Spokes 3 : Research References    (Table of Contents)
Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary,, and the ever-evolving Internet.

Life's History
Marc W. Kirshner & John C. Gerhart, The Plausibility of Life, Yale University Press (2005).
Brian K. Hall & Benedikt Hallgrimsson, Strickberger's Evolution, Jones and Bartlett Publishers (2008).
K.J. Willis & J.C. McElwain, The Evolution of Plants, Oxford University Press (2002).
Paul H. Ehrlich & Anne H. Ehrlich, The Dominant Animal, IslandPress (2008).
Mass Extinctions
Norman Macleod, The Great Extinctions: What Causes Them and How They Shape Life, Firefly Books (2013).
Geerat J. Vermeij, "Temperature, tectonics, and evolution," in Evolution on Planet Earth, Academic Press (2003).
Mats Dynesius & Roland Jansson, "Persistence of within-species lineages: a neglected control of speciation rates," Evolution (11 December 2013).
"Extinctions reduce speciation," ScienceDaily (4 April 2014).
Extinction Events
Norman MacLeod, The Great Extinctions, Firefly Books (2013).
Richard A. Kerr, "More than one way for invaders to wreak havoc," Science 335 (6069): 646 (10 February 2012).
Marine extinctions chart adapted from: D.M. Raup & J.J. Sepkoski, Jr., "Periodic extinction of families and genera," 231 (4740): 833–836 Science (21 February 1986).
Stephen P. Hesselbo et al, "Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event," Nature 406: 392–395 (27 July 2000).
Shannon Hall, "Fire and ice," Scientific American (August 2017).
Haley A. Lindsey et al, "Evolutionary rescue from extinction is contingent on a lower rate of environmental change," Nature 494: 463–467 (28 February 2013).
Nola Taylor Redd, "How a young Jupiter acted as both protector and destroyer," Smithsonian (6 July 2016).
"New study challenges Jupiter's role as planetary shield, protecting Earth from comet impacts," (3 February 2016).
Elizabeth Howell, "Jupiter's movements made way for Earth," Astrobiology Magazine (22 June 2015).
Konstantin Batygina & Greg Laughlin, "Jupiter’s decisive role in the inner Solar System’s early evolution," PNAS (23 March 2015).
Kevin R. Grazier, "Jupiter: cosmic Jekyll and Hyde," Astrobiology 16(1): 23-38 (January 2016).
Anne Minard, "Jupiter both an impact source and shield for Earth," National Geographic News (27 August 2007).
"Life on Earth likely started 4.1 billion years ago—much earlier than scientists thought," (19 October 2015).
Elizabeth A. Bell et al, "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon," PNAS 112(47): 14518-14521 (24 November 2015).
James O. McInerney & Mary J. O'Connell, "Mind the gaps in cellular evolution," Nature 541: 297-298 (19 January 2017).
Jatarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka et al, "Asgard archaea illuminate the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity," Nature 541: 353-357 (19 January 2017).
Heather J. Goldsby et al, "Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality," PNAS 109(34): 13686–13691 (21 August 2012).
"How do plants make oxygen? Ask cyanobacteria," (30 March 2017).
Robert E. Blankenship, "How cyanobacteria went green," Science 355(6332): 1372-1373 (31 March 2017).
Rochelle M. Soo et al, "On the origins of oxygenic photsynthesis and aerobic respiration in cyanobacteria," Science 355(6332): 1436-1440 (31 March 2017).
"Division of labor offers insight into the evolution of multicellular life," ScienceDaily (7 August 2012).
William F. Martin, "The origin of mitochondria," Nature Education 3(9): 58 (2010).
Timothy W. Lyons et al, "The rise of oxygen in Earth's early ocean and atmosphere," Nature 506: 307-315 (20 February 2014).
Anna Salleh, "Great Oxidation Event 'a misnomer'," ABC Science (20 February 2014).
Abderrazak El Albani et al, "Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago," Nature 466: 100–104 (1 July 2010). Philip C. J. Donoghue & Jonathan B. Antcliffe, "Early life: Origins of multicellularity," Nature 466: 41-42 (1 July 2010).
"Complex, multicellular life from over two billion years ago discovered," ScienceDaily (1 July 2010).
