracking put too much fizz in your water?," Science 344: 1468–1471 (27 June 2014).
Devon Renock et al, "Reductive weathering of black shale and release of barium during hydraulic fracturing," Applied Geochemistry 65: 73–76 (February 2016).
"Fracking plays active role in generating toxic metal wastewater, study finds," ScienceDaily (15 December 2015).
Oliver Milman, "Scientists find fracking contaminated Wyoming water after EPA halted study," The Guardian (7 April 2016).
"Toxins found in fracking fluids and wastewater, study shows," ScienceDaily (6 January 2016).
Elise G Elliott et al, "A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydrau-lic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and develop-mental toxicity," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (6 January 2016).
Coral Davenport, "Fracking has not had big effect on water supply, E.P.A. says while noting risks," The New York Times (4 June 2015).
Matthew Carroll, "New technique shows shale-drilling additives in drinking water taps near leak," Penn State (4 May 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, "Treating fracking wastewater is still toxic," Nature World News (26 September 2014).
"Chemicals from shale drilling discovered in Pennsylvania tap water," Nature World News (5 May 2015).
Nick Stockton, "Fracking’s problems go deeper than water pollution," Wired (18 June 2015).
Suzanne Goldberg, "A Texan tragedy: ample oil, no water," The Guardian (11 August 2013).
"Hydraulic fracturing & water stress," Ceres (2013).
Erica Barth-Naftilan et al, "Spatial and temporal trends in freshwa-ter appropriation for natural gas development in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale Play," Geophysical Research Letters (6 August 2015).
Fiona Harvey, "Water shortages may make fracking impractical, industry says," The Guardian (27 November 2013).
Suzanne Goldberg, "Fracking is depleting water supplies in America's driest areas, report shows," The Guardian (5 February 2014).
Suzanne Goldberg, "Fracking produces annual toxic waste water enough to flood Washington DC," The Guardian (4 October 2013).
Elizabeth Ridlington & John Rumpler, "Fracking by the numbers: key impacts of dirty drilling at the state and national level," Environment America (October 2013).
Robert B. Jackson et al, "Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction," PNAS 110(28): 11250–11255 (9 July 2013).
Julia Rosen, "Pumped up to rumble," Science 348(6241): 1299 (19 June 2015).
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"Distant quakes trigger tremors at U.S. waste-injection sites," The Earth Institute, Columbia University (11 July 2013).
Suzanne Goldenberg, "Oklahoma earthquakes linked to fracking wastewater wells, study says," The Guardian (3 July 2014).
"US states confront worries about fracking, quakes," (26 June 2014).
Henry Fountain, "Experts eye oil and gas industry as quakes shake Oklahoma," The New York Times (12 December 2013).
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Cliff Frohlich, "Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas," PNAS (6 Au-gust 2012).
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Michael Wines, "Earthquakes in Oklahoma raise fears of a big one," The New York Times (7 January 2016).
Huw Clarke et al, "Felt seismicity associated with shale gas hydraulic fracturing: the first documented example in Europe," Geophysical Research Letters (11 December 2014).
"Fracking caused rare earthquake felt in Ohio," Nature World News (6 January 2015).
Ryan Schultz et al, "Hydraulic fracturing and the crooked lake sequences: insights gleaned from regional seismic networks," Geo-physical Research Letters (23 April 2015).
Smauel A. Flewelling et al, "Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations," Geophysical Research Letters (26 July 2013).
Richard A. Kerr, "NRC committee finds that humans are trigger quakes," Science Insider (15 June 2012).
"Fracking quake," The Week (16 September 2016).
Suzanne Goldberg, "Fracking hell: what it's really like to live next to a shale gas well," The Guardian (13 December 2013).
Suzanne Goldberg, "Fracking: environmental groups sue EPA in call for strict rules on waste," The Guardian (4 May 2016).
Matthew Daly, "EPA: no widespread harm to drinking water from fracking," Medical Express (4 June 2015).
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"The future of driving: seeing the back of the car," The Economist (22 September 2012).
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"Environmental impacts from automobiles," US EPA (undated).
