Spokes 4 : Research References    (Table of Contents)
Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary,, and a plethora of Internet sites (cross-referenced for veracity).

Human Biology
Kevin R. Foster et al, "The evolution of the host microbiome as an ecosystem on a leash," Nature 548:43–51 (03 August 2017).
Katharine Z. Coyte et al, "The ecology of the microbiome: networks, competition, and stability," Science 350(6261): 663-666 (6 November 2015).
Elizabeth K. Costello et al, "The application of ecological theory toward an understanding of the human microbiome," Science 336: 1255–1262 (8 June 2012).
Ron Sender et al, "Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body," bioRXiv (6 January 2016).
Gutam Naik, "Deep inside bacteria, a germ of human personality," The Wall Street Journal (8 September 2009).
"MicroRNAs manage gut microbes," Science News (20 February 2014).
Megan S. Thoemmes et al, "Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites," PLoS One (27 August 2014).
Andrew L. Kau et al, "Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system," Nature 474: 327–336 (16 June 2011).
Moises Velasquez-Manoff, "Microbes, a love story," The New York Times (10 February 2017).
David Berreby, "Studies explore love and the sweaty t-shirt," The New York Times (6 June 1998).
Yassin M. Ibrahim et al, "Maternal gut microbes control offspring sex and survival," Journal of Probiotics & Health (23 September 2014).
Suzanne Wolff & Andrew Dillin, "The stressful influence of microbes," Nature 508: 328–329 (17 April 2014).
Moheb Constandi, "Microbes on your mind," Scientific American Mind 23(3): 33-37 (July/August 2012).
Ying Liu et al, "Caenorhabditis elegans pathways that surveil and defend mitochondria," Nature 508: 406 (17 April 2014).
Samuel Minot et al, "Hypervariable loci in the human gut virome," PNAS 109(10): 3962–3966 PNAS (6 March 2012).
Elisabeth Kernbauer et al, "An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria," Nature (19 November 2014).
Infant Exposure
Lauran Neergaard, "Bacteria live even in healthy placentas, study finds," Medical Xpress (22 May 2014).
Jocelyn Kaiser, "Placenta harbors bacteria, may impact fetal health," Science (21 May 2014).
Giacomo Biasucci et al, "Cesarean delivery may affect the early biodiversity of intestinal bacteria," The Journal of Nutrition 138(9): 17965–18005 (September 2008).
"Study: C-section babies skip the bacterial slide," NPR (27 June 2010).
Susanna Y. Huh et al, "Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study," Disease in Childhood (23 May 2012).
Hedvig E Jakobsson et al, "Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section," Gut (7 August 2013).
Andreas R. Graven, "C-section infants don’t get enough good microbes," ScienceNordic (16 August 2013).
Derrick M. Chu et al, "Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery," Nature Medicine (23 January 2017).
Laura Sanders, "Birth may not be a major microbe delivery event for babies," Science News (15 February 2017).
*** Naama Geva-Zatorsky et al, "Mining the human gut microbiota for immunomodulatory organisms," Cell (16 February 2017).
"Scientists monitor crosstalk between intestinal microbes and immune system," ScienceDaily (16 February 2017).
Mitch Leslie, "Gut microbes keep rare immune cells in line," Science 335: 1428 (23 March 2012).
Javier A. Bravo et al, "Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve," PNAS 108(38): 16050–16055 (20 Sep-tember 2011).
Hans-Rudolf Berthoud & Winfried L. Neuhuber, "Functional and chemical anatomy of the afferent vagal system," Autonomic Neuroscience 85(1): 1–17 (20 December 2000).
Shruti Naik, "The skin’s secret surveillance system," Nature (26 July 2012).
Shruti Naik et al, "Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals," Science (26 July 2012).
Shruti Naik et al, "Commensal–dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature," Nature (5 January 2015).
S. Lindquist et al, "Investigating protein conformation-based inheritance and disease in yeast," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London; Series B, Biological Sciences 356(1406): 169–176 (February 2001).
C. Canchaya et al, "Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer," Current Opinion in Microbiology 6(4):417–424 (2003).
"Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104," World Health Organization (Novem-ber 2010).
Bodo Linz et al, "A mutation burst during the acute phase of Helicobac-ter pylori infection in humans and rhesus macaques," Nature Communications (13 June 2014).
John R. Rohde, "Listeria unwinds host DNA," Science 331(6022): 1271–1272 (11 March 2011).
Ciarán P. Kelly, "Fecal microbiota transplantation – an old therapy comes of age," The New England Journal of Medicine 368:474–475 (31 January 2013).
Thomas J. Borody & Alexander Khoruts, "Fecal microbiota transplan-tation and emerging applications," Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9: 88-96 (February 2012).
Denise Grady, "When pills fail, this, er, option provides a cure," The New York Times (16 January 2013).
Johan S. Bakken et al, "Treating Costridium difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation," Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 9(12): 1044–1049 (December 2011).
Anil Ananthaswamy, "Faecal transplant eases symptoms of Parkinson's," New Scientist (19 January 2011).
"Triclosan: what consumers should know," US Food and Drug Administration (April 2010).
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Fact sheet on triclosan," National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (28 February 2011).
Andrew Martin, "Antibacterial chemical raises safety issues," The New York Times (19 August 2011).
Adnan K. Syed et al, "Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization," mBio 5(2): e01015-13 (8 April 2014).
Mei-Fei Yueh et al, "The commonly used antimicrobial additive triclosan is a liver tumor promoter," PNAS (18 November 2014).
Lyndsey Layton, "FDA says studies on triclosan, used in sanitizers and soaps, raise concerns," The Washington Post (8 April 2010).
Janet Raloff, "A new source of dioxins: clean hands," Science News (18 May 2010).
J. Lindén et al, "Dioxins, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the central regulation of energy balance. A review," Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 31 (4): 452–478 (2010)., a web page from the Chlorine Chemistry Division of the American Chemistry Council: (3 June 2010).
Joseph D. Wisk & Keith R. Cooper, "Comparison of the toxicity of several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in embryos of the Japanese medaka (Oryzi-as latipes)," Chemosphere 20(3–4): 361–377 (1990).
"Chemical in antibacterial soap fed to nursing rats harms offspring, study finds," ScienceDaily (17 June 2013).
Beth Mole, "Triclosan may spoil wastewater treatment," Science News (26 July 2014).
Beth Mole, "Crops take up drugs from recycled water," Science News (19 September 2014).
Gennady Cherednichenko et al, "Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle," PNAS 109(35): 14158–14163 (28 August 2012).
Erin M. Rees Clayton et al, "The impact of Bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the US population, NHANES 2003-2006," Environmental Health Perspectives (2010).
Gennady Cherednichenko et al, "Triclosan impairs excitation–contraction coupling and Ca2+ dynamics in striated muscle," PNAS 109(35): 14158–14163 (28 August 2012).
"FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps," FDA (2 September 2016).
Beth Mole, "FDA bans antibacterial soaps; “No scientific evidence” they’re safe, effective," Ars Technica (2 September 2016).
Alan Yuhas, "Antibacterial soaps banned in US amid claims they do 'more harm than good'," The Guardian (2 September 2016).
Cassie Martin, "Bones tell other organs a thing or two," Science News (8 & 22 July 2017).
Tim Stephens, "Reign of the giant insects ended with the evolution of birds," University of California – Santa Cruz (4 June 2012).
Microbes In The Mix
B. Brett Finlay, "The art of bacterial warfare," Scientific American (10 January 2010).
Arya Khosravi et al, "Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection," Cell Host & Microbe 15(3): 374–381, (12 March 2014).
Lora V. Hooper et al, "Interactions between the microbiota and the immune system," Science 336(6086): 1268–1273 (8 June 2012).
"Brothers in arms: commensal bacteria help fight viruses," ScienceDaily (18 June 2012).
Vanessa Sperandio, "Virulence or competition?," Science 336(6086): 1238–1239 (8 June 2012).
Nobuhiko Kamada et al, "Regulated virulence controls the ability of a pathogen to compete with the gut microbiota," Science 336(6086): 1325–1329 (8 June 2012).
Andrew Sczesnak et al, "The genome of Th17 cell-inducing segmented filamentous bacteria reveals extensive auxotrophy and adaptations to the intestinal environment," Cell Host & Microbe 10(3): 260–272 (15 September 2011).
The Immune System
Jon Cohen, "Surprising treatment ‘cures’ monkey HIV infection," Science 354(6309): 157–158 (14 October 2016).
Tina H. Saey, "Bacteria in bondage," Science News (6 December 2011).
Manuela Villion & Sylvain Moineau, "Virology: phages hijack a host's defence," Nature 494: 433–434 (28 February 2013).
Joseph C. Sun & Lewis L. Lanier, "Natural killer cells remember: An evolutionary bridge between innate and adaptive immunity?," European Journal of Immunology 39(8): 2059–2064 (August 2009).
Richard Robinson, "Inflammation triggers RNA transfer from blood cells to brain neurons," PLoS Biology (3 June 2014).
Kirsten Ridder et al, "Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in re-sponse to inflammation," PLoS Biology (3 June 2014).
Innate Immunity
A. Marijke Keestra et al, "Manipulation of small Rho GTPases is a pathogen-induced process detected by NOD1," Nature (31 March 2013).
Selena M. Sagan & Peter Sarnow, "RNAi, antiviral after all," Science 342(6155): 207–208 (11 October 2013).
Yang Li et al, "RNA interference functions as an antiviral immunity mechanism in mammals," Science 342(6155): 231–234 (11 October 2013).
P.V. Maillard et al, "Antiviral RNA interference in mammalian cells," Science 342(6155): 235–238 (11 October 2013).
Acquired Immunity
Edze R. Westra et al, "CRISPR–Cas systems: beyond adaptive immunity," Nature Reviews Microbiology (7 April 2014).
T.D. Gilmore, "Introduction to NF-?B: players, pathways, perspectives," Oncogene 25: 6680–6684 (2006).
Natural Killer Cells
Geoffrey O. Gillard et al, "Thy1 Nk cells from vaccinia virus-primed mice confer protection against vaccinia virus challenge in the absence of adaptive lymphocytes," PLoS Pathogens (4 August 2011).
Stephanie K. Lathrop et al, "Peripheral education of the immune system by colonic commensal microbiota," Nature 478: 250–254 (13 October 2011).
Adaptive Lymphocytes
Mark Schlissel, "Immunology: B-cell development in the gut," Nature 501: 42-43 (5 September 2013).
Duane R. Wesmann et al, "Microbial colonization influences early B-lineage development in the gut lamina propria," Nature 501: 112-115 (5 September 2013).
Hirotake Tsukamoto et al, "Age-associated increase in lifespan of naïve CD4 T cells contributes to T-cell homeostasis but facilitates development of functional defects," 106(43): 18333–18338 PNAS (27 October 2009).
Daved F. Tough & Jonathan Sprent, "Lifespan of ?/d cells," Journal of Experimental Medicine 187(3): 357–365 (2 February 1998).
D.F. Tough & J. Sprent, "Life span of naive and memory T cells," Stem Cells 13(3):242–249 (May 1995).
T Cells
Delphine Goubau et al, "Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5'-diphosphates," Nature (10 August 2014).
Ivan Marazzi et al, "Suppression of the antiviral response by an influenza histone mimic," Nature 483: 428–433 (22 March 2012).
Richard Berry et al, "The structure of the cytomegalovirus-encoded m04 glycoprotein, a prototypical member of the m02 family of immuno-evasins," The Journal of Biological Chemistry (30 June 2014).
U. Kutschera, "Potato blight: fungus did not cause potato famine," Nature 494: 314 (21 February 2013).
James P. Scott-Browne et al, "Evolutionarily conserved features contribute to aß T cell receptor specificity," Immunity (2011).
B Cells
Katelyn M. Spillane & Pavel Tolar, "B cell antigen extraction is regulated by physical properties of antigen-presenting cells," The Journal of Cell Biology (6 December 2016).
"B cells use mechanical forces to pull antigens from other cell surfaces," (12 January 2017).
Maria Vono et al, "The adjuvant MF59 induces ATP release from muscle that potentiates response to vaccination," PNAS 110(52): 21095–21100 (24 December 2013).
"Vaccine side effects/risks," National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (8 March 2012).
Markus Heinze, "How pharmaceutical companies hide the dangers of vaccines from parents," (26 September 2013).
B.J. Rolls & E.T. Rolls, Thirst, Cambridge University Press (1982).
Daniel McNeill, The Face, Little Brown & Company (1998).
Janine Willis & Alexander Todorov, "First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face," Psychological Science 17(7): 592–598 (July 2006).
Nikolaas N. Oosterhof & Alexander Todorov, "The functional basis of face evaluation," PNAS 105(32): 11087–11092 (12 August 2008).
"Facing the truth," The Economist (21 August 2008).
Roger Highfield et al, "How your looks betray your personality," New Scientist (11 February 2009).
Justin M. Carré & Cheryl M. McCormick, "In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275(1651): 2651–2656 (November 2008).
Alan Booth & James M. Dabbs Jr., "Testosterone and men's marriages," Social Forces 72(2): 463–477 (1993).
Mark Synder et al, "Social perception and interpersonal behavior: on the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35(9): 656–666 (September 1977).
Leslie A. Zebrowitz & Joann M. Montepare, "Social psychological face perception: why appearance matters," Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2(3): 1497–1517 (May 2008).

Intelligence Physiology
Carl D. Perl & Jeremy E. Niven, "Differential scaling within an insect compound eye," Biology Letters (22 February 2016).