Richard Southwood, The Story of Life, Oxford University Press (2003).
Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, W.W. Norton & Company (1989).
"When did eukaryotic cells (cells with nuclei and other internal organelles) first evolve? What do we know about how they evolved from earlier life-forms?," Scientific American (21 October 1999).
Derek E.G. Briggs & Rea-Alan Fortey, "Wonderful strife: Systematics, stem groups, and the phylogenetic signal of the Cambrian radiation," Paleobiology 32(5): 94-112 (June 2005).
Gregory J. Retallack et al, "Archean coastal-plain paleosols and life on land," Gondwana Research 40: 1–20 (December 2016).
Tamara L. Carley et al, "Iceland is not a magmatic analog for the Hadean: evidence from the zircon record," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 405: 85–97 (1 November 2014).
Robin Wordsworth & Raymond Pierrehumbert, "Hydrogen-nitrogen greenhouse warming in earth's early atmosphere," Science 339(64): 64–67 (4 January 2013).
"Life took hold on land 300 million years earlier than thought," ScienceDaily (8 November 2016).
Sami Nabha et al, "Biogenic overgrowth on detrital pyrite in ca. 3.2 Ga Archean paleosols," Geology (August 2016).
James F. Kasting,"How was early earth kept warm?," Science 339(64): 44–45 (4 January 2013).
P. Chellapandi, "Molecular evolution of methanogens based on their metabolic facets," Frontiers in Biology 6(6): 490–503 (December 2011).
Haiwei Luo et al, "Gene order phylogeny and the evolution of methanogens," PLoS One (29 June 2009).
Bettina E. Schirrmeister et al, "Evolution of multicellularity coincided with increased diversification of cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event," PNAS 110(5): 1791-1796 (29 January 2013).
Catherine Brahic, "Meet the electric life forms that live on pure energy," New Scientist (16 July 2014).
Dennis Höning et al, "Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: a model for mantle hydration and continental coverage," Planetary and Space Science (October 2013).
Tanai Cardona, "Origin of bacteriochlorophyll a and the early diversification of photosynthesis," PLoS One (8 March 2016).
"Photosynthesis more ancient than thought, and most living things could do it," ScienceDaily (15 March 2016).
Joydip Mukhopadhyay et al, "Oxygenation of the Archean atmosphere: new paleosol constraints from eastern India," Geology (28 August 2014).
Bettina E. Schirrmeister et al, "Evolution of multicellularity coincided with increased diversification of cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event," PNAS 110(5): 1791–1796 (29 January 2013).
Richard K. Grosberg & Richard R. Strathmann, "The evolution of multicellularity: a minor major transition," The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 621-654 (2007).
Laura Wegener Parfrey & Daniel J.G. Lahr, "Multicellularity arose several times in the evolution of eukaryotes," BioEssays 35(4): 339-347 (April 2013).
Daniel J. Dickinson, "An epithelial tissue in Dictyostelium challenges the traditional origin of metazoan multicellularity," BioEssays 34(10): 833-840 (October 2012).
Richard E. Michod et al, "Life-history evolution and the origin of multicellularity," Journal of Theoretical Biology (2005).
Erik R. Hanschen, et al, "The Gonium pectorale genome demonstrates co-option of cell cycle regulation during the evolution of multicellularity," Nature Communications (22 April 2016).
Karl J. Niklas, "The evolutionary-developmental origins of multicellularity," American Journal of Botany (20 December 2013).
Robert Schuetz et al, "Multidimensional optimality of microbial metabolism," Science 336: 601–604 (4 May 2012).
Michael Slezak, "Early life built Earth's continents," New Scientist (25 November 2013).
Esteban Gazel et al, "Continental crust generated in oceanic arcs," Nature Geoscience (31 March 2015).
Jacqueline Howard, "How did the Earth’s continents form? Scientists move big step closer to solving mystery," Huffington Post (3 April 2015).
William F. Martin, "The origin of mitochondria," Nature Education 3(9): 58 (2010).
"Researchers discover missing link in the evolution of complex cells," Uppsala University (6 May 2015).
Laurel Hamers, "One-celled life possessed tools for going multicellular," Science News (13 October 2016).