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"Buying guide – car environmental impact," National Geographic (undated).
Ben Guraino, "Salt from icy roads is contaminating North America’s lakes," The Washington Post (10 April 2017).
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Michael Slezak, "Mammals in fragmented forests die out within 25 years," New Scientist (26 September 2013).
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Carl Zimmer, "In fragmented forests, rapid mammal extinctions," The New York Times (26 September 2013).
Barry Bearak, "Shaky rule in Madagascar threatens trees," The New York Times (24 May 2010).
Stephen J. Burns et al, "Rapid human-induced landscape transformation in Madagascar at the end of the first millennium of the Common Era," Quaternary Science Reviews 134: 92–99 (15 February 2016).
Patrick Roberts et al, "The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation," Nature Plants (3 August 2017).
"Humans have been altering tropical forests for at least 45,000 years," (3 August 2017).
P.W. Richards, The Tropical Rain Forest, Cambridge University Press (1973).
Ke Zhang et al, "The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use," Global Change Biology (12 May 2015).
Rong Fu et al, "Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection," PNAS (21 October 2013).
C. Levis et al, "Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition," Science (3 March 2017).
Charles R. Clement et al, "The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (27 July 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, "Human impact on Amazon rainforest grossly underestimated," Nature World News (23 May 2014).
Barbara Fraser, "Carving up the Amazon," Nature 509: 418–419 (22 May 2014).
Eric A. Davidson et al, "The Amazon basin in transition," Nature 481: 321–328 (19 January 2012).
Hiroko Tabuchi & Claire Rigby, "Amazon deforestation, once tamed, comes roaring back," The New York Times (24 February 2017).
Peter M. Cox et al, "Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model," Nature 408: 184–187 (9 November 2000).
John Vidal, "Rate of deforestation in Indonesia overtakes Brazil, says study," The Guardian (29 June 2014).
Nick Kirkpatrick, "Singapore disappears into a thick haze caused by Indonesian fires," The Washington Post (25 September 2015).
"A world on fire," The Economist (27 February 2016).
Randy Lee Loftis, "Smoke from wildfires is killing hundreds of thousands of people," National Geographic (29 October 2015).
K.T. Tuff et al, "A framework for integrating thermal biology into fragmentation research," Ecology Letters (19 February 2016).
"Temperature changes wreak ecological havoc in deforested areas, study finds," ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
"Fires in the U.S.," National Fire Protection Association (2016).
Jennifer K. Balch et al, "Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States," PNAS (27 February 2017).
"Humans sparked 84 percent of US wildfires, increased fire season over two decades," (27 February 2017).
Bill Gabbert, "Why have fires gotten larger in recent decades?," Wildfire Today (29 October 2016).
John T. Abatzoglou & A. Park Williams, "Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests," PNAS (10 October 2016).
William Laurance, "Planet of the vines: Climbing plants are taking over," New Scientist (7 October 2013).
Johannes Lehmann & Markus Kleber, "The contentious nature of soil organic matter," Nature (23 November 2015).
Michael W.I. Schmidt et al, "Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property," Nature 478: 49–55 (6 October 2011).
Christopher B. Barrett & Leah E. M. Bevis, "The self-reinforcing feedback between low soil fertility and chronic poverty," Nature Geoscience (23 November 2015).
David Pimentel et al, "Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits," Science 267(5201): 1117-1123 (24 February 1995).
"Depleted soil locks rural farmers in trap of ultra-poverty," (24 November 2015).
Oliver Milman, "Earth has lost a third of arable land in past 40 years, scientists say," The Guardian (2 December 2015).
"Soil loss: an unfolding global disaster," Grantham Centre (2 December 2015).
Franciska T. de Vries et al, "Soil food web properties explain ecosys-tem services across European land use systems," PNAS 110(35): 14296 – 14301 (27 August 2013).
H. Eswaran et al, "Land degradation: an overview," Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Land Degradation and Desertification, Khon Kaen, Thailand (2001).
L.R. Oldeman et al, "World map of the status of human-induced soil degradation. an explanatory note," ISRIC Report (July 1990).