"Scientists discover parts of organs 'have minds of their own' when it comes to growth," (16 March 2016).
The Senses
John M. Henshaw, A Tour of the Senses, The John Hopkins University Press (2012).
Lawrence D. Rosenblum, See What I'm Saying, W.W. Norton (2010).
A. Manning & M.S. Dawkins, "Diverse sensory capacities," in An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Sam Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown and Company (2010).
D.F. Swaab, We Are Our Brains, Spiegel & Grau (2014).
Ariel Bleicher, "Edges of perception," Scientific American Mind 23(1): 46-53 (March/April 2012).
T. M. Luhrmann, "Can’t place that smell? you must be American," The New York Times (5 September 2014).
"Scientists discover an organizing principle for our sense of smell based on pleasantness," ScienceDaily (26 September 2011).
Hadas Lapid et al, "Neural activity at the human olfactory epithelium reflects olfactory perception," Nature Neuroscience (25 September 2011).
"Smokers and passive smokers more likely to suffer hearing loss, study shows," University of Manchester (29 May 2014).
R. Payne, "Acoustic location of prey by barn owls (Tyto alba)," Journal of Experimental Biology 54: 535–573 (1971).
S. Dijkgraaf, "The functioning and significance of the lateral-line organs," Biological Reviews 38: 51–105 (1962).
B.L. Partridge and T.J. Pitcher, "The sensory basis of fish schools: relative roles of lateral line and vision," Journal of Comparative Physiology 135: 315–325 (1980).
L. Markl, "Adaptive radiation of mechanoreception," in Sensory Ecology, edited by M.A. Ali, 49–69, Plenum (1977).
J. Hurst, "The complex network of olfactory communication in populations of wild house mice Mus domesticus Rutty: markings and investigation within family groups," Animal Behaviour 37: 705–725 (1989).
Michael McCulloch et al, "Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection in early- and late-stage lung and breast cancers," Integrative Cancer Therapies 5–1: 30–39 (March 2006).
Marije K. Bomers et al, "Using a dog’s superior olfactory sensitivity to identify Clostridium difficile in stools and patients: proof of principle study," British Medical Journal (BMJ) (13 December 2012).
C. Wedekind et al, "MHC-dependent mate preferences in humans," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 260: 245–259 (1995).
"People choose to marry individuals with genetic similarities," Nature World News (20 May 2014).
"People more likely to choose a spouse with similar DNA, finds CU-Boulder study," University of Colorado, Boulder (19 May 2014).
Rich Morin, "New academic study links rising income inequality to ‘assortative mating’," Pew Research Center (29 January 2014).
Annie Murphy Paul, "The real marriage penalty," The New York Times (19 November 2006).
Bjorn Carey, "The rules of attraction in the game of love," LiveScience (13 February 2006).
H. Scheih et al, "Electroreception and electrolocation in platypus," Nature 319: 401 – 402 (30 January 1986).
C.D. Hopkins & A.H. Bass, "Temporal coding of species recognition signals in an electric fish," Science 212(4490): 85–87 (3 April 1981).
W.M. Masters & A.J.M. Moffat, "Transmission of vibration in a spider’s web," in Spiders, edited by W.A. Shear, Stanford University Press (1986).
W.M. Masters & H. Markl, "Vibration signal transmission in spider orb web," Science 213: 363–365 (17 July 1981).
Smell & Taste
"Brain perceives taste with all senses, scientific evidence reveals," ScienceDaily (31 August 2016).
Roberto Vincis & Alfredo Fontanini, "Associative learning changes cross-modal representations in the gustatory cortex," eLife (30 August 2016).
Gordon M. Shephard, Neurogastronomy, Columbia University Press (2012).
C. Bushdid et al, "Humans can discriminate more than 1 trillion olfactory stimuli," Science 343(6177): 1370–1372 (21 March 2014).
David Hänig, "Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes," Philosophische Studien 17: 576–623 (1901).
Hojoon Lee et al, "Rewiring the taste system," Nature (9 August 2017).
Cordella A. Running et al, "Oleogustus: the unique taste of fat," Chemical Senses 40(7): 507–516 (2015).
Amy Patterson, "Research confirms fat is sixth taste; names it oleogustus," Purdue University News (23 July 2015).
Trina J. Lapis et al, "Humans can taste glucose oligomers independent of the hT1R2/hT1R3 sweet taste receptor," Chemical Senses (23 Au-gust 2016).
Jessica Hamzelou, " There is now a sixth taste – and it explains why we love carbs," New Scientist (2 September 2016).
Clare E. Turner et al, "Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception," Appetite 70: 212–219 (1 September 2014).
Ian Randall, "Tongue has a sixth sense," Science (5 June 2014).
Kenzo Kurihara & Lloyd M. Beidler, "Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit," Science 161 (3847): 1241–1243 (20 September 1968).
Maude W. Baldwin et al, "Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor," Science 345(6199): 929–933 (22 August 2014).
Liane Schmidt et al, "How context alters value: the brain’s valuation and affective regulation system link price cues to experienced taste pleasantnes," Scientific Reports 7: 8098 (14 August 2017).
"Why expensive wine appears to taste better: it's the price tag," ScienceDaily (14 August 2017).
Janelle Weaver, "Bacteria sniff out their food," Nature (16 August 2000).
Paul Szyszka, "Follow the odor," Science 344(6191): 1454 (27 June 2014).
Jeffrey A. Riffell et al, " Flower discrimination by pollinators in a dynamic chemical environment," Science 344(6191): 1515–1518 (27 June 2014).
Kenneth C. Catania, "Stereo and serial sniffing guide navigation to an odour source in a mammal," Nature Communications (5 February 2013).
Mona Khan et al, "Regulation of the probability of mouse odorant receptor gene choice," Cell 147 (4): 907 (2011).
Ana V. Oliveira-Pinto et al, "Sexual dimorphism in the human olfactory bulb: females have more neurons and glial cells than males," PLoS One (5 November 2014).
Joanna Klein, "Humans have a poor sense of smell? It’s just a myth," The New York Times (11 May 2017).
Vibration vs. Shape
"Nose smells by radiation," Science News Letter 339 (29 November 1947).
Luca Turin, "A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception," Chemical Senses (Oxford Journals) 21 (6): 773–791 (1996).
Y. Oka et al, "Olfactory receptor antagonism between odorants," The Embo Journal 23–1: 120–126 (2004).
Simon Gane et al, "Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction," PLoS One (25 January 2013).
Eric Block et al, "Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction," PNAS (21 April 2015).
John Hewitt, "Plausibility of the vibrational theory of smell," (20 April 2015).
Pheromones Amelia C. Whitcomb et al, "Influence of immune-relevant genes on mate choice and reproductive success in wild-spawning hatchery-reared and wild-born coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (5 March 2014).
Simon Thorpe et al, "Speed of processing in the human visual system," Nature 381: 520–522 (6 June 1996).
The Human Eye
Michel Millodot, "Do blue-eyed people have more sensitive corneas than brown-eyed people?," Nature 255: 151–152 (8 May 1975).
Davide Castelvecchi, "Quantum technology probes ultimate limits of vision," Nature (15 June 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Color vision strategy defies textbooks," Science News (15 October 2016).
Ruanak Sinha et al, "Cellular and circuit mechanisms shaping the perceptual properties of the primate fovea," Cell (168(3): 413-426 (26 January 2017).
"A close look at sharp vision in eye structure seen only in humans and other primates," ScienceDaily (22 February 2017).
Vision Processing
"Scientists probe connection between sight and touch in the brain," ScienceDaily (8 September 2011).
Susana Martinez-Conde & Stephen L. Macknik, "Shifting focus," Scientific American Mind 22(5): 45-55 (November/December 2011).
Roslyn Dakin et al, "Visual guidance of forward flight in hummingbirds reveals control based on image features instead of pattern velocity," PNAS (14 June 2016).
"Hummingbird vision wired to avoid high-speed collisions," ScienceDaily (18 July 2016).
Brian J. Ward et al, "Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation," Biology Letters (22 February 2012).
"Hummingbirds' huge memory lets them remember the location of every flower in their territory," Daily Mail (22 February 2012).
Eye Signals
"Whites of their eyes: infants respond to social cues from sclera, study finds," ScienceDaily (27 October 2014).
Michael Tomasello, "For human eyes only," The New York Times (13 January 2007).
Sarah Jessena & Tobias Grossmann, "Unconscious discrimination of social cues from eye whites in infants," PNAS (27 October 2014).
Thomas Euler et al, "Retinal bipolar cells: elementary building blocks of vision," Nature Reviews Neuroscience (18 July 2014).
Circadian Rhythm
Ofer Fridman et al, "Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations," Nature (25 June 2014).
Frank A. J. L. Scheer et al, "The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors," PLoS One 6 (9): e24549 (2011).
Lauren Walmsley et al, "Colour as a signal for entraining the mammalian circadian clock," PLoS Biology (17 April 2015).
L. DiTacchio et al, "Histone lysine demethylase JARID1a activates CLOCK-BMAL1 and influences the circadian clock," Science 333 (6051): 1881(30 September 2011).
Miho Sato et al, "The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment," Cell Reports (15 June 2014).
Tina H. Saey, "Eggs have own biological clock," Science News (6 December 2011).
Rajesh Narasimamurthy et al, "Circadian clock protein cryptochrome regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines," PNAS 109(31): 12662–12667 (31 July 2012).
Jun Z. Li et al, "Circadian patterns of gene expression in the human brain and disruption in major depressive disorder," PNAS 110(24): 9950–9955 (11 June 2013).
George Thommen, Biorhythms: Is This Your Day?, Crown Publishing Group (1987).
the Skeptic's Dictionary [] (undated).
Terence M. Hines, "Comprehensive review of biorhythm theory," Psychological Reports 83: 19–64 (August 1998).
Nora D. Volkow et al, "Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism," Journal of the American Medical Association 305 (8): 808-813 (2011).
"Cell phone emissions excite the brain cortex," Annals of Neurology (26 June 2006).
Evolution of Sight
Nathan C. Rockwell et al, "Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum," PNAS (24 February 2014).
Michael Le Page, "This single-celled bug has the world's most extraor-dinary eye," New Scientist (16 June 2015).
Mona Hoppenrath et al, "Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae) as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences," BMC Evolutionary Biology (25 May 2009).
Thomas W. Cronin et al, Vision Ecology, Princeton University Press (2014).
Anders Garm & Dan-Eric Nilsson, "Visual navigation in starfish: first evidence for the use of vision and eyes in starfish," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 February 2014).
Edward Gaten, "Optics and phylogeny: is there an insight? The evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda (Crustacea)," Contributions to Zoology 67(4): 223–236 (1998).
Dan-Eric Nilsson, "Optics and evolution of the compound eye," Facets of Vision 30–73 (1989).
John R. Paterson et al, "Acute vision in the giant Cambrian predator Anomalocaris and the origin of compound eyes," Nature 480: 237–240 (08 December 2011).
Peter T. Weir & Michael H. Dickinson, "Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization," Current Biology 22 (1): 21 (January 2012).
"Flowers' polarization patterns help bees find food," University of Bristol (5 June 2014).
"Bats use polarized light to navigate," (22 July 2014).
Ed Yong, "Seeing the light," National Geographic (February 2016).
Tripedalia cystophora photo courtesy of: Jan Bielecki , Alexander K. Zaharoff, Nicole Y. Leung, Anders Garm & Todd H. Oakley.
Jan Bielecki et al, "Ocular and extraocular expression of opsins in the rhopalium of Tripedalia cystophora (Cnidaria: Cubozoa)," PLoS One (5 June 2014).
"Seeing the invisible," Science 299: 504 (24 January 2003).
C.A. Arrese et al, "Cone topography and spectral sensitivity in two potentially trichromatic marsupials, the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) and quenda (Isoodon obesulus)," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 272: 791–796 (2005).
"High definition polarization vision discovered in cuttlefish," ScienceDaily (20 February 2012).
Alexander L. Stubbs & Christopher W. Stubbs, "Spectral discrimination in color blind animals via chromatic aberration and pupil shape," PNAS (5 July 2016).
Thomas W. Cronin et al, "Sensory adaptation: tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp," Nature 411: 547–548 (31 May 2001).
J. K. Bowmaker, "A shrimp's kaleidoscopic world," Nature 339: 99–100 (11 May 1989).
Justin Marshall & Johannes Oberwinkler, "Ultraviolet vision: the colourful world of the mantis shrimp," Nature 401: 873–874 (28 October 1999).
C.H. Mazel et al, "Fluorescent enhancement of signaling in a mantis shrimp," Science 51 (2 January 2004).
Simple Eyes
Dan-E. Nilsson, "Vision optics and evolution," BioScience 39(5): 298–307 (May 1989).
Charles P. Taylor, "Contribution of compound eyes and ocelli to steering of locusts in flight," Journal of Experimental Biology 93: 1–8 (1981).
Y.S. Hung et al, "Spectral inputs and ocellar contributions to a pitch-sensitive descending neuron in the honeybee," Journal of Neurophysiology (28 November 2012).
Spider Eyes
Kari Benson & Robert B. Suter, "Reflections on the tapetum lucidum and eyeshine in lycosoid spiders," Journal of Arachnology 41(1): 43–52 (April 2013).
Elsa Youngsteadt, " Spiders hunt with 3-D vision," Wired (26 January 2012).