Arnau Sebé-Pedrós et al, "High-throughput proteomics reveals the unicellular roots of animal phosphosignaling and cell differentiation," Developmental Cell 39(2): 186–197 (24 October 2016).
Anja Spang et al, "Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes," Nature (6 May 2015).
Shixing Zhu et al, "Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China," Nature Communications (17 May 2016).
"Complex life on Earth began billion years earlier than previously thought, study argues," The Guardian (17 May 2016).
Katherine L. French et al, "Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks," PNAS 112(19): 5915–5920 (12 May 2015).
David Biello, "How the first plant came to be," Nature (16 February 2012).
Dana C. Price et al, "Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants," Science 335(6070): 843–847 (17 February 2012).
Takunari Kono et al, "A RuBisCO-mediated carbon metabolic pathway in methanogenic archaea," Nature Communications (13 January 2017).
"Mechanism for photosynthesis already existed in primeval microbe," (31 January 2017).
"Origin of photosynthesis revealed: genome analysis of 'living fossil' sheds light on the evolution of plants," ScienceDaily (21 February 2012).
Spurring Multicellularity
Jennifer Carpenter, "Multicellularity driven by bacteria," Science 337(6094): 510 (3 August 2012).
Michael G. Hadfield, "Molecular clue links bacteria to the origin of animals," eLife 1:e00242 (2012).
Rosanna A. Alegado et al, "A bacterial sulfonolipid triggers multicellular development in the closest living relatives of animals," eLife 1:e00013 (15 October 2012).
"Did bacteria spark evolution of multicellular life?," ScienceDaily (24 October 2012).
Walter Godchaux III & Edward R. Leadbetter, "Sulfonoids of gliding bacteria," The Journal of Biological Chemistry 259(5): 2982–2990 (10 March 1984).
Eric Libby & William C. Ratcliff, "Ratcheting the evolution of multicellularity," Science 346(6208): 426–427 (24 October 2014).
Eric Libby et al, "Geometry shapes evolution of early multicellularity," PLoS Computational Biology (18 September 2014).
Davide Pisani et al, "Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals," PNAS (1 December 2015).
"Animal evolution: sponges really are oldest animal phylum," ScienceDaily (1 December 2015).
A. Riesgo et al, "The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all Porifera classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges," Molecular Biology and Evolution 31(5): 1102-1120 (May 2014).
"Largest evolutionary study of sponges sheds new light on animal evolution," ScienceDaily (7 February 2014).
Sohei Nakayama et al, "Dynamic transport and cementation of skeletal elements build up the pole-and-beam structured skeleton of sponges," Current Biology (17 September 2015).
Reproduction Isolation
Jonathan M. Chase, "A fool to do your dirty work?," PLoS Biology (13 May 2014).
Heather J. Goldsby et al, "The evolutionary origin of somatic cells under the dirty work hypothesis," PLoS Biology (13 May 2014).
"Delegating the dirty work is a key to evolution," (22 May 2014).
Arunas L. Radzvilavicius et al, "Selection for mitochondrial quality drives evolution of the germline," PLos Biology (20 December 2016).
"Sex cells evolved to pass on quality mitochondria," (20 December 2016).
Frédéric Berger & David Twell, "Germlien specification and function in plants," Annual Review of Plant Biology 62: 461-484 (June 2011).
Susannah H. Kassmer et al, "Migration of germline progenitor cells is directed by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling in a basal chordate," Nature Communications (12 October 2015).
Cassandra G. Extavour & Michael Akam, "Mechanisms of germ cell specification across the metazoans: epigenesis and preformation," Development 130: 5869-5884 (2003).
Andrew D Johnson et al, "Evolution of the germ line–soma relationship in vertebrate embryos," Reproduction (12 January 2011).
E. Asselin et al, "Mammalian follicular development and atresia: role of apoptosis," Biological Signals and Receptors 9(2): 87-95 (March-April 2000).
Fuko Matsuda et al, "Follicular growth and atresia in mammalian ovaries: regulation by survival and death of granulosa cells," Journal of Reproduction and Development 58(10: 44-50 (2012).
J.K. Bhardwaj and R.K. Sharma, "Apoptosis and ovarian follicular atresia in mammals," InTech (23 March 2012).