Steve Banwart, "Save our soils," Nature 474: 151–152 (9 June 2011).
Diana H. Wall et al, "Soil biodiversity and human health," Nature 528: 69–76 (03 December 2015).
Haipeng Li et al, "Large numbers of vertebrates began rapid population decline in the late 19th century," PNAS (21 November 2016).
S.L. Pimm et al, "The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection," Science 344(6187) (30 May 2014).
Rebecca Morelle, "World wildlife 'falls by 58% in 40 years', BBC News (27 October 2016).
Danica Kirka, "Report: wildlife populations halved on average since '70s," (27 October 2016).
"Extinction from global warming: changing interactions between species may be more dangerous than high temperatures alone," ScienceDaily (17 October 2012).
"Workshop on biological extinction," Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (27 February – 1 March 2017).
Abigail E. Cahill et al, "How does climate change cause extinction?," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (17 October 2012).
M. Lenzen et al, "International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations," Nature 486: 109–112 (7 June 2012).
"Hydropower dams worldwide cause continued species extinction," ScienceDaily (30 May 2016).
Anthony D. Barnosky et al, "Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere," Nature 486: 52–58 (7 June 2012).
"Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss could rival impacts of climate change, pollution," ScienceDaily (2 May 2012).
David U. Hooper et al, "A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change," Nature (2 May 2012).
Jae R. Pasari et al, "Several scales of biodiversity affect ecosystem multifunctionality," PNAS 110(25): 10219–10222 (18 June 2013).
"Large-scale biodiversity is vital to maintain ecosystem health," ScienceDaily (7 June 2013).
Lei Dai et al, "Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations," Nature 496: 355–358 (18 April 2013).
"Early warning signs of population collapse," ScienceDaily (10 April 2013).
Gregory M. Mikkelson et al, "Economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss," PLoS One (16 May 2007).
Reindeer photo courtesy of Alexandre Buisse.
Bruce C. Forbes, "Sea ice, rain-on-snow and tundra reindeer nomadism in Arctic Russia," Biology Letters (16 November 2016).
"80,000 reindeer have starved to death as Arctic sea ice retreats," New Scientist (16 November 2016).
"Elephants haunted by mass killings," Science 342: 677 (8 November 2013).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "After poaching deaths, elephants rearrange families," The New York Times (18 December 2015).
Reuben Perrin, "Are elephant populations stable these days?," Scientific American (9 April 2009).
Jason Burke, "Indian farmers fight elephant menace with chilli," The Guardian (17 September 2013).
George Wittemyer et al, "Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants," PNAS (18 August 2014).
Fiona Maisels et al, "Devastating decline of forest elephants in central Africa," PLoS One 8(3): e59469 (March 2013).
"Decimation of critically endangered forest elephant detailed," ScienceDaily (28 March 2013).
Blood Ivory Bryan Christy, "Ivory worship," National Geographic 28–61 (October 2012).
"Poaching: black ivory," The Economist (10 March 2012).
Jeffrey Gettleman, "Elephants dying in the epic frenzy as ivory fuels wars and profits," The New York Times (3 September 2012).
Priarie Dogs
Priarie dog photo courtesy of Brocken Inaglory.
Proposed Solutions
William Nordhaus, The Climate Casino, Yale University Press (2013).
Robert N. Stavins, "Experience with market-based environmental policy instruments," Resources for the Future (2001).
James P. Bruce et al, "Climate change 1995," Cambridge University Press (1996).
Laurie Goering, "Technical solutions alone can't fix climate change: scientists," Reuters (8 July 2015).
Michael Specter, "The climate fixers," The New Yorker (14 May 2012).
"Technological "solutions" to climate change," Scientific American (3 March 2009).
Damian Carrington, "CO2 turned into stone in Iceland in climate change breakthrough," The Guardian (9 June 2016).
Wendy Koch, "How technology can halt climate change," USA Today (30 December 2013).
Food Production
Norman Wirzba (editor), The Essential Agrarian Reader, The University Press of Kentucky (2013).