Monkey Vision
Amanda Melin, "Hindsight wasn't 20/20 nor as colorful: the evolution of primate vision," AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting (19 February 2017).
Laruel Hamers, "Howler monkeys may owe their color vision to leaf hue," Science News (21 February 2017).
Annemarie Surkykke et al (editors), Biosonar Springer (2016).
Narwhal drawing courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman.
Joanna Klein, "Narwhals, tusked whales of the Arctic, see with sound. Really well.," The New York Times (9 November 2016).
"Narwhals: their tusks act like sensors, not hunting spears," Nature World News (2 November 2015).
Jens C. Koblitz et al, "Highly directional sonar beam of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) measured with a vertical 16 hydrophone array," PLoS One (9 November 2016).
Daniel Kish
Lore Thaler et al, "Neural correlates of natural human echolocation in early and late blind echolocation experts," PLoS One (25 May 2011).
Harbor seal photo courtesy of Andreas Trepte.
Benedikt Niesterok et al, "Hydrodynamic detection and localization of artificial flatfish breathing currents by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)," Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 174-185 (January 2017).
Snarling dog lithographic image by Thomas W. Wood; taken from Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
Kurtis G. Gruters et al, "The eardrum moves when the eyes move: a multisensory effect on the mechanics of hearing," bioRxiv (29 June 2017).
Aylin Woodward, "Your eardrums move in sync with your eyes but we don’t know why," New Scientist (26 July 2017).
Language Sounds
Gavin M. Bidelman et al, "Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music," PLoS One (2 April 2013).
Diana Deutsch et al, "Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period," The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119(2) (2006).
Stephen C. Hedger et al, "Absolute pitch may not be so absolute," Psychological Science (11 June 2013).
Piero & Alberto Angela, The Extraordinary Story of Human Origins, 144, Prometheus Books (1993).
Derek Cabrera & Laura Colosi, "The world at our fingertips," Scientific American Mind 21(4): 36-41 (September/October 2010).
A. Montagu, Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, Harper and Row (1971).
Nadine L. Wicks et al, "UVA phototransduction drives early melanin synthesis in human melanocytes," Current Biology (2011).
P. Meredith & J. Riesz, "Radiative relaxation quantum yields for synthetic eumelanin," Photochemistry and Photobiology 79 (2): 211–6 (February 2004).
Linda Geddes, "A user's guide to touch," New Scientist (27 February 2015).
David J. Linden, Touch: The Science of Hand, Heart, and Mind, Penguin Group (2015).
"Fingertips to hair follicles: why 'touch' triggers pleasure and pain," NPR (3 February 2015).
Stephen S. Arnon et al, "Honey and other environmental risk factors for infant botulism," The Journal of Pediatrics 94 (2): 331–336 (February 1979).
"Botulinum toxin type A product approval information - licensing action 4/12/02," US Food and Drug Administration (2002).
"More than $16 billion spent on cosmetic plastic surgery in 2016," ScienceDaily (12 April 2017).
"Plastic surgery on the rise – with Botox and breast implants most popular," The Guardian (31 January 2013).
"Botox popularity continues," Aesthetic Medicine News (2010).
"Cosmetic procedures and products: a US and European market report" TransWorldNews (2 August 2011).
Skin & Brain
"How we come to know our bodies as our own," ScienceDaily (17 June 2011).
Deane Juhan, Job’s Body, Barrytown (1998).
Valeria I. Petkova et al, "From part- to whole-body ownership in the multisensory brain," Current Biology 21(13): 1118–1122 (12 July 2011).
Linda Geddes, "Why your brain needs touch to make you human," New Scientist (25 February 2015).
"Women tend to have better sense of touch due to smaller finger size," ScienceDaily (15 December 2009).
Davide Filingeri et al, "Why wet feels wet? A neurophysiological model of human cutaneous wetness sensitivity," Journal of Neurophysiology 112(6): 1457–1469 (15 September 2014).
Jon Driver & Charles Spence, "Multisensory perception: Beyond modularity and convergence," Current Biology 10(20): R731–R735 (14 October 2000).
Touch (continued) "Detecting bugs: why humans have body hair," The Week (16 December 2011).
"Touching a nerve: how every hair in skin feels touch and how it all gets to the brain," ScienceDaily (11 January 2012).
Antje Gentsch et al, "Active interpersonal touch gives rise to the social softness illusion," Current Biology (10 September 2015).
Lydia Denworth, "The social power of touch," Scientific American Mind 30–39 (July/August 2015).
I. Morrison et al, "Vicarious responses to social touch in posterior insular cortex are tuned to pleasant caressing speeds," Journal of Neuroscience 31 (26): 9554 (2011).
"Smells like Beethoven," The Economist (4 February 2012).
Research History
Francis Galton, "Visualised numerals," Nature 21, 494–495 (25 March 1880).
Julia Simner et al, "Synaesthesia: the prevalence of atypical cross-modal experiences," Perception 35 (8): 1024–1033 (2006).
Research History
The Nervous System
Sandy Fritz, Mosby's Fundamentals of Therapeutic Massage, Elsevier (2013).
Neuron image courtesy of Quasar Jarosz.
Timothy O’Leary et al, "Cell types, network homeostasis, and pathological compensation from a biologically plausible ion channel expression model," Neuron 82(4): 809–821 (21 May 2014).
Chongyuan Luo et al, "Single-cell methylomes identify neuronal subtypes and regulatory elements in mammalian cortex," Science 357(6351): 600-604 (11 August 2017).
The Energy System
Itzhak Bentov, Stalking the Wild Pendulum: On the Mechanics of Consciousness, Destiny Books (1988).
Richard M. Ransohoff & Beth Stevens, "How many cell types does it take to wire a brain?," Science 1391-1392 (9 September 2011) S. Saphire-Bernstein, "Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources," PNAS 108 (37): 15118 (2011).
A. Manning & M.S. Dawkins, "Sign stimuli (key features)," in An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
L.M. Roth, "An experimental laboratory study of the sexual behavior of Aëdes aegypti," American Midland Naturalist 40: 265–352 (1950).
H.C. Gerhardt, "The significance of some spectral features in mating call recognition in the green treefrog Hyla cinerea," Journal of Experimental Biology 61: 229–241 (1974).
P.M. Narins & R.R. Capranica, "Sexual differences in the auditory system of the tree frog, Eleuthrodactylus coqui," Science 192: 378-380 (1976).
Richard C. Francis, Epigenetics, W.W. Norton & Company (2011).
Carl Zimmer, "Bacterial ecosystems divide people into 3 groups, scientists say," The New York Times (20 April 2011).
Ulrich Steinhoff, "Who controls the crowd? New findings and old questions about the intestinal microflora," Immunology Letters 99 (1): 12–16 (15 June 2005).
M. Arumugam et al, "Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome," Nature 473: 174–180 (12 May 2011).
"You are what you eat," Science 334: 12 (7 October 2011).
Uri Gophna, "The guts of dietary habits," Science 334: 45-46 (7 October 2011).
Fredrik Bäckhed et al, "The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage," PNAS (25 October 2004).
Ruth E. Ley et al, "Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity," Nature 444: 1022–1023 (21 December 2006).
Peter J. Turnbaugh et al, "An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest," Nature 444: 1027–1031 (21 December 2006).
F.M. Guarner, "Role of bacteria in experimental colitis," Best Practice Research – Clinical Gastroenterology 17 (5): 793–804 (October 2003).
B. Bower, "Water’s edge ancestors," ScienceNews, 180–4: 22 (13 August 2011).
Ann Gibbons, "Food for thought," Science 316 (5831): 1558–1560 (15 June 2007).
Redcliffe Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press (1949).
Michael Pollan, The Botany of Desire, Random House (2001).
John Reader, Potato, Yale University Press (2008).
"Does chocolate ward off heart disease?," The Week (8 September 2011).
Robert H. Lustig et al, "Public health: the toxic truth about sugar," Nature 482: 27–29 (2 February 2012).
Robert H. Lustig, "Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110(9): 1307–1321 (September 2010).
E.A. Finkelstein et al, Health Affairs, W3 (supplement): 219–226 (2003).
Dariush Mozaffarian et al, "Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men," The New England Journal of Medicine 364: 2392–2404 (23 June 2011).
"Obesity: a wide spread problem," The Economist (27 August 2011).
Congcong He et al, "Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis," Nature (18 January 2012).
Anodea Judith, Wheels of Life, Llewellyn Publications (1987).
Angela Hicks, The Acupuncture Handbook, Piakus (2005).
Kajsa Landgren & Inger Hallström, "Effect of minimal acupuncture for infantile colic: a multicentre, three-armed, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (ACU-COL)," Acupuncture in Medicine (16 January 2017).
Jeneen Interlandi, "Research casts doubt on the value of acupuncture," Scientific American (August 2016).
A. White & E. Ernst, "A brief history of acupuncture," Rheumatology 43: 662–663 (2004).
The Feeling of Being Watched Sahih Muslim, Book 26, Number 5427.
Animal Tales
Brian J. Ford, The Secret Language of Life, Fromm International (1999).
Rupert Sheldrake, Dogs That Know When Their Owners Are Coming Home, Three Rivers Press (2011).
Rupert Sheldrake & Aimée Morgana, "Testing a language-using parrot for telepathy," Journal of Scientific Exploration 17: 601–615 (2003).
The Intelligence System
J. Gläscher et al, "Distributed neural system for general intelligence revealed by lesion mapping," PNAS 107(10): 4705–4709 (9 March 2010).
The Brain
Suzana Herculano-Houzel, "The remarkable (but not extraordinary) human brain," Scientific American Mind (March/April 2017).
"Brain system behind general intelligence discovered," ScienceDaily (23 February 2010).
Rita Carter et al, The Human Brain Book, DK Books (2009).
Sandra Aamodt & Sam Wang, Welcome To Your Brain, Bloomsbury (2008).
Micheal S. Sweeney, Brain: The Complete Mind, National Geographic (2008).
Ken Ashwell, The Brain Book, Firefly Books (2012).
Jill Bolte Taylor, My Stroke of Insight Penguin Books (2009).
Norman Dodge, The Brain That Changes Itself, James H. Silberman Books (2007).
Halpern et al, "Lateralization of the vertebrate brain: taking the side of model systems," The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(45): 10351–10357 (2005).
"Brain fills gaps to produce a likely picture," ScienceDaily (27 June 2014)
Karl H. Pribram, Brain and Perception: Holonomy and Structure in Figural Processing, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1991).
Karl H. Pribram et al, "The holographic hypothesis of memory structure in brain function and perception," Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, Vol. II, W.H. Freeman & Company (1974).
Karl Pribram, "The neurophysiology of remembering," Scientific American (January 1969).
Michael Talbot, The Holographic Universe, Harper Collins (1991).
J. Matias Palva et al, "Neuronal synchrony reveals working memory networks and predicts individual memory capacity," PNAS 107(16): 7580–7585 (20 April 2010).
K.S. Lashley et al, "An examination of the electrical field theory of cerebral integration," Psychology Review 58: 123–136 (1961).
K.S. Lashley, "In search of the engram," Physiological Mechanisms in Animal Behavior – Society for Experimental Biology, Symposium IV (1950).
Gerald Hahn et al, "Communication through resonance in spiking neuronal networks," PLoS Computational Biology (28 August 2014).
Hosuk Sean Lee et al, "Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory," PNAS (28 July 2014).
Mario A. Penzo et al, "The paraventricular thalamus controls a central amygdala fear circuit," Nature (19 January 2015).
Hemispheres Lesley J. Rogers et al, "A right antenna for social behaviour in honeybees," Scientific Reports 3: 2045 (27 June 2013).
Claudia Christine Wolf, "The mystery of the missed connection," Scientific American Mind (January/February 2013).
L.J. van der Knaap, I.J. van der Ham, "How does the corpus callosum mediate interhemispheric transfer? A review," Behavior and Brain Research 223(1): 211 – 221 (30 September 2011).
Erhan Genç et al, "Interhemispheric connections shape subjective experience of bistable motion," Current Biology 21(17): 1494–1499 (13 September 2011).
Qadeer Arshad et al, "Bidirectional modulation of numerical magni-tude," Cerebral Cortex (14 February 2016).
Corinne A. Bareham et al, "Losing the left side of the world: rightward shift in human spatial attention with sleep onset," Scientific Reports 4(5092) (28 May 2014).
Dorothy V.M. Bishop, "Cerebral asymmetry and language develop-ment: cause, correlate, or consequence?," Science (14 June 2013).
Fernanda Tovar-Moll et al, "Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born with-out the corpus callosum," PNAS 111(21): 7843–7848 (27 May 2014).
Natalie Angier, "A molecule of motivation, dopamine excels at its task," The New York Times (27 October 2009).
"Chemical signals in brain help guide risky decisions," ScienceDaily (11 September 2014).
Colin M. Stopper et al, "Overriding phasic dopamine signals redirects action selection during risk/reward decision making," Neuron (11 September 2014).
Yael Niv, "Dopamine ramps up," Nature 500: 533–534 (29 August 2013).
Evolution Joseph LeDoux, Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, Penguin Books (1996).
Tuomas Tallinen et al, "Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion," PNAS 111(35): 12667–12672 (2 September 2014).
Lora B. Sweeney & Liqun Luo, "'Fore brain: a hint of the ancestral cortex," Cell 142(5): 679–681 (3 September 2010).
Raju Tomer et al, "Profiling by image registration reveals common origin of annelid mushroom bodies and vertebrate pallium," Cell 142(5): 800–809 (3 September 2010).