The Cryogenian Cooler
Breandán Anraoi MacGabhann, "Age constraints on Precambrian glaciations and the subdivision of Neoproterozoic time," Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway.
"Deep ocean is a safe haven ," Nature (28 May 2014).
Doug Macdougall, Frozen Earth, University of California Press (2004).
Frank A. Corsetti et al, "A complex microbiota from Snowball Earth times: microfossils from the Neoproterozoic Kingston Peak Formation, Death Valley, USA," PNAS (7 October 2002).
Francis A. Macdonald et al, "Calibrating the Cryogenian," Science 327(5970): 1241–1243 (5 March 2010).
"Snowball Earth: new evidence hints at global glaciation 716.5 million years ago," ScienceDaily (5 March 2010).
William T. Hyde et al, "Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth' simulations with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model," Nature 405: 425–429 (25 May 2000).
Bryan A. Killingsworth et al, "Sedimentary constraints on the duration of the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event," PNAS 110(44): 17686–17690 (29 October 2013).
Thomas J. Crowley et al, "CO2 levels required for deglaciation of a “near-snowball” Earth," Geophysical Research Letters 28(2): 283–286 (15 January 2001).
Alexandra Witze, "A snowball's chance," Science News (14 September 2011).
Jeff Hecht, "Why did evolution stall during the 'boring billion'?," New Scientist (1 May 2014).
Douglas H. Erwin et al, "The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals," Science 334 (6059): 1091–1097 (25 November 2011).
Francisco José Ayala et al, "Origin of the metazoan phyla: molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates," PNAS 95(2): 606–611 (20 January 1998).
"Animal evolution: sponges really are oldest animal phylum," Science-Daily (1 December 2015).
Davide Pisani et al, "Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals," PNAS (30 November 2015).
Daniel B. Mills et al, "Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals," PNAS 111(11): 4168–4172 (18 March 2014).
Timothy M. Lenton et al, "Co-evolution of eukaryotes and ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic era," Nature Geoscience (3 March 2014).
Swapan K. Sahoo et al, "Ocean oxygenation in the wake of the Marinoan glaciation," Nature 489: 546–549 (27 September 2012).
Thomas Sumner, "Fossils contain earliest signs of shells," Science News (29 October 2016).
Ediacaran Life
Matt Kaplan, "Enigmatic fossils are neither animals nor bacteria," Nature (22 December 2011).
Simon A.F. Darroch et al, "Biotic replacement and mass extinction of the Ediacara biota," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2 September 2015).
S. Schroder, "Evidence for anoxia at the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary: the record of redox-sensitive trace elements and rare earth elements in Oman," Journal of the Geological Society 164(1):175 (2007).
D.A. Fike et al, "Multi-stage Ediacaran ocean oxidation and its impact on evolutionary radiation," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (18S): 173–173 (2006).
J. Scott Turner, The Extended Organisms 82–84, Harvard University Press (2000).
Daniel Strain, Microbial mats may have given early animals breathing room," Science News 179(13): 9 (18 June 2011).
R.A. Boyle et al, "Stabilization of the coupled oxygen and phosphorus cycles by the evolution of bioturbation," Nature Geoscience (3 August 2013).
Gregory J. Retallack, "Ediacaran life on land," Nature (12 December 2012).
Michael S.Y. Lee et al, "Rates of phenotypic and genomic evolution during the Cambrian explosion," Current Biology 23: 1–7 (7 October 2013).
Xavier Fernández-Busquets et al, "Self-recognition and Ca2-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate cell adhesion provide clues to the Cambrian explosion," Molecular Biology and Evolution 26 (11): 2551 (2009).
A. Yu. Zhuravlev et al, "Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophor," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (4 November 2015).
Jon M. Husson & Shanan E. Peters, "Atmospheric oxygenation driven by unsteady growth of the continental sedimentary reservoir," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 460: 68–75 (15 February 2017).
"Fossil fuel formation: Key to atmosphere’s oxygen?," ScienceDaily (30 December 2016).
Douglas H. Erwin, "Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (2015).
The Cambrian Explosion
Roger Lewin, "A lopsided look at evolution," Science 241(4863): 291–293 (15 July 1988).