Gordon Conway, One Billion Hungry, Cornell University Press (2012).
Karl Weber (editor), Food, Inc., Public Affairs (2009).
James Owen, "Farming claims almost half Earth's land, new maps show," National Geographic News (9 December 2005).
Ben Phalan et al, "How can higher-yield farming help to spare nature?," Science 351(6272): 450–451 (29 January 2016).
Vaclav Smil, "Improving efficiency and reducing waste in our food system," Environmental Sciences 1(1): 17–26 (2003/2004).
Food Waste
Suzanne Goldenberg, "Half of all US food produce is thrown away, new research suggests," The Guardian (13 July 2016).
Tristram Stuart, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal, W.W. Norton & Company (2009).
Prachi Patel, "Waste not, want not," Scientific American (August 2016).
Fish Discards
"World fish trade to set new records," Food and Agriculture Organiza-tion of the United Nations (21 February 2014).
J. Matthew Roney, "World fish catch falls to 90 million tons in 2012," (19 November 2012).
H.A. Anticamara et al, "Global fishing effort (1950–2010): trends, gaps, and implications," Fisheries Research 107(1-3): 131–136 (Janu-ary 2011).
Reg A. Watson et al, "Global marine yield halved as fishing intensity redoubles," Fish and Fisheries 14(4): 493–503 (December 2013).
UNEP, The Environmental Food Crisis, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009).
"Call to end fishing 'discards'," ScienceDaily (3 November 2004).
Farmed Fish "Farmed fish to exceed wild fish in human consumption by 2018, FAO says," Reuters (9 July 2012).
Fen Montaigne, "Everybody loves Atlantic salmon; here's the catch," National Geographic (July 2003).
Modern tractor photo courtesy of Dgolnik.
The Green Revolution
Andrew Kimbrell (editor), The Fatal Harvest Reader, Island Press (2002).
Anne Barnard et al, "Starving Syrians in Madaya are denied aid amid political jockeying," The New York Times (10 January 2016).
"Global hunger worsening, warns UN," BBC News (14 October 2009).
Norman J. Church, "Why our food is so dependent on oil," PowerSwitch (1 April 2005).
Dale Allen Pfeiffer, Eating Fossil Fuels, New Society Publishers (2006).
Sheida Z. Sattari et al, "Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle," PNAS (17 April 2012).
Dana Cordell and Stuart White, "Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future," Annual Review of Environment and Resources 39: 161–188 (October 2014).
Peter Rosset et al, "Lessons from the Green Revolution: do we need new technology to end hunger?," Tikkun 15(2): 52–56 (March/April 2000).
K.J. Van Meter et al, "The nitrogen legacy: emerging evidence of nitrogen accumulation in anthropogenic landscapes," Environmental Research Letters (15 March 2016).
Michael Kugelman & Susan L. Levenstein, The Global Farms Race, Island Press (2013).
Mark Dowie, American Foundations: An Investigative History, MIT Press (2001).
Wenonah Hauter, Foodopoly, The New Press (2012).
Michell Mart, Pesticides, A Love Story, University Press of Kansas (2015).
Martin Lechenet et al, "Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms," Nature Plants (1 March 2017).
"Malaria and the war," The New York Times (2 October 1944).
Keith S. Delaplane, "Pesticide usage in the United States: history, benefits, risks, and trends," NC State University Cooperative Extension (March 1996).
Md. Wasim Aktar et al, "Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards," Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2(1): 1–12 (March 2009).
Oliver Milman, "Two widely used pesticides likely to harm 97% of endangered species in US," The Guardian (7 April 2016).
Peshin R. & A. Dhawan (editors), Integrated Pest Management, Springer Science + Business Media (2009).
"Hawaiian agriculture: paradise sprayed," The Economist (9 April 2016).
David Pimentel (editor), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Volumes 1-3, CRC Press (1991).
History of Pesticides
James Whorton, Before Silent Spring, Princeton University Press (1974).
Robert Lee Metcalf, The Mode of Action of Organic Insecticides, National Research Council (1948).
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin (1962).