"Investigating the pleasure centers of the brain: how reward signals are transmitted," ScienceDaily (27 May 2014).
Thomas A. Harris, I'm Ok, You're Ok, Galahad Books (2004).
JoAnna Klein, "Hunched Over a microscope, he sketched the secrets of how the brain works," The New York Times (18 February 2017).
Ashley Yeager, "Rethinking which cells are the conductors of learning and memory," Science News (11 August 2015).
R. Douglas Fields, The Other Brain, Simon & Schuster (2009).
R. Douglas Fields, "The hidden brain," Scientific American Mind 22(2): 52-59 (May/June 2011).
Andrew Koob, The Root of Thought: Unlocking Glia, Amazon Digital Services (2009).
Lilach Soreq et al, "Major shifts in glial regional identity are a transcriptional hallmark of human brain aging," Cell Reports 18(2): 557-570 (10 January 2017).
"Brain's connective cells are much more than glue: Glia cells also regulate learning and memory," ScienceDaily (29 December 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Without glia, the brain would starve," Scientific American Mind 23(2): 17 (May/June 2013). "Glia, not neurons, are most affected by brain aging," ScienceDaily (10 January 2017).
Martin D. Haustein et al, "Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway," Neuron 82(2): 413–429 (16 April 2014).
"Eavesdropping on brain cell chatter," ScienceDaily (16 April 2014).
Michael Brooks, "Is quantum physics behind your brain’s ability to think?," New Scientist (2 December 2015).
Ewen Callaway, "Flashes of light show how memories are made," Nature (2 June 2014).
Robin J.M. Franklin & Timothy J. Bussey, "Do your glial cells make you clever?," Cell: Stem Cell 12: 265–266 (7 March 2013).
Fengfei Ding et al, "Changes in the composition of brain interstitial ions control the sleep-wake cycle," Science 352(6285): 550–555 (29 April 2016).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Ions, not neurons, may oversee sleep," Science News (28 May 2016).
Jae Geun Kim et al, "Leptin signaling in astrocytes regulates hypothalamic neuronal circuits and feeding," Nature Neuroscience (1 June 2014).
Suzanne L. Dickson et al, "The role of the central ghrelin system in reward from food and chemical drugs," Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 340(1): 80–87 (20 June 2011).
Sarah Schwartz, "Scientists still haven't solved mystery of memory," Science News (9 March 2016).
"White matter matters in autism," Nature 509: 136 (8 May 2014).
R. Douglas Fields, "White matter matters," Scientific American 298(3): 54-61 (March 2008)
Julia P. Owen et al, "Aberrant white matter microstructure in children with 16p11.2 deletions," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(18): 6214–6223 (30 April 2014).
Jerome Clasadonte et al, "Astrocyte control of synaptic NMDA receptors contributes to the progressive development of temporal lobe epilepsy," PNAS 110(43): 17540–17545 (22 October 2013).
Thomas C. Burdett & Marc. R. Freeman, "Astrocytes eyeball axonal mitochondria," Science 345(6195): 385–386 (25 July 2014).
Chaya Kalcheim & Hermann Rohrer, "Following the same nerve track towards different cell fates," Science 345(3192): 32–33 (4 July 2014).
Vyacheslav Dyachuk et al, "Parasympathetic neurons originate from nerve-associated peripheral glial progenitors," Science 345(3192): 82–87 (4 July 2014).
I. Espinosa-Medina et al, " Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors," Science 345(3192): 82–87 (4 July 2014).
Woo-Ping Ge et al, "Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortex," Nature 484: 376–380 (19 April 2012).
The earthworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied as a model organism.
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Glia spark seizures," Scientific American Mind (May/June 2013).
Down's Syndrome Chen Chen et al, "Role of astroglia in Down’s syndrome revealed by patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cells," Nature Communications (18 July 2014).
"'Support' cells in brain play important role in Down syndrome," ScienceDaily (18 July 2014).
Pam Belluck, "Study finds that brains with autism fail to trim synapses as they develop," The New York Times (21 August 2014).
Guomei Tang et al, "Loss of mTOR-dependent macroautophagy causes autistic-like synaptic pruning deficits," Neuron (21 August 201).
Dominik Sakry et al, "Oligodendrocyte precursor cells modulate the neuronal network by activity-dependent ectodomain cleavage of glial NG2" PLoS Biology (11 November 2014).
Gregory Hickok, "It's not a 'stream' of consciousness," The New York Times (8 May 2015).
Cell Types
Amichai M. Labin et al, "Müller cells separate between wavelengths to improve day vision with minimal effect upon night vision," Nature Communications (8 July 2014).
Andreas Reichenbach & Andreas Bringmann, "New functions for Müller cells," Glia 61: 651–678 (2013).
Jan Scholz et al, "Training induces changes in white-matter architecture," Nature Neuroscience 12: 1370–1371 (2009).
Ian A. McKenzie et al, "Motor skill learning requires active central myelination," Science 346(6207): 318–322 (17 October 2014).
Hiroaki Wake et al, "Nonsynaptic junctions on myelinating glia promote preferential myelination of electrically active axons," Nature Communications (4 August 2015).
S. Pajevic et al, "Role of myelin plasticity in oscillations and synchrony of neuronal activity," Neuroscience 12(276): 135–147 (12 September 2014).
Vasily L. Yarnykh et al, "Fast whole-brain three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping in multiple sclerosis," Radiology (10 September 2014).
Richard M. Ransohoff & Beth Stevens, "How many cell types does it take to wire a brain?," Science 333: 1391–1392 (9 September 2011).
Rosa C. Paolicelli et al, "Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development," Science 333: 1456–1458 (9 September 2011).
Human astrocyte photo courtesy of Bruno Pascal.
Laura Sanders, "Brain’s support cells play role in hunger," Science News (1 June 2014).
"Astrocytes control the generation of new neurons from neural stem cells," ScienceDaily (24 August 2012).
Ulrika Wilhelmsson et al, "Astrocytes negatively regulate neurogenesis through the jagged1-mediated notch pathway," Stem Cells (20 September 2012).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Without glia, the brain would starve," Scientific American Mind (May/June 2013).
Anna V. Molofsky et al, "Astrocyte-encoded positional cues maintain sensorimotor circuit integrity," Nature 509: 189–196 (8 May 2014).
Hosuk Sean Lee et al, "Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory," PNAS (28 July 2014).
Jing Han et al, "Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD," Cell 148(5): 1039–1050 (2 March 2012).
"How marijuana impairs memory," ScienceDaily (1 March 2012).
Nancy Ann Oberheim et al, "Uniquely hominid features of adult human astrocytes," Journal of Neuroscience 29(10): 3276–3287 (11 March 2009).
Xiaoning Han et al, "Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice," Cell: Stem Cell 12(3): 342–353 (7 March 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Mice get brain boost from transplanted human tissue," Science News (6 April 2013).
"Memory is a dynamic and interactive process, new research shows," ScienceDaily (28 May 2014).
Philip G. Haydon, "Astrocytes and the modulation of sleep," Current Opinion in Neurobiology 44: 28-33 (June 2017).
John O'Donnell et al, "Distinct functional states of astrocytes during sleep and wakefulness: Is norepinephrine the master regulator?," Current Sleep Medicine Reports 1(1): 1-8 (March 2015).
Michael M. Halassa et al, "Astrocytic modulation of sleep homeostasis and cognitive consequences of sleep loss," Neuron 61: 213-219 (29 January 2009).
Penelope Austin, "Astrocytes and the secret of sleep," BioMedCentral (25 September 2015).
Calcium Waves
Ann H. Cornell-Bell et al, "Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling," Science 247(4941): 470–473 (26 January 1990).
Kelly April Tyrrell, "How plants adapt: calcium waves help the roots tell the shoots," (3 April 2014).
S. Gilroy & R.L. Jones, "Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid coordinately regulate cytoplasmic calcium and secretory activity in barley aleurone protoplasts," PNAS 89(8): 3591–3595 (15 April 1992).
"Calcium: the secret to honeybees' memory," ScienceDaily (17 June 2009).
Donald G. McNeil Jr., "In raising the world’s I.Q., the secret’s in the salt," The New York Times (16 December 2006).
The Brain Through Life
"Infant brains have powerful reactions to fearful faces," Science News (10 December 2016).
Tomohisa Toda et al, "Birth regulates the initiation of sensory map formation through serotonin signaling," Development Cell 27(1): 32–46 (14 October 2013).
"When memory-related region of brain is damaged, other areas compensate, study finds," ScienceDaily (3 August 2010).
Jenni Laidman, "Why we forget our earliest years," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September/October 2014).
Donna J. Bridge & Joel L. Voss, "Hippocampal binding of novel information with dominant memory traces can support both memory stability and change," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(6):2203–2213 (5 February 2014).
Victoria Stern, "What's your first memory?," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September/October 2014).
Andrew M. Poulos et al, "Compensation in the neural circuitry of fear conditioning awakens learning circuits in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis," PNAS 107(33): 14881–14886 (17 August 2010).
Jenni Laidman "Why we forget our earliest years," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September–October 2014).
V.S. "Memory milestones," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 9 (September–October 2014).
"Early life stress can leave lasting impacts on the brain," ScienceDaily (27 June 2014).
Jamie L. Hanson et al, "Behavior problems after early life stress: contributions of the hippocampus and amygdala," Biological Psychiatry (22 May 2014).
Megan R. Holmes, "The sleeper effect of intimate partner violence exposure: long-term consequences on young children's aggressive behavior," The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (29 March 2013).
Christopher C. Henrich & Golan Shahar, "Effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent distress and violence: a 4-year longitudinal study," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 52(6): 619–627 (June 2013).
"After the shooting, political violence lives on in kids' behavior problems," ScienceDaily (1 July 2013).
I. Shalev et al, "Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study," Molecular Psychiatry 18: 576-581 (May 2013). Eero A. Haapala et al, "Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic skills – a follow-up study among primary school children," PLoS One (10 September 2014).
Denise Klein et al, "Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals," Brain and Language (29 June 2013).
Nina Kraus et al, "Music enrichment programs improve the neural encoding of speech in at-risk children," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(36): 11913-11918 (3 September 2014).
Daniel M. Curlik II et al, "Preparing for adulthood: thousands upon thousands of new cells are born in the hippocampus during puberty, and most survive with effortful learning," Frontiers in Neuroscience (23 April 2014).
Zachary J. J. Roper et al, "Value-driven attentional capture in adolescence," Psychological Science (10 September 2014).
"Brain differences: Sometimes, adolescents just can't resist," ScienceDaily (11 September 2014).
Shaozheng Qin et al, "Amygdala subregional structure and intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in anxiety during early childhood," Biological Psychiatry 75(11): 892–900 (1 June 2014).
C.H. Lin et al, "PI3K: fear and plasticity in amygdala," Science STKE (18 September 2001).
Sara E. Morrison & C. Daniel Salzman, "Re-valuing the amygdala," Current Opinion in Neurobiology 20(2): 221–230 (April 2010).
Laura Sanders, "How the brain shops," Science News (29 January 2011).
Rick L. Jenison et al, "Value encoding in single neurons in the human amygdala during decision making," The Journal of Neuroscience 31(1): 331–338 (5 January 2011).
Joshua H. Jennings et al, "Distinct extended amygdala circuits for divergent motivational states," Nature 496: 224–228 (11 April 2013).
Florian Mormann et al, " A category-specific response to animals in the right human amygdala," Nature Neuroscience (28 August 2011).
"Bad boys: research predicts whether boys will grow out of it or not," ScienceDaily (5 November 2013).
Susan Gaidos, "Cerebral delights," Science News 179(5): 22–25 (26 February 2011).
Nicole Barger et al, "A comparative volumetric analysis of the amygdaloid complex and basolateral division in the human and ape brain," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 134(3): 392–403 (November 2007).
Paul J. Whalen et al, "Human amygdala responsivity to masked fearful eye whites," Science 306(5704): 2061(17 December 2004).
Stephan Hamann et al, "Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli," Nature Neuroscience (7 March 2004).
"The amygdala and fear are not the same thing," ScienceDaily (28 January 2012).
The Brain By Gender
Lise Eliot, Pink Brain, Blue Brain, Mariner Books (2009).
Gregory L. Jantz, "Brain differences between genders," Psychology Today (27 February 2014).
Lise Eliot, Girl brain, boy brain?, Scientific American (8 September 2009).
Jill B. Becker et al, Behavioral Endocrinology 2nd edition, Bradford Books (2002).
Brian Stallard, "Men are more sensitive than women to pain after major operations," Nature World News (4 June 2014).
Brain Baths & Droughts
Pascal Fossat et al, "Anxiety-like behavior in crayfish is controlled by serotonin," Science 344(6189): 1293–1297 (13 June 2014).
Teresa Romero et al, "Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs," PNAS (9 June 2014).
S. Saphire-Bernstein, "Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources," PNAS 108 (37): 15118 (2011).
A. Manning & M.S. Dawkins, "Sign stimuli (key features)," in An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
L.M. Roth, "An experimental laboratory study of the sexual behavior of Aëdes aegypti," American Midland Naturalist 40: 265–352 (1950).
H.C. Gerhardt, "The significance of some spectral features in mating call recognition in the green treefrog Hyla cinerea," Journal of Exper-imental Biology 61: 229–241 (1974).
P.M. Narins & R.R. Capranica, "Sexual differences in the auditory system of the tree frog, Eleuthrodactylus coqui," Science 192: 378–380 (1976).
