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Spokes 3: Table of Contents   612 pages   {Notes}

Life's History
    Geological Time
    Mass Extinctions
        Extinction Events
            End-Ordovician Extinction
            End-Devonian Extinction
        Causes
        Extinction Theories
            Catastrophism
            Uniformitarianism
    Timeline
                    A Watery Start
        Eukaryotes Evolve
            Spurring Multicellularity
                Reproduction Isolation
                Increasing Complexity
                    Sponges
        The Cryogenian Cooler
        Edicaran Life
        The Cambrian Explosion
                    Burgess Shale
                    Hallucigenia
                Fish Appear
                    Trilobytes
        Fish Tales
            Sharks
            Bottom Up
        Verdure Venture
                     Ferns

        Animals
            Insects Emerge
                     Early Herbivores
            Vertebrates Arrive on Land
        Continental Moves
        Plant Evolution
            Trees
                Fire Ecology
        Amphibians & Reptiles
            Snakes & Lizards
                Lizard Adaptability
                    Viviparity
                    Ginkgo
        The Great Dying
        The Triassic
        Flowering Plants
        Dinosaur Dominion
            Continental Shifts

            Body Heat
            The First Dinosaurs
                Hip Classification
            Saurischians
            Theropods & Sauropods
                Tyrannosaurs
                    T. Rex
                    Dakotaraptor
            Ornithischians
                    Dinosaur Fleas
                    Water Fleas
            Ostrich Dinosaurs
                    Anzu
            In the Skies
                    Anurognathus
            At Sea
        Yucatan Big Bang
        Birds
                Growth Evolution
                    Yi qi
                    Aurornis
                    Archaeopteryx
                    Microraptor
                    Confusiusornis
            Extinction & Evolution
            Pedestrians
            Feathers
            Bones
            Muscle & Tendons
            Lungs
            Manipulation
                    Woodpecker Beaks
            Flightless Birds
        Grasses
                    Mouseketeers
        True Beasts
            Mammals Multiply
            Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
            Primates Ascendant
            Eocene Cooling
                Antarctica Isolated
            Mediterranean Sea
    Geology & Plants
         Milankovitch Cycles
         Tectonic Pulses
    Synopsis
Evolution
            Analogues and Homologues
    Conceptual History
        Spontaneous Generation
        Preformatism
            Spermism
                Jan Swammerdam
        Natural Selection
                Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
                Giovanni Brocchi
                Charles Darwin
                Gregor Mendel
    Darwinism
        Competition
                Seabird Colonies
            Genomic Symphony
                Selfish Genes
        Random Mutation
                Nematode Timing
        Progress
            Devolution
                Wrasses
        Genes Only
        Selection's Selector
    The Science of Evolution
            Definitions
            A New Trait
                Sex Ratios
        Saltation
                Common Cordgrass
                Turtles
                Sphinx Moths
        Behavior
                Attitude Counts
            Human Mating Strategies
            Parasitic Manipulation
                Caterpillar Bodyguards
            Baldwin Effect
                House Finches
        Inheritance & Evolution
            Genetic Inheritance
                Gene Flow
            Mutation
            Recombination
            Gene Conversion
            Self-Splicing Elements
            Epigenetic Inheritance
                    Vinegar Flies
        Cells
                    Evolution Eternal
                    Ciliate Protozoa
                        DNA Mavens
            Microbes
            Viral Infection
            Evolvability
                Metabolism
            Adaptation in Disguise
                    Hemoglobin
            Haploid Adaptation
        Adaptation
            Islands
                Animals
                Plants
                   Gall Plumbing
                   Backdoor Beetles
            Feathers & Fur
            Poison Avoidance
                    Pig Litters
                    Lusty Birds
                    Planthopper Leap Gear
                    Harvester Ants
            Rapid Adaptation
                    Polar Bears
                    Sticklebacks
                    Coy Wolves
                    Tibetans
                    Florida Lizards
                    Big-headed Ants
                    Polluted Fish
                    Polluted People
                    Peppered Moths
                    Mosquitofish
                    Birds
                    Potato Whiteflies
                    Coral
                Germ Plasm
            Coevolution
                Symbiosis
                     Deep-Sea Battery
                     Termites & Fungus
                Plants & Animals
                Adaptive Predatory Cycle
                    Bad Taste
                Marked Against Predation
                    False Eyespots
        Conservation
            Weak Linkage
                The Easy Route
        Convergent Evolution
            Plants
                     Digestive Flexibility
                     Foraging
                     Infant Distress
                     Blood Suckers
                     Swimming Ants
                     Rove Beetles
                     High-Altitude Hummingbirds
                     Insect Eusociality
                     Blue Tarantulas
            Camouflage
                     Endogenous Retroviruses
                Adipose Fins
            Flight
            Singing
            Toxic Adaptation
                    Alkaloids
                    Glycosides
            Vision
                    Sea Urchins
                    Chiton
                    Paper Wasps
            Hearing
            Echolocation
                   Suction Vision
            Nervous Systems
            Brains
        Reversion Evolution
                    Snakes
                    Mites
                    Viruses
        Sex
                    Seven Sexes
                    Gray Tree Frogs
                    Guppies
                    Conspecific Male Plant Competition
            Hypotheses on Sex
            Sexual Selection Intensity
            Domiance
            Genitalia
            Rejections
            Humans
        Speciation
            History
                    Flies in Evolutionary Flight
                    Woodrats
                    Monkey-Flowers
                    Birds
                    Unhired Protection
            Niches
                    Competition in Guadalupe Canyon
                    Hummingbirds
                    Lake Constance Sticklebacks
                    Orca Culture
            Evolutionary Hotspots
                    Galapogos Islands
                    Paramo
        Precision
            Evolution By Perception
                     Nectar
            Mimicry
                     Cowbirds
                     Cagey Vines
                Batesian Mimicry
                Mullerian Mimicry
                     Tiger Moths
                     Mimic Octopus
                     Large Blue Butterfly
                     Courting Cockroach Counterfeit
        Inclusive Fitness
            Fitness Through Ignorance
            Altruism Innate
        Life-History Variables
            Animals
                Allometry
                     Bat Echolocation
                     Bat Shelter and Sociality
                     Infanticide
                     Cicadas
                     Mammal Predation
                     Mammal Defecation
                     Diving Birds
                Sexuality
                     Banana Slug Sex
                     Ram Horns and Longevity
                     Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
                Mating and Parent Care
                Precocial versus Altricial
                Bergman's Rule
                     Hot Horse
                     Wandering Albatross Winds
                Sociality
            Intelligence