J. Bird, "Will our grandchildren go hungry?," Saturday Evening Post (23 October 1954).
Edmund Russell, War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring, Cambridge University Press (2001).
"Organochlorine pesticides," Delaware Health and Social Services, (January 2015).
P.M. Hurley, "Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents," Environmental Health Perspectives 106(8): 437–445 (August 1998).
Richard Tren & Donald Roberts, The Excellent Powder: DDT's Political and Scientific History, Dog Ear Publishing (2010).
"DDT pesticide exposure linked to Alzheimer's disease, study shows," ScienceDaily (27 January 2014).
Michael Finkel, "Malaria," National Geographic (July 2007).
Neonicotinoids Richard J. Gill & Nigel E. Raine, "Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure," Functional Ecology (2014).
Steeve H. Thany, "Neonicotinoid insecticides: historical evolution and resistance mechanisms," Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 683: 75–83 (2010).
N. Simon-Delso et al, "Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites," Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 5–34 (January 2015).
Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond et al, "Worldwide integrated assessment on systemic pesticides," Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 1–4 January 2015.
J.-M. Bonmatin et al, "Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil," Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(1): 35–67 (January 2015).
Maj Rundlöf et al, "Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees," Nature 521: 77–80 (7 May 2015).
"Benefits of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean production," US Environmental Protection Agency (15 October 2014).
Daniel Cressey, "Bee studies stir up pesticide debate," Nature 520: 416 (23 April 2015).
Chensheng Lu et al, "Sub-lethal exposure to neonicotinoids impaired honey bees winterization before proceeding to colony collapse disor-der," Bulletin of Insectology 67(1): 125–130 (2014).
D. Nicodemo et al, "Fipronil and imidacloprid reduce honeybee mitochondrial activity," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (6 August 2014).
Guangming Zend, "Risks of neonicotinoid pesticides," Science 340: 1403 (21 June 2013). Kamila Derecka et al, "Transient exposure to low levels of insecticide affects metabolic networks of honeybee larvae," PLoS One 8(7): e68191 (July 2013).
Michael Wines, "Mystery malady kills more bees, heightening worry on farms," The New York Times (28 March 2013).
The Editorial Board, "Calamity for our most beneficent insect," The New York Times (6 April 2013).
Damian Carrington, "Pesticide makes bees forget the scent for food, new study finds," The Guardian (27 March 2013).
Sally M. Williamson & Geraldine A. Wright, "Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees," Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 1799–1807 (2013).
Damian Carrington, "Insecticide 'unacceptable' danger to bees, report finds," The Guardian (16 January 2013).
Juliet L. Osborne, "Bumblebees and pesticides," Nature 491: 43–44 (1 November 2012).
Richard J. Gill et al, "Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees," Nature 491: 105–109 (1 November 2012).
Rowan Jacobsen, Fruitless Fall, Bloomsbury USA (2008).
Erik Stokstad, "Pesticides under fire for risks to pollinators," Science 340: 674–675 (10 May 2013).
Daniel Cressey, "Reports spark row over bee-bothering insecticides," Nature (6 January 2013).
Damian Carrington, "Honeybees abandoning hives and dying due to insecticide use, research finds," The Guardian (9 May 2014).
Dara Stanley & Nigel Raine, "Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants," Functional Ecology (March 2016).
Suzanne Goldenberg, "US rejects EU claim of insecticide as prime reason for bee colony collapse," The Guardian (2 May 2013).
"Beekeepers and public interest groups sue EPA over bee-toxic pesticides," PAN North America (21 March 2013).
"Report on the national stakeholders conference on honey bee health," US Department of Agriculture (15 October 2012).
Beth Mole, "Decline in birds linked to common insecticide," Science News (11 July 2014).
David Jolly, "Presticides linked to honeybee deaths pose more risks, European group says," The New York Times (8 April 2015).
Caspar A. Hallmann et al, "Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations," Nature (9 July 2014).
Matt McGrath, "Banned pesticides may be having wider environmental impacts," BBC News (13 June 2013).