Luis A. Buatois et al, "Ediacaran matground ecology persisted into the earliest Cambrian," Nature Communications (28 March 2014).
Bob Holmes, "Evolution's big bang: how life on Earth took off," New Scientist (1 March 2015).
Shanan E. Peters & Robert R. Gaines, "Formation of the ‘Great Unconformity' as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion," Nature 484, 363–366 (19 April 2012).
M. Paul Smith & David A.T. Harper, "Causes of the Cambrian explosion," Science 341: 1355–1356 (20 September 2013).
Elizbeth Pennisi, "Fossils, cells point to early appearance of the brain," Science 350(6262): 729–730 (13 November 2015).
Timothy M. Lenton et al, "Co-evolution of eukaryotes and ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic era," Nature Geoscience (9 March 2014).
Catherine Brahic, "Were early seas transformed by sponge microbi-ome?," New Scientist (23 February 2015).
Fan Zhang et al, "Phosphorus sequestration in the form of polyphos-phate by microbial symbionts in marine sponges," PNAS (23 Febru-ary 2015).
Stephanie Pain, "Seeing the light," New Scientist (21 November 1998).
Erik A. Sperling et al, "Oxygen, ecology, and the Cambrian radiation of animals," PNAS (31 July 2013).
Hallucigenia Martin R. Smith & Javier Ortega-Hernández, "Hallucigenia’s onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda," Nature (17 August 2014).
Fish Appear
John A. Long, The Rise of Fishes, 2nd edition, The John Hopkins University Press (2011).
Simon Conway Morris & Jean-Bernard Caron, "A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America," Nature (11 June 2014).
D.G. Shu et al, "Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys," Nature 421: 526–529 (30 January 2003).
Pikaia, Metaspriggina and Haikouichthys were among the first fish.
Philip S.L. Anderson et al, "Initial radiation of jaws demonstrated stability despite faunal and environmental change," Nature (6 July 2011).
G.E. Budd & S. Jensen, "A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla," Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 75 (2): 253–295 (2000).
Susan Milius, "Biology's big bang had a long fuse," Science News (28 November 2011).
Xiaoya Ma et al, "An exceptionally preserved arthropod cardiovascular system from the early Cambrian," Nature Communications (7 April 2014).
"Ancient shrimp-like animals had 'modern' hearts and blood vessels," (7 April 2014).
Riccardo Levi-Setti, The Trilobite Book: A Visual Journey, University of Chicago Press (2014).
Richard Fortey, "Olenid trilobites: The oldest known chemoautotrophic symbionts?," PNAS (6 June 2000).
Jonathan M. Adrain et al, "Post-Cambrian trilobite diversity and evolutionary faunas," Science 280 (5371): 1922–1925 (19 June 1998).
Fish Tales
Birger Schmit et al, "Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event," Nature Geoscience 1: 49–53 (16 December 2007).
Alan Pradel et al, "A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches," Nature (16 April 2014).
Min Zhu et al, "A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones," Nature 502: 188–194 (10 October 2013).
Matt Friedman & Martin D. Brazeau, "A jaw-dropping fossil fish," Nature 502: 175–176 (10 October 2013).
Shigeru Kuratani, "A muscular perspective on vertebrate evolution," Science 341: 160–164 (12 July 2013).
Kate Trinajstic et al, "Fossil musculature of the most primitive jawed vertebrates," Science 341: 139–40 (12 July 2013).
Rodney Steel, Sharks of the World, Octopus Publishing Group (1998).
Michael Bright, Sharks, Firefly Books (2011).
Carol Clark, "The math of shark skin," (3 July 2015).
John A. Long et al, "First shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo formation, western Australia sheds new light on the development of tessellated calcified cartilage," PLoS One (28 May 2015).
Oliver Milman, "'Missing link' in shark evolution found in 380m-year-old Australian fossil," The Guardian (28 May 2015).
Johannes Oeffner & George V. Lauder, " The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications," The Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 785–795 (1 March 2012).
Ryan M. Kempster et al, "Survival of the stillest: predator avoidance in shark embryos," PLoS One 8(1): e52551 (January 2013).
Johann Mourier et al, "Learning and robustness to catch-and-release fishing in a shark social network," Biology Letters (15 March 2017).