            Plants
                     Seeds
                Rate of Living
                     George the Lobster
                   Full Lives
                Negligible Senescence
    Synopsis
Human Descent
            Neoteny
            Brain Size
            Vocalization
            Proconsul
            Climate
                Pleistocene
                The Last Glacial Maximum
                The Holocene Extinction
            Bipedalism
                Savannah Hypothesis
    Hominids
        Sahelanthropus
        Orrorin
        Ardipithecus
        Australopithecus
                    Fisticuffs
            Au. anamensis
            Au. bahrelghazali
            Au. africanus
                Lucy's Northern Cousin
                Lucy's Southern Cousin
                Lucy's Next-Door Neighbor
            Au. garhi
            Au. sediba

        Kenyanthropus
        Paranthropus
        Homo
           The Paleolithic
           H. Habilis
              Not Homo?
           Splitting & Lumping
              H. antiquus
              H. rudolfensis
              H. helmei
           H. gautengenis
           H. erectus
           Diet
               Meat & Vegetables
               On the Hunt
               Fire
           H. antecessor
           H. heidelbergensis
               Controversy
               H. rhodesiensis

           Neanderthal
               Brain Development
               Technology
               Diet
           Denisovans
           H. floresiensis
           Homo sapiens
    Propelling Human Evolution
        Brains & Brawn
        Language
                Tilda
        Monogamy
        Longevity
        Social Cunning
        Cooperation
        Social Structure
           Cultural Diversity
           Domestication
        Technology
    Synopsis
Early Human History
    Prehistory
        Three-Age System
    Expression
        Art
           Abstract Art
           Cave Paintings
                  Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave
        Writing
           Dispersal and Retention
    Stone Age
           Oldowan Industry
           Archeulean Industry
           Mousterian Industry
    Settlement
                   Dolni Vestonice
                   Abu Hureyra
    Agriculture
        Soil & Human Fertility
        Animal Domestication
                The Descent of Dogs
                Silkworms
        Cultural Crops
                Mesopotamia
    Early Civilizations
            Sumer
        Materialism
        Religion
    Bronze Age
            Minoan Civilization
        Ancient Egypt
        Bronze Age Collapse
            Mycenaean Civilization
    Iron Age
        Ancient Greece
        Ancient Rome
    Synopsis
Conclusion