Pierre Mineau & Cynthia Palmer, "The impact of the nation's most widely used insecticides on birds," American Bird Conservancy (March 2013).
Anna-Maija Nyman et al, "The insecticide imidacloprid causes mortality of the freshwater amphipod gammarus pulex by interfering with feeding behavior," PLoS One 8(5): e62472 (May 2013).
Junko Kimura-Kuroda et al, "Nicotine-like effects of the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid on cerebellar neurons from neonatal rats," PLoS One 7(2): e32432 (February 2012).
American Academy of Pediatrics, "Aerial spraying to combat mosquitoes linked to increased risk of autism in children," ScienceDaily (30 April 2016).
Damian Carrington, "Insecticides put world food supplies at risk, say scientists," The Guardian (23 June 2014).
Elizabeth Y. Long & Christian H. Krupke, "Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees," Nature Communications (31 May 2016).
Guangming Zeng et al, "Risks of neonicotinoid pesticides," Science 340: 1403 (21 June 2013).
Deadly Adjuvants
Julia D. Fine et al, "An inert pesticide adjuvant synergizes viral pathogenicity and mortality in honey bee larvae," Scientific Reports (16 January 2017).
"Common crop chemical leaves bees susceptible to deadly viruses," ScienceDaily (16 January 2017).
Pollinator Downfall
John Schwartz, "Decline of pollinators poses threat to world food supply, report says," The New York Times (26 February 2016).
"Pollination – deliverable 3(a): thematic assessment of pollinators, pollination and food production," The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (February 2016).
Jennifer S. Holland, "The plight of the honeybee," National Geographic News (10 May 2013).
Kiheung Ahn et al, "Effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology," Psyche: A Journal of Entomology (2012).
"Bee decline threatens US crop production," ScienceDaily (19 February 2017).
Genetically Modified Organisms
David H. Freedman, "The truth about genetically modified food," Scientific American (1 September 2013).
B.M. Chassy, "The history and future of GMOs in food and agriculture," Cereal Foods World 52(4): 169–172 (July-August 2007).
Rachel Ehrenerg, "GMOs under scrutiny," Science News 189(3): 22–27 (6 February 2016).
Pu Han & Michael W. Deem, "Non-classical phase diagram for virus bacterial coevolution mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats," Interface (15 February 2017).
"Microbe, virus co-evolution: model of CRISPR, phage co-evolution explains confusing experimental results," ScienceDaily (21 February 2017).
Lecia Bushak, "A brief history of genetically modified organisms: from prehistoric breeding to modern biotechnology, Medical Daily (22 July 2015).
"History of genetically modified foods," University of Michigan: Global Change (2004).
Tina Kyndt et al, "The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: an example of a naturally transgenic food crop," PNAS 112(18): 5844–5849 (5 May 2015).
G. Bruening & J.M. Lyons, "The case of the FLAVR SAVR tomato," California Agriculture 54(4):6–7. (July–August 2000).
Carey Gillam,"US says unapproved genetically modified wheat found in Montana," Reuters (26 September 2014).
Gary Felsenfeld, "A brief history of epigenetics," Perspectives in Biology (January 2014).
Daniel Cressey, "A new breed," Nature 497: 27–28 (2 May 2013).
Nathanael Johnson, "Roundup-ready, aim, spray: how GM crops lead to herbicide addiction," Grist (14 October 2013).
Charles M. Benbrook, "Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US – the first sixteen years," Environmental Sciences Europe (2012).
Committee on the Impact of Biotechnology on Farm-Level Economics and Sustainability, Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States, National Academies Press (2010).
Yanhui Lu et al, "Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services," Nature 487: 362–365 (19 July 2012).
Nathanael Johnson, "Playing the field: corn likes to sleep around – and that makes it hard to control GMOs," Grist (19 November 2013).
Ricarda A. Steinbrecher & Jonathan R. Latham, "Horizontal gene transfer from GM crops to unrelated organisms," GM Science Review Meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (27 January 2003).
Jim M. Dunwell, "Transgenic cereals: Current status and future prospects," Journal of Cereal Science 59(3): 419–434 (May 2014).