Meditation & the Brain
"Meditation may reduce death, heart attack and stroke in heart patients," ScienceDaily (13 November 2012).
Jian Xu et al, "Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (26 February 2014).
Brian Stallard, "What your brain does when you meditate," Nature World News (20 May 2014).
Jennifer S. Mascaro et al, "Compassion meditation enhances empathic accuracy and related neural activity," Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience (5 September 2012).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "How meditation may change the brain," The New York Times (28 January 20111).
"Mindfulness meditation appears to help improve sleep quality," ScienceDaily (16 February 2015).
R.J. Tang, "Oriental meditation alters brain circuitry, similar to drug effect," Frontiers (5 July 2014).
Lauren Hitchings, "Our humming brains help us learn rapidly," New Scientist (18 June 2014).
Evan G. Antzoulatos & Earl K. Miller, "Increases in functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and striatum during category learning," Neuron (12 June 2014).
S. Yamamoto et al, "Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study," Acta Medica Okaya-ma 60(1): 51–58 (2006).
F. Travis, "Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice," Psychophysiology 28(3a): S58 (1991).
M.C. Dillbeck & E.C. Bronson, "Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence," International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151 (1981).
The Pain of Altruism
Barbara L. Finlay & Supriya Syal, "The pain of altruism," Trends in Cognitive Science 18(12): 615–617 (December 2014).
Charlotte Krahé et al, "The social modulation of pain: others as predictive signals of salience – a systematic review," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (23 July 2013).
Barbara Finlay, "It hurts to be human: why pain is fundamentally different for us," New Scientist (11 May 2015).
Francis C Crick & Christof Koch, "What is the function of the claustrum?," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (29 June 2005).
Helen Thomson, "Consciousness on-off switch discovered deep in brain," New Scientist (2 July 2014).
Brain Damage
C Márquez et al, "Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression," Translational Psychiatry 3: e216 (15 January 2013).
Trisha Henry, "Is eating egg yolks as bad as smoking?," CNN (15 August 2012).

Jennifer K. Nelson & Katherine Zeratsky, "Eggs and heart disease — still controversial," Mayo Clinic (19 September 2012).
Oliver Weingärtner et al, "Controversial role of plant sterol esters in the management of hypercholesterolaemia," European Heart Journal 30(4): 404–409 (February 2009).
Small Intestine
Andreas E. Moor et al, "Global mRNA polarization regulates translation efficiency in the intestinal epithelium," Science (10 August 2017).
"The lining of our intestines uses business process for fast digestion," ScienceDaily (15 August 2017).
R. Randal Bollinger et al, "Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix," Journal of Theoretical Biology 249(4): 826-831 (21 December 2007).
"Scientists may have found appendix's purpose," Associated Press (5 October 2007).
Lucille C. Rankin et al, "Complementarity and redundancy of IL-22-producing innate lymphoid cells," Nature Immunology (30 November 2015).
Gut Flora
Jeremy K. Nicholson et al, "Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions," Science 336(6086): 1262–1267 (8 June 2012).
Carl Zimmer, "Bacterial ecosystems divide people into 3 groups, scientists say," The New York Times (20 April 2011).
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz et al, "Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior," PNAS 108(7): 3047–3052 (15 February 2011).
Ulrich Steinhoff, "Who controls the crowd? New findings and old questions about the intestinal microflora," Immunology Letters 99 (1): 12–16 (15 June 2005).
Michael T. Mee et al, "Syntrophic exchange in synthetic microbial communities," PNAS 111(20): E2149–E2156 (20 May 2014).
Johan Larsbrink et al, "A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes," Nature (19 January 2014).
Hassan Salem et al, "Actinobacteria as essential symbionts in firebugs and cotton stainers (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)," Environmental Microbiology (19 October 2012).
Gina Kolata, "In good health? Thank your 100 trillion bacteria," The New York Times (13 June 2012).
Jessica M. Yano et al, "Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis," Cell 161(2): 264–276 (9 April 2015).
"Microbes help produce serotonin in gut," Science 360 News (13 April 2015).
Jonathan Breton et al, " Gut commensal E. coli proteins activate host satiety pathways following nutrient-induced bacterial growth," Cell Metabolism (24 November 2015).
"Gut microbes signal to the brain when they're full," ScienceDaily (24 November 2015).
Carlotta De Filippo et al, "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa," PNAS 107(33): 14691–14696 (17 August 2010).
"Lactose tolerance and human evolution," (7 April 2009).
Nicholas Wade, "Lactose tolerance in east Africa points to recent evolution," The New York Times (11 December 2006).
Helen Thompson, "An evolutionary whodunit: how did humans develop lactose tolerance?," NPR – the salt (28 December 2012).
"Got lactose?," Understanding Evolution (April 2007).
Torsten Olszak et al, "Microbial exposure during early life has persistent effects on natural killer T cell function," Science (22 March 2012).
Andrew L. Kau et al, "Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system," Nature 474: 327–336 (16 June 2011).
Shimpei Kawamoto et al, "Foxp3+ T cells regulate immunoglobulin a selection and facilitate diversification of bacterial species responsible for immune homeostasis," Immunity 1(1): 152–165 (17 July 2014).
Régis Stentz et al, "A bacterial homolog of a eukaryotic inositol phosphate signaling enzyme mediates cross-kingdom dialog in the mammalian gut," Cell Reports 6(4): 646–656 (27 February 2014).
Joe Alcock et al, "Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms," BioEssays (7 August 2014).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Do gut bugs practice mind control?," Science (31 January 2011).
Javier A. Bravo et al, "Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve," PNAS 108(38): 16050–16055 (15 February 2011).
Fredrik Bäckhed et al, "The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage," PNAS (25 October 2004).
Greg Miller, "Mind-altering bugs," Science (29 August 2011).
Vic Norris et al, "Hypothesis: bacteria control host appetites," Journal of Bacteriology (9 November 2012).
M. Arumugam et al, "Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome," Nature 473: 174–180 (12 May 2011).
Azeen Ghorayshi, "The super-abundant virus controlling your gut bacteria," New Scientist (25 July 2014).
Bas E. Dutilh et al, "A highly abundant bacteriophage discovered in the unknown sequences of human faecal metagenomes," Nature Communications (25 July 2014).
"Beneficial microbes are 'selected and nurtured' in the human gut," ScienceDaily (20 November 2012).
Joerg Graf & Edward G. Ruby, "Host-derived amino acids support the proliferation of symbiotic bacteria," PNAS 95(4): 1818–1822 (17 February 1998).
Menno Van Lookeren Campagne & Vishva M. Dixit, "In command of commensals," Nature 474: 42–43 (2 June 2011).
Ho Pan Sham et al, "SIGIRR, a negative regulator of TLR/IL-1R signalling promotes microbiota dependent resistance to colonization by enteric bacterial pathogens," PLoS Pathogens 9(8): e1003539 (Au-gust 2013).
Les Dethlefsen et al, "An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human–microbe mutualism and disease," Nature 449: 811–818 (18 October 2007).
Jonas Schluter & Kevin R. Foster, "The evolution of mutualism in gut microbiota via host epithelial selection," PLoS Biology 10(11): e1001424 (November 2012).
Lora V. Hooper & Andrew J. Macpherson, "Immune adaptations that maintain homeostasis with the intestinal microbiota," Nature Reviews Immunology 10: 159–169 (March 2010).
Ruth E. Ley et al, "Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine," Cell 124(4): 837–848 (24 Feb-ruary 2006).
"You are what you eat," Science 334: 12 (7 October 2011).
Uri Gophna, "The guts of dietary habits," Science 334: 45-46 (7 October 2011).
Daniel I. Bolnick et al, "Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota," Nature Communications (29 July 2014).
Martin Enserink, "Your gut bacteria are what you eat," Science (1 September 2011).
Alexandra Goho, "Our microbes, ourselves," Science News 171(20): 314 (19 May 2007).
Sungsoon Fang & Ronald M. Evans, "Microbiology: wealth manage-ment in the gut," Nature 500: 538–539 (29 August 2013).
Ruth E. Ley et al, "Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity," Nature 444: 1022–1023 (21 December 2006).
Peter J. Turnbaugh et al, "An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest," Nature 444: 1027–1031 (21 December 2006).
F.M. Guarner, "Role of bacteria in experimental colitis," Best Practice Research – Clinical Gastroenterology 17 (5): 793–804 (October 2003).
Jotham Suez et al, "Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota," Nature (17 September 2014).
The Gut Brain
Gerlinda E. Hermann et al, "Hindbrain glucoprivation effects on gastric vagal reflex circuits and gastric motility in the rat are suppressed by the astrocyte inhibitor fluorocitrate," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(32): 10488–10496 (6 August 2014).
The Fat System
"New clue helps explain how brown fat burns energy," ScienceDaily (3 July 2014).
Shusaku T Shibutani & Tamotsu Yoshimori, "A current perspective of autophagosome biogenesis," Cell Research (3 December 2013).
Zhiping Xie & Daniel J. Klionsky, "Autophagosome formation: core machinery and adaptations," Nature Cell Biology 9: 1102–1109 (2007).
Elizabeth L. Axe et al, "Autophagosome formation from membrane compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and dynamically connected to the endoplasmic reticulum," Journal of Cell Biology 182(4): 685–701 (25 August 2008).
Kuninori Suzuki et al, "Proteomic profiling of autophagosome cargo in saccharomyces cerevisiae," PLoS One (13 March 2014).
Steven K. Backues & Daniel J. Klionsky, "Atg11: A Rab-dependent, coiled-coil membrane protein that acts as a tether for autophagy," Autophagy 8(8): 1275–1278 (August 2012).
Chinatsu Otomo et al, "Structure of the human ATG12~ATG5 conjugate required for LC3 lipidation in autophagy," Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (2 December 2012).
Vojo Deretic & Daniel J. Klionsky, "How cells clean house," Scientific American 74–81 (May 2008).
Daniel J. Klionsky, " The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions," Journal of Cell Science 118: 7–18 (1 January 2005).
Lisa L. Barnes et al, "Effects of early-life adversity on cognitive decline in older African Americans and whites," Neurology 79(24): 2321–2327 (11 December 2012).
Tina Hesman Saey, "How the right amount of cellular self-cannibalism can keep you healthy," Science News 179(7): 18 (26 March 2011).
Richard Weingdurch, "Caloric restriction and aging," Scientific American 46–52 (January 1996).
Takafumi Oka et al, "Mitochondrial DNA that escapes from autophagy causes inflammation and heart failure," Nature 485: 251–255 (10 May 2012).
Tibor Vellai et al, "The regulation of aging: does autophagy underlie longevity?," Trends in Cell Biology 19(10): 487–494 (October 2009).
Carl Zimmer, "Self-destructive behavior in cells may hold key to a longer life," The New York Times (5 October 2009).
Peter Stern, "Fasting protects the brain," Science 340: 1017 (31 May 2013).
James Maynard, "Fasting is beneficial to the immune system: study shows it triggers stem cell regeneration," Tech Times (7 June 2014).
Robin McKie, "Fasting can help protect against brain diseases, scientists say," The Guardian (18 February 2012).
Chia-Wei Cheng et al, "Prolonged fasting reduces IGF-1/PKA to promote hematopoietic-stem-cell-based regeneration and reverse immunosuppression," Cell: Stem Cell 14(6): 810–823 (5 June 2014).
Rudolph Ballentine, Diet and Nutrition: A Holistic Approach, The Himalayan International Institute (1978).
T. Colin Campbell, Whole: Rethinking the Science of Nutrition, BenBella Books (2013).
Sarah Boseley, "Tsimané of the Bolivian Amazon have world's healthiest hearts, says study," The Guardian (17 March 2017).
"Small doses of resistant starch encourage the growth of beneficial gut fauna," (22 January 2015).
Ann Gibbons, "Food for thought," Science 316 (5831): 1558–1560 (15 June 2007).
Jascha Hoffman, "Q&A: the nutrient hunter," Nature 510: 217 (12 June 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, "Antioxidants accelerate cancers rather than prevent them," Nature World News (10 July 2014).
Navdeep S. Chandel & David A. Tuveson, "The promise and perils of antioxidants for cancer patients," The New England Journal of Medi-cine 371:177–178 (10 July 2014).
Glen Matten & Aidan Goggins, The Health Delusion: How to Achieve Exceptional Health in the 21st Century, Hay House UK (2012).
Vanessa Er et al, "Adherence to dietary and lifestyle recommendations and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial," Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (13 July 2014).
"Lycopene," American Cancer Society (13 May 2010).
Vitamins & Minerals
Pamela Wartian Smith, What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & More, SquareOne Publishers (2008).
Steve Blake, Vitamins & Minerals Demystified, McGraw Hill (2008).
"Too much of a good thing," The Week (18 July 2014).
Vitamin C
"Vitamin C fact sheet for health professionals," National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements (11 February 2016).
Harri Hemila & Elizabeth Chalker, "Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (31 January 2013).
Kathyrn A. Heimer et al, "xamining the evidence for the use of vitamin C in the prophylaxis and treatment of the common cold," Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (1 May 2009).
Vitamin D
Ben Schöttker et al, "Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States," BMJ (17 June 2014).
Goran Bjelakovic et al, "Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults," The Cochrane Library (10 January 2014).
"Magnesium: fact sheet for health professionals," US National Institutes of Health (14 November 2013).
Edible, National Geographic (2008).