"Smart sharks have robust social networks and learn to avoid capture," (15 March 2017).
Robert F. Marx, The History of Underwater Exploration, Courier Dover Publications (1990).
Bottom Up Ben Thuy et al, "First glimpse into Lower Jurassic deep-sea biodiversity: in situ diversification and resilience against extinction," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (21 May 2014).
Mario Livio, Brilliant Blunders: From Darwin to Einstein, Simon & Schuster (2013).
"Spawned in Davy Jones’s locker," The Economist (24 May 2014).
Ben Thuy et al, "Ancient origin of the modern deep-sea fauna," PLoS One (10 October 2012).
Verdure Venture
Hervé Sauquet et al, "The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification," Nature Communications (1 August 2017).
Nicola Davis, "Mother of all blooms: is this what the last common ancestor of flowers looked like?," The Guardian (1 August 2017).
Susana Magallón, et al, "A metacalibrated time-tree documents the early rise of flowering plant phylogenetic diversity," New Phytologist 207: 437–453 (January 2015).
Jeremy M. Beaulieu et al, "Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution and diversification could explain the Triassic age estimate for angiosperms," Systematic Biology 64 (5): 869-878 (4 May 2015).
Charles S.P. Foster et al, "Evaluating the impact of genomic data and priors on Bayesian estimates of the angiosperm evolutionary timescale," Systematic Biology 66 (3): 338-351 (16 September 2016).
K.J. Willis & J.C. McElwain, The Evolution of Plants, Oxford University Press (2002).
David Beerling, The Emerald Planet, Oxford University Press (2007).
Karl J. Niklas, Plant Evolution: An Introduction to the History of Life, University of Chicago Press (2016).
Kathy Willis & Jennifer McElwain, The Evolution of Plants, Oxford University Press (2014).
Joseph E. Armstrong, How the Earth Turned Green: A Brief 3.8-Billion-Year History of Plants, University Of Chicago Press (2015).
Martin J. Ingrouille & Bill Eddie, Plants: Diversity and Evolution, Cambridge University Press (2006).
C. Jill Harrison, "Development and genetics in the evolution of land plant body plans," Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society B (19 December 2016).
Karl J. Niklas, "The evolution of plant body plans – a biomechanical perspective," Annals of Botany 85: 411-438 (2000).
Linda E. Graham et al, "The origin of plants: body plan changes contributing to a major evolutionary radiation," PNAS 97(9): 4535-4540(25 April 2000).
Dianne Edwards, "The role of Mid-Palaeozoic mesofossils in the detection of early bryophytes," Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (29 June 2000).
Sid Perkins, "Did plants freeze the planet?," Science (1 February 2012).
Christophe Calvaruso et al, "Influence of forest trees on the distribution of mineral weathering-associated bacterial communities of the Scleroderma citrinum mycorrhizosphere," Applied and Environmental Microbiology (28 May 2010).
Andrea Bennici, "Origin and early evolution of land plants," Communicative & Integrative Biology 1(2): 212–218 (October–December 2008).
Timothy M. Lenton et al, "First plants cooled the Ordovician," Nature Geoscience (February 2012).
Benjamin Bomfleur et al, "Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic statsis in royal ferns," Science 343: 1376–1377 (21 March 2014).
Jonathan Shaw & Karen Renzaglia, "Phylogeny and diversification of bryophytes," American Journal of Botany 91(10): 1557–1581 (October 2004).
Fay-Wei Li et al, "Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns," PNAS (14 April 2014).
Samuli Lehtonen et al, "Environmentally driven extinction and opportunistic origination explain fern diversification patterns," Scientific Reports (6 July 2017).
Insects Emerge
Anna Salleh, "Insects evolved flight as plants grew taller," ABC Science (7 November 2014).
Omar Rota-Stabelli et al, "Molecular timetrees reveal a Cambrian colonization of land and a new scenario for ecdysozoan evolution," Current Biology 23(5): 392–398 (4 March 2013).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "All in the (bigger) family," Science 347(6219): 220–221 (16 January 2015).
Chris G.C. Jacobs et al, "The extraembryonic serosa protects the insect egg against desiccation," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (19 June 2013).