Suzanne Goldenberg, "Renegade GM wheat confined to a single Oregon field says agriculture secretary," The Guardian (5 June 2013).
Tim Harvey-Samuel et al, "Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene," BMC Biology (16 July 2015).
Bruce E Tabashnik et al, "Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres," Nature Biotechnology (10 June 2013).
Natasha Gilbert, "A hard look at GM crops," Nature 497: 24–25 (2 May 2013).
Blair D. Siegfried & Richard L. Hellmich, "Understanding successful resistance management," GM Crops & Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain 3(2): 184–193 (2012).
Richard T. Roush, "Bt-transgenic crops: just another pretty insecticide or a chance for a new start in resistance management?," Pest Management Science (26 March 1999).
Alessandro Nicolia, Alberto Manzob, Fabio Veronesia & Daniele Rosellinia, "An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research," Critical Reviews in Biotechnology (16 September 2013).
Thomas Guillemaud et al, "Conflicts of interest in GM Bt crop efficacy and durability studies," PLoS One (15 December 2016).
Amy L. Dean, "The American Academy Of Environmental Medicine on AMA’s policy on GMO Foods," American Academy Of Environmental Medicine (12 July 2012).
David Warmflash, "Glyphosate used with GMO crops under attack for disrupting microbiome: science or a gut feeling?," Genetic Literacy Project (5 December 2014).
Anthony Samsel & Stephanie Seneff, "Glyphosate’s suppression of cytochrome P450 enzymes and amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome: pathways to modern diseases," Entropy 15(4): 1416–1463 (2013).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Genetic Roulette, Yes! Books (2007).
Alberto Finamore et al, "Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(23): 11533–11539 (2008).
Irina Ermakova, "Experimental evidence of GMO hazards," Presentation at Scientists for a GM Free Europe, EU Parliament, Brussels, (12 June 2007).
Andhra Pradesh, "Mortality in sheep flocks after grazing on Bt cotton fields Warangal district," GM Watch (April 2006).
Mae-Wan Ho, "GM ban long overdue, dozens ill & five deaths in the Philippines," ISIS Press Release (2 June, 2006).
Hye-Yung Yum et al, "Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison," Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 26(3): 210–216 (April 2005).
Trudy Netherwood et al, "Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract," Nature Biotechnology (18 January 2004).
M. Palka-Santini et al, "The gastrointestinal tract as the portal of entry for foreign macromolecules: fate of DNA and proteins," Molecular Genetics and Genomics 270(3): 201–215 (November 2003).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Seeds of Deception, Yes! Books (2003).
Arpad Pusztai, "Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM food?," Nutrition and Health 16: 73–84 (April 2002).
"Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified foods," FAO-WHO (22 January 2001).
R. Einspainier et al, "The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals: a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material," European Food Research and Technology 212(2): 129–134 (January 2001).
Stanley WB Ewen & Arpad Pusztai, "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine," The Lancet 354(9187): 1353–1354 (16 October 1999).
R.I. Vázquez et al, "Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant," Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 49: 578–584 (June 1999).
Rainer Schubbert et al, "Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA," PNAS 94(3): 961–966 (4 February 1997).
M. Green et al, "Public health implications of the microbial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis: an epidemiological study, Oregon," American Journal of Public Health 80(7): 848–852 (1990).
Joe Cummins, "Bt toxins in genetically modified crops: regulation by deceit," ISIS Report (23 March 2004).
Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops, Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects, The National Academies Press (2016).
Andrew Pollack, "Genetically engineered crops are safe, analysis finds," The New York Times (17 May 2016).
Nicholas S. Downing et al, "Postmarket safety events among novel therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 2001 and 2010," JAMA (9 May 2017).
"Insects resist genetic methods to control disease spread, study finds," ScienceDaily (19 May 2017).
Douglas W. Drury et al, "CRISPR/Cas9 gene drives in genetically variable and nonrandomly mating wild populations," Science Advances 3(5): e1601910 (19 May 2017).