Barton Seaver & P.K. Newby, Foods for Health, National Geographic (2013).
Mary Franz, "Your brain on blueberries," Scientific American Mind 21(6): 54-59 (January/February 2011).
Rich Cohen, "Sugar love: a not so sweet tale," National Geographic 224(2): 78–97 (August 2013).
Robert H. Lustig et al, "Public health: The toxic truth about sugar," Nature 482: 27–29 (2 February 2012).
Sugar – Health Implications E.A. Finkelstein et al, Health Affairs, W3 (supplement): 219–226 (2003).
Robert H. Lustig, "Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110(9): 1307–1321 (September 2010).
Christin E. Kearns et al, "Sugar industry and coronary heart disease research," JAMA Internal Medicine (12 September 2016).
Laura Beil, "Sugar industry shifted health focus," Science News (15 October 2016).
Anahad O’Connor, "How the sugar industry shifted blame to fat," The New York Times (12 September 2016).
"Big sugar conspired to conceal health, risks," The Week (30 September 2016).
Susan Donaldson James, "'Superfood' acai may not be worth price," ABC News (12 December 2008).
Michael Heinrich et al, "Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) – a phytochemi-cal and pharmacological assessment of the species’ health claims," Phytochemistry Letters 4(1): 10–21 (15 March 2011).
Navindra P. Seeram et al, "Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (26 January 2008).
Nathan Gray, "‘Insufficient and unconvincing’ scientific evidence to promote acai, says review," Nutra (16 March 2011).
Apple photo courtesy of Abhijit Tembhekar.
Carey Gillam, "Amid health concerns, nonprofit urges EPA to halt apple pesticide that's already banned in Europe," Reuters (24 April 2014).
Scott Hensley, "For pesticides: apples are worst, onions the best," NPR (13 June 2011).
Roni Caryn Rabin, "Ask well: are avocados good for you?," The New York Times (18 December 2015).
YuQiu Liu et al, "History, global distribution, and nutritional im-portance of citrus fruits," Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 11(6): 530–545 (November 2012).
O. Al-Kuran et al, "The effect of late pregnancy consumption of date fruit on labour and delivery," Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 31(1): 29–31 (2011).
Katrina McKnight, "Grape and raisin toxicity in dogs," Veterinary Technician 135–136 (February 2005).
Dylan W. de Lange & Albert van de Wiel, "Drink to prevent: review on the cardioprotective mechanisms of alcohol and red wine polyphe-nols," Seminars in Vascular Medicine 4(2): 173–186 (2004).
Samarjit Das and Dipak K. Das, "Resveratrol: a therapeutic promise for cardiovascular diseases," Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery 2(2): 133–138 (2007).
Jean Ferrières, "The French paradox: lessons for other countries," Heart 90(1):107–111 (January 2004).
Malcolm Law & Nicholas Ward, "Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the time lag explanation," BMJ (29 May 1999).
Strawberry photo courtesy of Rlaferla.
"Almonds reduce the risk of heart disease, research shows," ScienceDaily (30 June 2014).
K. Choudhury et al, "An almond-enriched diet increases plasma a-tocopherol and improves vascular function but does not affect oxidative stress markers or lipid levels," Free Radical Research 48(5): 599–606 (May 2014).
Alyssa M. Burns et al, "Diet quality improves for parents and children when almonds are incorporated into their daily diet: a randomized, crossover study," Nutrition Research 36(1): 80–89 (January 2016).
"Almonds may help augment nutrients in diet," ScienceDaily (18 December 2015).
"Does chocolate ward off heart disease?," The Week (8 September 2011).
Dolores R. Piperno, "The origins of plant cultivation and domestication in the New World tropics," Current Anthropology (4 August 2011).
John R. Roney & Robert J. Hard, "Way down south: a review of evidence pertaining to early agriculture in Mexico and beyond," 2008 Pecos Conference (2008).
Houyuan Lu et al, "Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago," PNAS 106(18): 7367–7372 (5 May 2009).
Jeanmaire Molina et al, "Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice," PNAS 108(20): 8351–8356 (17 May 2011).
T. Talhelm et al, "Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture," Science 344(6184): 603–608 (9 May 2014).
Joseph Henrich, "Rice, psychology, and innovation," Science 344(6184): 593–594 (9 May 2014).
Kaayla T. Daniel, The Whole Soy Story, New Trends Publishing (2005).
Mohammad Rafiq Siddiqi, Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects, CABI (2000).
Amber Presley, "Do soy foods increase cancer risk?," MD Anderson Cancer Center (May 2013).
Lauri Boone, "Soy in the vegan diet: a practical approach," One Green Planet (26 August 2011).
Gene Weitz, " The real risks of soy milk," mart Health & Beauty (4 May 2011).
Mary Vance Terrain, "The dark side of soy," Utne Reader (July 2007).
Jorge E. Chavarro et al, "Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic," Human Reproduction 23(11): 2584–2590 (2008).
Jim Thorton, "Is this the most dangerous food for men?," Men's Health (19 May 2009).
Joseph Mercola, "The health dangers of soy," Huffpost Healthy Living (23 August 2012).
Heather L. Bateman & Heather B. Patisaul, "Disrupted female reproductive physiology following neonatal exposure to phytoestrogens or estrogen specific ligands is associated with decreased GnRH activation and kisspeptin fiber density in the hypothalamus," NeuroToxicology 29(6): 988–997 (November 2008).
Kaayla T. Daniel, "Does soy have a dark side?," Health Impact News Daily (2013).
Kaayla T. Daniel, "Whole soy story: the dark side of America's favorite health food," EMR Labs (May/June 2004).
Denice Moffat, "The hazards of soy," Ezine (21 November 2006).
Emily Singer, "Soy supplements cut sexual behavior in rats," New Scientist (14 November 2003).
Ben Harder, "Eat broccoli, beat bacteria: plant compound kills microbe behind ulcers and a cancer," Science News 161(22): 340 (1 June 2002).
"Broccoli's cleansing effect," The Week (11 July 2014).
Patricia A. Egner et al, "Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China," Cancer Prevention Research (9 June 2014).
Redcliffe Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press (1949).
Michael Pollan, The Botany of Desire, Random House (2001).
Erica M. Goss et al, "The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes," PNAS (2 June 2014).
"Resistant starch can reduce colorectal cancer risk," Nature World News (4 August 2014).
John Reader, Potato, Yale University Press (2008).
Jenni Russell, "Could these foods be giving us cancer?," The Guardian (14 August 2002).
Charlotte Westney, "Food acrylamide mystery solved," Nature (1 October 2002).
Erik Vance, " Decoding Mexico's city of gods," Scientific American (17 June 2014).
Ferris Jabr, "Building better fruits and veggies without GMOs," Scientific American 311(1): 58–61 (July 2014).
"African bone tools dispute key idea about human evolution," National Geographic News (8 November 2001).
Marion Nestle, What to Eat, North Point Press (2006).
"Mercury in the environment," US Geological Survey (October 2000).
J.G. Wiener et al, "Ecotoxicology of mercury," in Handbook of Ecotoxicology, CRC Press (2003).
Farmed Fish
Lindsay T. Bonito et al, "Evaluation of the global impacts of mitigation on persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants in marine fish," PeerJ (28 January 2016).
United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Report (2010).
"Fisheries factsheet," The Humane Society of the United States (25 September 2009).
John Hocevar, "12 (not so) fun facts about overfishing," Greenpeace (19 August 2013).
"Overfishing," National Geographic (2007).
"Patagonian Toothfish," Greenpeace (26 August 2003).
Juliet Eilperin, "Down on the farm, more and more fish," The Washington Post (20 September 2009).
Pablo Trujillo et al, "Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth," PLoS One (8 February 2012).
Emma Marris, "Half our fish are now farmed," Nature (6 September 2006).
Ken Stier, "Fish farming's growing dangers," Time Magazine (19 September 2007).
Lisa Cleary, "Dangers of aquafarmed fish," NBC News (10 March 2011).
David Robinson Simon, "9 things everyone should know about farmed fish," MindBodyGreen (7 November 2013).
Rosamond L. Naylor et al, "Effects of aquaculture on world fish supplies," Nature 405: 1017–1024 (29 June 2000).
"Norway lobbied to raise toxin level in salmon feed," The Nordic Page (11 June 2013).
Erik Stokstad, "Salmon survey stokes debate about farmed fish," Science 303: 154–155 (9 January 2004).
Ronald A. Hites et al, "Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon," Science 303: 226–229 (9 January 2004) Elisabeth Rosenthal, "Another side of tilapia, the perfect factory fish," The New York Times (2 May 2011).
Natasha McDowell, "Steam of escaped farm fish raises fears for wild salmon," Nature 416: 571 (11 April 2002).
Martin Krkošek et al, "Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish," PNAS 103(42): 15506–15510 (17 October 2006).
Erik Stokstad, "Parasites from fish farms driving wild salmon to extinction," Science 318(5857): 1711 (14 December 2007).
Martin Krkošek et al, "Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon," Science 318(5857): 1772–1775 (14 December 2007).
Andrew A. Rosenberg, "The price of lice," Nature 451: 23–24 (3 January 2008).
Gary D. Marty et al, "Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations," PNAS 107(52): 22599–22604 (28 December 2010).
Susan Brown, "Lice threaten Canada's salmon," Nature (13 December 2007).
Quirin Schiermeier, "Fish farms' threat to salmon stocks exposed," Nature 425: 753 (23 October 2003).
Jennifer S. Ford & Ransom A. Myers, "A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids," PLoS Biology (12 February 2008).
Robert A. Koeth et al, "Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis," Nature Medicine (7 April 2013).
Gina Kolata, "Culprit in heart disease goes beyond meat’s fat," The New York Times (7 April 2013).
Chicken Sabrina Tavernise, "Study finds an increase in arsenic levels in chicken," The New York Times (11 May 2013).
"Questions and answers regarding 3-nitro (Roxarsone)" US Food and Drug Administration (June 8, 2011).
Fried Chicken Markham Heid, "Fried food linked to diabetes and heart disease – with an asterisk," Time Magazine (20 June 2014).
Ian Sample, "Fried and grilled meat may raise risk of diabetes and dementia," The Guardian (25 February 2014).
Weijing Cai et al, "Oral glycotoxins are a modifiable cause of dementia and the metabolic syndrome in mice and humans," PNAS 111(13): 4940–4945 (1 April 2014).
Robert J. Davis, "Health risks of fried foods may be overblown," Time Magazine (24 September 2013).
Alexandra Sifferlin, "A heart-healthier way to eat fried food?," Time Magazine (25 January 2012).
Stephen Adams, "Fried food heart risk 'a myth'" The Telegraph (25 January 2012).
S.D. Wells, " Health basics: why are fried foods terrible for your health?," Natural News (26 December 2011).
Mark Bittman, "Got milk? You don't need it," The New York Times (7 July 2012).
Aaron E. Carroll, "Got milk? Might not be doing you much good," The New York Times (17 November 2014).
Karl Michaëlsson et al, "Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies," BMJ (28 October 2014).
Jesse Schmitt, "2% milk has more saturated fat than a serving of french fries," Yahoo Voices (15 June 2010).
"5 ways milk doesn't do a body good," The Week (19 July 2012).
"Lactose intolerance - topic overview," WebMD (19 July 2011).
"New treatment may desensitize kids with milk allergies, study suggests," ScienceDaily (22 March 2011).
Andrew Curry, "Archaeology: the milk revolution," Nature (31 July 2013).
Erika Check, "Human evolution: how Africa learned to love the cow," Nature 444: 994–996 (21 December 2006).
Robert G. Cumming & Robin J. Klineberg, "Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly," American Journal of Epidemiology 139(5): 493–503 (1994).
Diane Feskanich et al, "Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults," JAMA Pediatrics 168(1): 54–60 (January 2014).
Bischoff-Ferrari et al, "Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies," Journal of Bone Mineral Research 26(4):833–839 (2011).
"The dangers of drinking cow’s milk," Global Healing Center (17 April 2013).
Kate Lowenstein, "Not safe to eat: three foods to avoid," CNN Health (12 October 2011).
Diana Herrington, "15 amazing benefits of ghee," Care2 (13 April 2014).
J.O. Swahn, The Lore of Spices, Stroeger Publishing, (1991).
Elisabeth Lambet Ortiz, The Encyclopedia of Herbs, Spices & Flavorings, Dorling Kindersley (1992).
Hayley Saul et al, "Phytoliths in pottery reveal the use of spice in European prehistoric cuisine," PLoS One (21 August 2013).
R. Roman-Ramos et al, "Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants," Journal of Ethnopharmacology 48(1): 25–32 (11 August 1995).
"Traditional remedy bitter cumin is a great source antioxidant plant phenols, study suggests," ScienceDaily (21 May 2011).
Helle Wangensteen et al, "Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander," Food Chemistry 88(2): 293–297 (November 2004).
Miho Aga et al, "Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum (Chinese parsley) on localized lead deposition in ICR mice," Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77(2–3): 203–208 (October 2001).
Isao Kubo et al, "Antibacterial activity of coriander volatile com-pounds against Salmonella choleraesuis," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (6 May 2004).
V. Chithra & S. Leelamma, "Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action," Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 51(2): 167–172 (September 1997).
Maryam Eidi et al, "Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in strep-tozotocin-induced diabetic rats," Phytotherapy Research 23(3): 404–406, (March 2009).
Saurabh Khasnavis & Kalipada Pahan, "Cinnamon treatment upregulates neuroprotective proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease," Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology (June 2014).