Stephen O. Duke & Stephen B. Powles, "Glyphosate: a once-in-a-century herbicide," Pest Management Science 64: 319–325 (2008).
"Monsanto's glyphosate now most heavily used weed-killer in history," ScienceDaily (2 February 2016).
"Fog of uncertainty," The Economist (5 March 2016).
Rick A. Relyea, "New effects of Roundup on amphibians: predators reduce herbicide mortality; herbicides induce antipredator morphology," Ecological Applications 22(2): 634–647 (March 2012).
Charles M Benbrook, "Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the US – the first sixteen years," Environmental Sciences Europe (28 September 2012).
"Herbicide can induce morphological changes in vertebrate animals: tadpoles change shape," ScienceDaily (2 April 2012).
Todd Funke et al, "Molecular basis for the herbicide resistance of Roundup Ready crops," PNAS 103(35): 13010–13015 (29 August 2006).
G.R. Heck et al, "Development and characterization of a CP4 EPSPS-based, glyphosate-tolerant corn event," Crop Science (1): 329–339 (January 2005).
Danny Hakim, "Unsealed documents raise questions on Monsanto weed killer," The New York Times (14 March 2017).
The Aughts, "Monsanto's harvest of fear," VF News (2 April 2008).
Alex Planes, "Why Is Monsanto the most hated company in the world?," The Motley Fool (8 June 2013).
Drake Bennett, "Inside Monsanto, America's third-most-hated company," Bloomberg Business (3 July 2014).
"Bad romance," The Economist (6 February 2016).
Food Irradiation
"Food irradiation," Center for Consumer Research – U.C. Davis (29 June 2006).
József Farkasa & Csilla Mohácsi-Farkas, "History and future of food irradiation," Trends in Food Science & Technology 22(2–3): 121–126 (March 2011).
Jonathan Elliott Prejean, "Food irradiation: why aren't we using it?," dissertation, Harvard Law School (1 May 2001).
"Food irradiation: what you need to know," US FDA (November 2014).
Ron Eustice, "Food irradiation: questions and answers," (February 2014).
"What's wrong with food irradiation," Organic Consumers Association (November 2001).
Daniel Imhoff (editor), CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation), Earth Aware (2010).
Philip Lymbery, Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat, Bloomsbury Publishing (2014).
David Kirby, Animal Factory, St. Martin's Press (2010).
Gail A. Eisnitz, Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, And Inhumane Treatment Inside the US Meat Industry, Prometheus Books (2009).
Christopher Leonard, The Meat Racket: The Secret Takeover of America's Food Business, Simon & Schuster (2014).
Alex Morello, The Cruel Truth Behind Factory Farming: How Animal Rights Have Become A Thing Of The Past, Amazon Digital Services (2014).
Ted Genoways, The Chain: Farm, Factory, and the Fate of Our Food, Harper (2014).
Gidon Eshel et al, "Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States," PNAS (1 August 2014).
Carolynn L. Smith & Sarah L. Zielinski, "The startling intelligence of the common chicken," Scientific American (1 February 2014).
"Egg industry fact sheet," United Egg Producers (August 2015).
Elaine Watson, "US egg consumption highest it's been in 7 years," Food (27 October 2014).
"Poultry and eggs: industries that abuse chickens," Peta (2015).
Cathy Siegner, "Undercover investigation alleges abuse of chickens, workers at Tyson slaughter plant in Texas," Food Safety News (16 September 2015).
Michelle Perrett, "Tyson Foods responds to animal abuse claims," Global Meat News (10 July 2015).
Lori Marino & Christina M. Colvin, "Thinking pigs: a comparative review of cognition, emotion, and personality in Sus domesticus," International Journal of Comparative Psychology 28 (2015).
Ellie Zolfagharifard, "Move over Lassie: IQ tests reveal pigs can outsmart dogs and chimpanzees," Daily Mail (12 June 2015).
Barry Estabrook, Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat, W.W. Norton & Company (2015).
"'Tales' of pig intelligence, factory farming and humane bacon," NPR (5 May 2015).
Andy Wright, "Pigheaded: how smart are swine?," Modern Farmer (10 March 2014).
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