Mint photo courtesy of Kham Tran.
Nutmeg photo courtesy of Ramesh NG.
"Flavored tobacco," US FDA (21 March 2013).
Mark Kulandsky, Salt, Penguin Books (2002).
Gina Kolata, "Why everything we know about salt may be wrong," The New York Times (8 May 2017).
Rod S. Taylor et al, "Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease," The Cochrane Library (12 September 2013).
Isabella Gladd, "The storied origins of black pepper," Lifescript (12 June 2008).
"Pepper," Ancient History Encyclopedia (9 December 2010).
Dietary Philosophy & Practice
Anand M. Saxena, The Vegetarian Imperative, The John Hopkins University Press (2011).
James A. Foley, "McGaffe: McDonald's internal site says fast food is unhealthy," Nature World News (24 December 2013).
Dariush Mozaffarian et al, "Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men," The New England Journal of Medicine 364: 2392–2404 (23 June 2011).
"Poor diet ups chronic disease risk," Nature World News (24 June 2014).
Miho Sato et al, "The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment," Cell Reports (15 July 2014).
The Morality of Diet
Morgen E. Peck, "The carnivore's dilemma," Scientific American Mind 23(1): 8 (March/April 2012).
Culum Brown, "Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics," Animal Cognition (19 June 2014).
"Fish have feelings too," Nature (25 February 2014).
Janicke Nordgreen et al, "Thermonociception in fish: effects of two different doses of morphine on thermal threshold and post-test behaviour in goldfish (Carassius auratus)," Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2009).
"Do fish feel pain?," (9 August 2013).
"Vegetarian diet extends lifespan, cuts greenhouse emissions: study," Nature World News (27 June 2014).
Jascha Hoffman, "Q&A: the nutrient hunter," Nature (11 July 2014).
Brian Stallard, "Trans fats could ruin memory," Nature World News (20 November 2014).
G.O. Burr et al, "On the nature and role of the fatty acids essential in nutrition," Progress in Lipid Research 648 97: 1–9 (1932).
"Omega 3 fatty acids lessen severity of osteoarthritis in mice," ScienceDaily (11 July 2014).
Diane Vukovic, "14 Best vegan sources of Omega 3," (12 November 2013).
Shlomo Yehuda et al, "Mixture of essential fatty acids lowers test anxiety," Nutritional Neuroscience 8(3): 265–267 (1 August 2005).
Conventional versus Organic
Carl K. Winter & Josh M. Katz, "Dietary exposure to pesticide residues from commodities alleged to contain the highest contamination levels," Journal of Toxicology (15 May 2011).
Kenneth Change, "Study of organic crops finds few pesticides and more antioxidants," The New York Times (11 July 2014).
Damian Carrington & George Arnett, "Clear differences between organic and non-organic food, study finds," The Guardian (11 July 2014).
"Nutritional, food safety benefits of organic farming documented by major study," ScienceDaily (11 July 2014).
"Major study documents nutritional and food safety benefits of organic farming," (11 July 2014).
"How can I wash all the pesticides off my food?," (19 May 2014).
Genetically Modified Foods Jeffrey M. Smith, Genetic Roulette, Yes! Books (2007).
Jeffrey M. Smith, Seeds of Deception, Yes! Books (2003).
Lucia Graves, "Roundup: birth defects caused by world's top-selling weedkiller, scientists say," Huffington Post Green (24 August 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Nutrition: vitamins on trial," Nature (25 June 2014).
Edward Archer et al, "Validity of US nutritional surveillance: national health and nutrition examination survey caloric energy intake data, 1971–2010," PLoS One (9 October 2013).
Eliseo Guallar et al, "Enough is enough: stop wasting money on vitamin and mineral supplements," Annals of Internal Medicine 159(12): 850–851 (17 December 2013).
Anahad O’Connor, "Spike in harm to liver is tied to dietary aids," The New York Times (21 December 2013).
"Young body-builders beware: supplements can be dangerous," Consumer Reports (October 2013).
"10 surprising dangers of vitamins and supplements," Consumer Reports (September 2012).
Laura Beil, "Who's spiking your supplements?," Men's Health (22 June 2011).
"The 12 most dangerous supplements," Consumer Reports (2010).
Dave McGinn, "Are protein shakes the weight-loss magic bullet?," The Globe and Mail (7 November 2010).
M.A. Tarnopolsky et al, "Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass," Journal of Applied Physiology 64(1):187–193 (January 1988).
GNC is a well-known seller of dietary supplements. Against allegations of selling hazardous products, GNC contends its offerings are safe. GNC crows of its "cutting-edge product development," and growing market share in the sports nutrition business.
Paul A. Offit & Sarah Erush, "Skip the supplements," The New York Times (14 December 2013).
Natasha Singer & Peter Lattman, "Is the seller to blame?," The New York Times (15 March 2013).
US Food and Drug Administration web site (17 December 2010).
Fad Diets
Mary Josephine Scales, Diets in a nutshell, Apex Publishers (2005).
Gabriel Cousens, Spiritual Nutrition, North Atlantic Books (2005).
Charlotte N. Markey, "Don't diet!," Scientific American Mind 26(5): 46-53 (September/October 2015).
Richard L. Veech et al, "Ketone bodies mimic the life span extending properties of caloric restriction," IUBMB Life (3 April 2017).
"How calorie restriction may prolong life," ScienceDaily (3 May 2017).
"Keep waist less than half your weight to boost life expectancy," Nature World News (10 September 2014).
"Obesity: a wide spread problem," The Economist (27 August 2011).
Emmanuelle Le Chatelier et al, "Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers," Nature 500: 541–546 (29 August 2013).
F. Tang et al, "Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain," Nature Communications (28 May 2014).
"Science finds why exercise energizes us," Nature World News (11 February 2014).
Paige Fowler, "How exercise re-programs your body's chemistry," Men's Health (28 February 2014).
Gretchen Reynolds, "How testosterone may alter the brain after exercise," The New York Times (12 September 2012).
M. Okamoto et al, "Mild exercise increases dihydrotestosterone in hippocampus providing evidence for androgenic mediation of neurogenesis," PNAS (17 July 2012).
Line Pedersen et al, "Voluntary running suppresses tumor growth through epinephrine- and il-6-dependent NK cell mobilization and redistribution," Cell Growth (16 February 2016).
"A run a day keeps the tumour at bay," The Economist (27 February 2016).
Physical Exercise
Congcong He et al, "Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis," Nature (22 February 2012).
Ken Garber, "Explaining exercise," Science 335: 281 (20 January 2012).
Bernard M.F.M. Duvivier et al, "Minimal intensity physical activity (standing and walking) of longer duration improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of moderate to vigorous exercise (cycling) in sedentary subjects when energy expenditure is comparable," PLoS One (13 February 2013).
Stephen M. Roth, "Why does lactic acid build up in muscles? And why does it cause soreness?," Scientific American (23 January 2006).
Gretchen Reynolds, "Running 5 minutes a day has long-lasting benefits," The New York Times (30 July 2014).
Mental Exercise
"Exercise is the best medicine, study shows," ScienceDaily (11 July 2014).
Debra Anderson et al, "Can physical activity prevent physical and cognitive decline in postmenopausal women?," Maturitas (20 June 2014).
"Exercise does a body -- and a mind – good," ScienceDaily (25 September 2012).
Gretchen Reynolds, "How intense study may harm our workouts," The New York Times (2 October 2013).
Jo Barton & Jules Pretty, "What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis," Environmental Science & Technology (25 March 2010).
James Vlahos, "Is sitting a lethal activity?," The New York Times (14 April 2011).
"Standing orders," The Economist (10 August 2013).
Aviroop Biswas et al, "Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Annals of Internal Medicine (20 January 2015).
Gloria A. Di Lullo et al, "Mapping the ligand-binding sites and disease-associated mutations on the most abundant protein in the human, type I collagen," The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277: 4223-4231 (8 February 2002).
Carlos H. Schenck, Sleep, Avery (2007).
B. van Swinderen, "1.28 – Sleep in Invertebrates," in Evolution of Nervous Systems, Elseivier (2007).
Andy Coghlan, "Trees seen resting branches while ‘asleep’ for the first time," New Scientist (28 May 2016).
Eetu Puttonen et al, "Quantification of overnight movement of birch (Betula pendula) branches and foliage with short interval terrestrial laser scanning," Frontiers in Plant Science (29 February 2016).
Andrew J. K. Phillips et al, "Mammalian sleep dynamics: how diverse features arise from a common physiological framework," PLoS Computational Biology (24 June 2010).
Richard M. Coleman, Wide Awake at 3:00 A.M., W.H. Freeman and Company (1986).
Christian Cajochen et al, "Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep," Current Biology (25 July 2013).
Tego Huber et al, "Sleep homeostasis in Drosophila melanogaster," Sleep 27(4) (2004).
Bruce Hecker, "How do whales and dolphins sleep without drowning?," Scientific American (2 February 1998).
Sarah Schwartz, "Dragons sleep like mammals, birds," Science News (28 May 2016).
Andrea Anderson, "Half asleeep," Scientific American Mind 22(4): 9 (September/October 2011).
"New research suggests we also dream during non-REM sleep cycles," Medical Xpress (11 April 2017).
Jennifer L. Lapierre et al, "Symmetrical serotonin release during asymmetrical slow-wave sleep: implications for the neurochemistry of sleep–waking states," The Journal of Neuroscience 33(6): 2555–2561 (6 February 2013).
David R. Samson & Charles L. Nunn, "Sleep intensity and the evolution of human cognition," Evolutionary Anthropology (12 December 2015).
Carl Zimmer, "Down from the trees, humans finally got a decent night’s sleep," The New York Times (17 December 2015).
Laura Sanders, "Left brain stands guard while asleep," Science News (28 May 2016).
Serge Daan et al, "Warming up for sleep? — ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation," Neuroscience Letters 128(2): 265–268 (22 July 1991).
Mark Peplow, "The anatomy of sleep," Nature 497: 82–83 (23 May 2013).
Christof Koch, "To sleep with half a brain," Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
Annie Bernier et al, "Relations between physiological and cognitive regulatory systems: infant sleep regulation and subsequent executive functioning," Child Development 81(6): 1739–1752 (November/December 2010).
Melinda Beck, "The sleepless elite," The Wall Street Journal (5 April 2011).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "The hidden risks of poor sleep in women," Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
Andrea Anderson, "Why we toss andn turn in an unfamiliar bed," Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
"Westerners sleep more than people from Eastern nations," Science News (29 June 2014).
"Who gets the most sleep?," Scientific American Mind (September/October 2016).
June C. Lo et al, "Young adults’ sleep duration on work days: Differences between East and West," Frontiers in Neurology (30 April 2014).
Maria Antonietta Tosches et al, "Melatonin signaling controls circadian swimming behavior in marine zooplankton," Cell 159(1): 46–57 (25 September 2014).
"From learning in infancy to planning ahead in adulthood: sleep's vital role for memory," ScienceDaily (8 April 2014).
Lulu Xie et al, "Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain," Science 342(6156): 373–377 (18 October 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Sleep allows brain to wash out junk," Science News (16 November 2013).
"To sleep, perchance to clean," Science 342: 1440 (20 December 2013).
Laura Saunders, "Sleep strengthens brain connections," Science News 186(1): 8 (12 July 2014).
Steven J. Frenda, "Sleep deprivation and false memories," Psychological Science (16 July 2014).
Susanne Diekelmann et al, "Sleep improves prospective remembering by facilitating spontaneous-associative retrieval processes," PLoS One (15 October 2013).
Kerri Smith, "Off to night school," Nature 497: S4–S5 (23 May 2013).
Delphine Oudiette et al, "The role of memory reactivation during wakefulness and sleep in determining which memories endure," The Journal of Neuroscience 33(15): 6672–6678 (10 April 2013).
S. Groch et al, "The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials," Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 99: 1–9 (January 2013).
Jakke Tamminen et al, "Sleep spindle activity is associated with the integration of new memories and existing knowledge," The Journal of Neuroscience 30(43): 14356–14360 (27 October 2010).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Sleep makes the memory," Science News (24 January 2011).
Susanne Diekelmann & Jan Born, "The memory function of sleep," Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11: 114–126 (February 2010).
Karen Debas et al, "Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network," NeuroImage 99(1): 50–58 (1 October 2014).
"Learning to play the piano? Sleep on it!," ScienceDaily (21 August 2014).
Ines Wilhelm et al, "The sleeping child outplays the adult’s capacity to convert implicit into explicit knowledge," Nature Neuroscience 16(4): 391–393 (April 2013).
"Poor sleep in old age prevents the brain from storing memories," ScienceDaily (27 January 2013).
Anat Arzi et al, "Humans can learn new information during sleep," Nature Neuroscience (26 August 2012).
James W Antony et al, "Cued memory reactivation during sleep influences skill learning," Nature Neuroscience (26 June 2012).
Dylan C. Barnes & Donald A. Wilson, "Slow-wave sleep-imposed replay modulates both strength and precision of memory," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(15): 5134–5142 (9 April 2014).
Daniel Bendor & Matthew A Wilson, "Biasing the content of hippo-campal replay during sleep," Nature Neuroscience 15(10): 1439–1444 (October 2012).
Michele Bellesi et al, "Effects of sleep and wake on oligodendrocytes and their precursors," The Journal of Neuroscience 33(36): 14288–14300 (4 September 2013).
David R. Euston & Hendrik W. Steenland, "Memories – getting wired during sleep," Science 344(6188): 1087–1088 (6 June 2014).
Guang Yang et al, "Sleep promotes branch-specific formation of dendritic spines after learning," Science 344(6188): 1173–1178 (6 June 2014). Ut Na Sio et al, "Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: effects of sleep on problem solving," Memory & Cognition 41(2): 159–166 (February 2013).
Edward F. Pace-Schott et al, "Sleep-dependent modulation of affec-tively guided decision-making," Journal of Sleep Research (27 April 2011).
John M. Grohol, "Why 'sleeping on it' helps," LiveScience (26 October 2009).
B. Wood et al, "Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression," Applied Ergonomics (31 July 2012).
Anahad O'Connor, "Really? Using a computer before bed can disrupt sleep," The New York Times (10 September 2012).
"The good life: good sleepers have better quality of life and less depression," ScienceDaily (15 June 2011).
Ayako Suzuki et al, " Behavioral and biochemical dissociation of arousal and homeostatic sleep need influenced by prior wakeful experience in mice," PNAS 110(25): 10288–10293 (18 June 2013).
"The better off sleep better," ScienceDaily (7 March 2011).
"Living in poor neighborhood linked to unhealthy sleeping habits," Nature World News (5 July 2014).
John Axelsson et al, "Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people," BMJ 341:c6614 (2010).
Katrin Ackermann et al, "Diurnal rhythms in blood cell populations and the effect of acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men," Sleep 35(7): 933–940 (2012).
Alice Park, "Less sleep pushes your brain to age faster," Time Magazine (2 July 2014).
Bryce A. Mander et al, "Prefrontal atrophy, disrupted NREM slow waves and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in aging," Nature Neuroscience 16: 357–364 (2013).
Jane E. Brody, "Cheating ourselves of sleep," The New York Times (17 June 2013).
Yo-El S. Ju et al, "Sleep quality and preclinical Alzheimer disease," JAMA Neurology 70(5): 587–593 (May 2013).
Nadine Petrovsky et al, "Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibi-tion and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans," The Journal of Neuroscience 34(27): 9134–9140 (2 July 2014).
Rebecca A. Bernert et al, "Association of poor subjective sleep quality with risk for death by suicide during a 10-year period," JAMA Psychiatry (13 August 2014). Mo Costandi, "Why poor sleep and forgetfulness plague the ageing brain," Nature News (27 January 2013).
"Obesity, depression found to be root causes of daytime sleepiness," ScienceDaily (13 June 2012).
James Mitchell Crow, "Insomnia: chasing the dream," Nature 497: S16–S18 (23 May 2013).
"People with insomnia have hyperactive brains," (1 May 2014).
Vivek Pillai et al, "Moderators and mediators of the relationship between stress and insomnia: stressor chronicity, cognitive intrusion, and coping," Sleep 37(7): 1199–1208 (July 2014).
Jeanne F. Duffy et al, "Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system," PNAS 108 (13 September 2011).
"Meditation practice may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease in teens," ScienceDaily (7 June 2012).
J.W. Anderson et al, "Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis," American Journal of Hypertension 21(3): 310–316 (2008).
Matt J. Rossano, "Did meditating make us human?," Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17(1): 47–58 (February 2007).
"Only 25 minutes of mindfulness meditation alleviates stress, according to Carnegie Mellon researchers," Carnegie Mellon University (2 July 2014).
Robert H. Schneider, "Evidence shows Transcendental Meditation has real health benefits," Huff Post Impact (7 February 2014).
Jack Forem, Transcendental Meditation, Hay House (1973).
Harold H. Boomfield et al, TM* Discovering Inner Energy and Overcoming Stress, Delacorte Press (1974).
M.V. Rainforth et al, "Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis," Current Hypertension Reports 9:520–528 (2007).
D.W Orme-Johnson et al, "Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain," NeuroReport 17(12):1359–1363 (2006).
K.G. Walton et al, "Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program," Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1032:211–215 (2005).
A. Arenander A. & F.T. Travis, "Brain patterns of self-awareness," in Self-Awareness Deficits, W.W. Norton (2004).
L.I. Mason et al, "Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program," Sleep 20 (2): 102–110 (1997).
C.N. Alexander et al, "Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings," Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262 (1993).
C. Gaylord et al, "The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults," International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77–86 (1989).
J.P Banquet & N. Lesevre, "Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain," Progress in Brain Research 54: 447–453 (1980).
V.A. Barnes et al, "Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovas-cular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure," Journal of Psychosomatic Research 51: 597–605 (2001).
C.N. Alexander et al, "Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: a conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis," Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–247 (1991).
Psychoactive Substances
Shiva photo courtesy of MicheleLovesArt.
Antonio Escohotado, A Brief History of Drugs, Park Street Press (1999).
Richard Evans Schultes et al, Plants Of The Gods, Healing Arts Press (1992).
Brian Stallard, "Nature's junkies: drugs, alcohol, and why animals use them," Nature World News (31 March 2015).
Jason G. Goldman, "Do animals like drugs and alcohol?," BBC (28 May 2014).
"Stoned wallabies make crop circles," BBC News (25 June 2009).
Nigel Blundell, "Pass the puffer, Flipper: dolphins high on toxic fish," The Sunday Times (29 December 2013).
Caffeine G.A. Wright et al, "Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward," Science 339(6124): 1202–1204 (8 March 2013).
Kopi Luwak
Asian palm civet photo courtesy of Praveenp.
"Selling cigarettes in Asia," The New York Times (10 September 1997).
"Many smokers still surprised by facts about tobacco's dangers," ScienceDaily (15 May 2014).
"Adult smokers’ responses to 'corrective statements' regarding tobacco industry deception," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(1): 26–36 (July 2014).
"MU study finds quitting smoking enhances personality change," University of Missouri News Bureau (12 September 2011).
Andrew K. Littlefield & Kenneth J. Sher, "Smoking desistance and personality change in emerging and young adulthood," Nicotine & Tobacco Research (12 January 2012).
Michelle Roberts, "Smoker numbers edge close to one billion," BBC News (7 January 2014).
David T Levy et al, "Smoking-related deaths averted due to three years of policy progress," Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2013).
"No butts," The Economist (1 July 2013).
J. Giovanni, “Come to cancer country,” The Times of London (2 August 1992).
Robert N. Proctor, "What's really in your cigarette?," The Wall Street Journal (31 August 2012).
"Tobacco," Media centre (web site), World Health Organization (May 2014).
Doris Cullen et al, "A Guide to Deciphering the Internal Codes Used by the Tobacco Industry, Report No. 03-05," Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, Tobacco Research Program, (August 2005).
Health Effects
Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, World Health Organization (2008).
Ron Winslow, "Smokers lose 10-plus years of life, studies find," The Wall Street Journal (23 January 2013).
R Sakata et al, "Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study," BMJ (25 October 2012).
Leslie K. Jacobsen et al, "Effects of smoking and smoking abstinence on cognition in adolescent tobacco smokers," Biological Psychiatry 57(1): 56–66 (1 January 2005).
Arthur L. Brody et al, "Differences between smokers and nonsmokers in regional gray matter volumes and densities," Biological Psychiatry 55(1): 77–84 (1 January 2004).
Passive Damage
"Second-hand smoking damages memory," ScienceDaily (11 Septem-ber 2012).
Thomas M. Heffernan & Terence S. O'Neill "Exposure to second-hand smoke damages everyday prospective memory," Addiction (18 Octo-ber 2012).
Pam Belluck, "Smoking bans reduce heart attacks and disease," The New York Times (16 October 2009).
Jimmy Downs, "Passive smoking causes more heart disease deaths than lung cancer deaths," (27 November 2010).
"Health risks posed by 'third hand' tobacco smoke," ScienceDaily (16 July 2014).
Noelia Ramírez et al, "Exposure to nitrosamines in thirdhand tobacco smoke increases cancer risk in non-smokers," Environment International 71: 139–147 (October 2014).
Anna Hodgekiss, "The dangers of third hand smoke: dangerous chemicals can lurk in house dust, curtains and armchairs - even in homes where no-one smokes," Mail Online (16 July 2014).
Bo Hang et al, "Thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells," Mutagenesis (5 March 2013).
"What should you know about e-cigarettes?," ScienceDaily (23 October 2013).
"Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)," US FDA Public Health Focus (web site) (3 July 2014).
Sabrina Tavernise, "F.D.A. tightens rules for e-cigarettes in a landmark move," The New York Times (5 May 2016).
"Active ingredient in marijuana causes paranoia," Nature World News (17 July 2014).
Grace Thomas et al, "Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know," The American Journal of Cardiology 113(1): 187–190 (1 January 2014).
Jann Gumbiner, "Does marijuana cause cancer?," Psychology Today (17 February 2011).
Mia De Graff, "Marijuana users 'have abnormally low blood flow in the brain'," Daily Mail (28 December 2016).
Dennis Thompson, "Pot may restrict blood flow to brain: study," MedicalXpress (30 December 2016).
Cathy Payne & Michelle Healy, "Marijuana's health effects: memory problems, addiction," USA Today (7 December 2012).
Nora D. Volkow et al, "Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity," PNAS (16 July 2014).
Edmund Silins et al, "Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis," The Lancet Psychiatry 1(4): 286–293 (September 2014).
Francesca M. Filbey & Joseph Dunlop, "Differential reward network functional connectivity in cannabis dependent and non-dependent users," Drug and Alcohol Dependence 140: 101–111 (1 July 2014).
Madeline H. Meier et al, "Persistent cannabis users show neuropsycho-logical decline from childhood to midlife," PNAS (27 August 2012).
"Regular marijuana use bad for teens' brains," American Physiological Association (9 August 2014).
"Frequent marijuana use can lower IQ, cause memory problems in teens," Nature World News (11 August 2014).
Nora D. Volkow et al, "Adverse health effects of marijuana use," The New England Journal of Medicine 370: 2219–2227 (5 June 2014).
"Long-term cannabis used may blunt the brain's motivation system," ScienceDaily (1 July 2013).
Shaul Lev-Ran et al, "Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders among individuals with mental illness," Comprehensive Psychiatry 54(6): 589–598 August 2013).
"Researchers find genetic link between schizophrenia and marijuana use," Nature World News (24 January 2014).
Else-Marie Løberg et al, "An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use," Frontiers in Psychiatry (30 October 2012).
Michael A.P. Bloomfield et al, "Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms," Biological Psychiatry (1 July 2013).
Jing Han et al, "Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD," Cell 148: 1039-1050 (March 2012).
Simon Makin, "Does marijuana harm the brain?," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 17 (September/October 2014).
"Marijuana use associated with impaired sleep quality," ScienceDaily (2 June 2014).
"The great pot experiment," The Economist (12 July 2014).
Jack Healy, "After 5 months of sales, Colorado sees the downside of a legal high," The New York Times (31 May 2014).
"Colorado officials say $14m in recreational marijuana sold in January," The Guardian (10 March 2014).
Serge F. Kovaleski, "Medical marijuana research hits wall of US law," The New York Times (9 August 2014).
Kimberly J. Hockings et al, "Tools to tipple: ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges," Royal Society Open Science (14 May 2015).
Nicholas Bakalar, "For some chimpanzees, happy hour starts with stealing," The New York Times (9 June 2015).
"Alcohol dulls brain 'alarm' that monitors mistakes, study finds," ScienceDaily (2 September 2011).
"Drinking alcohol provides no heart health benefit, new study shows," ScienceDaily (10 July 2014).
Michael V. Holmes et al, "Association between alcohol and cardiovas-cular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data," BMJ (10 July 2014).
Jennie Connor, "Alcohol consumption as a cause of cancer," Addiction (21 July 2016).
Denis Campbell, "Alcohol is a direct cause of seven forms of cancer, finds study," Addiction (22 July 2016).
Tom de Castella, "100 years of the war on drugs," BBC News (24 January 2012).
James Nestor, "Get clean or die trying," Scientific American (November 2016).
Kenneth R. Alper et al, "Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine," The American Journal of Addictions 8(3): 234–242 (Sum-mer 1999).
Claudio Naranjo, The healing journey: new approaches to consciousness, Pantheon Books (1974).
Enzo Tagliazucchi et al, "Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience," Human Brain Mapping (June 2014).
Erica Rex, "Calming a turbulent mind," Scientific American Mind 23(3): 59-66 (May/June 2013).
Mo Costandi, "Psychedelic chemical subdues brain activity," Nature (23 January 2012).
Robin L. Carhart-Harris et al, "Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin," PNAS 109(6): 2138–2143 (7 February 2012).
Roni Jacboson, "Mystical medicine," Scientific American Mind 25(5): 24 (September/October 2014).
Robin McKie, "Magic mushrooms' psychedelic ingredient could help treat people with severe depression," The Guardian (6 April 2013).
Kai Kupferschmidt, "High hopes," Science 345: 18–23 (7 July 2014).
Rainer Kraehenmann et al, "Psilocybin-induced decrease in amygdala reactivity correlates with enhanced positive mood in healthy volunteers," Biological Psychiatry (26 April 2014).
"Psilocybin inhibits the processing of negative emotions in the brain," ScienceDaily (7 May 2014).
Zoe Cormier, "How magic mushrooms induce a dreamlike state," New Scientist (4 July 2014).
Zoe Cormie, "No link found between psychedelics and psychosis," Nature (4 March 2015).
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer et al, A History of East Asian Civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition, George Allen & Unwin Ltd. (1960).