Bernhard Misof et al, "Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution," Science 346(6210): 763–767 (7 November 2014).
"Insects were first animals to develop wings more than 400 million years ago," Entomology Today (7 November 2014).
André Nel et al, "The earliest known holometabolous insects," Nature (16 October 2013).
Vertebrates Arrive on Land
Brian Switek, "The eyes have it: how spotting naive prey made fish walk on land," New Scientist (19 July 2017).
"These fish are evolving right now to become land-dwellers," New Scientist (30 March 2017).
Malcolm A. Maciver et al, "Massive increase in visual range preceded the origin of terrestrial vertebrates," PNAS (7 March 2017).
"Vision, not limbs, led fish onto land 385 million years ago," ScienceDaily (7 March 2017).
"Leap onto land saves ?sh from being eaten," (14 March 2017).
Terry J. Ord et al, "Ecological release from aquatic predation is associated with the emergence of marine blenny fishes onto land," The American Naturalist (22 March 2017).
Camila Cupello et al, " Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development," Nature Commmunications (15 September 2015).
"Palaeontology: new fossils illuminate the route that led ultimately to human beings," The Economist (10 December 2016).
Sophie Sanchez et al, "Life history of the stem tetrapod Acanthostega revealed by synchrotron microtomography," Nature (7 September 2016).
Emily M. Standen et al, "Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods," Nature (27 January 2014).
Devin Powell, "Fossil pushes back land-animal debut," Science News (5 March 2012).
Ritchie S. King, "A walk through water before reaching land," The New York Times (19 December 2011).
Heather M. King et al, "Behavioral evidence for the evolution of walking and bounding before terrestriality in sarcopterygian fishes," PNAS 108(52): 21146–21151 (27 December 2011).
Stephanie E. Pierce et al, "Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods," Nature (14 January 2013).
Brooke E. Flammang et al, "Tetrapod-like pelvic girdle in a walking cavefish," Scientific Reports 6:23711 (24 March 2016).
Ian Sample, "Tiktaalik fossils reveal how fish evolved into four-legged land animals," The Guardian (13 January 2014).
"From ocean to land: the fishy origins of our hips," Science Daily (14 May 2013).
Devin Powell, "Fossil pushes back land-animal debut," Science News (5 March 2012).
Plant Evolution
Sid Perkins, "Ancient forest kept good company," Science (29 February 2012).
Yuannian Jiao et al, "Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms," Nature 473: 97–101 (5 May 2011).
N.S. Davies & M.R. Gibling, "Evolution of fixed-channel alluvial plains in response to Carboniferous vegetation," Nature Geoscience (21 Au-gust 2011).
Fire Ecology James Lovelock, Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine, Gaia Books (1991).
Robert A. Berner, "Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time," PNAS 96(20): 10955–10957 (September 28, 1999).
Amphibians & Reptiles
Robert R. Reisz & Jörg Fröbisch, "The oldest caseid synapsid from the late pennsylvanian of Kansas, and the evolution of herbivory in terrestrial vertebrates," PLoS One (16 April 2014).
Hanneke Meijer, "Jump for joy: researchers make huge leap in understanding frog evolution," The Guardian (2 August 2017).
Eedaphosaur drawing courtesy of Dmitry Bogdanov.
S.P. Modesto, "The skull of the herbivorous synapsid Edaphosaurus boanerges from the Lower Permian of Texas," Palaeontology 38: 213–239 (1995).
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Snakes & Lizards
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Allison Y Hsiang et al, "The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record," BMC Evolutionary Biology (18 May 2015).
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P.M. Dattaa & Sanghamitra Ray, "Earliest lizard from the late triassic (Carnian) of India," Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(4) (2006).
P. Smaglik, "Retelling the tale of a two-legged snake," Science News 151: 238 (19 April, 1957).
Michael S.Y. Lee et al, "Aquatic adaptations in the four limbs of the snake-like reptile Tetrapodophis from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil," Cretaceous Research (14 June 2016).
"Reptile is sometimes a victim of misinformation," Science News Letter (25 May 1957).
Laurel Hamers, "Why the turtle got its shell," Science News (6 August 2016).
Lizard Adaptability
Jonathan B. Losos, "Evolution: a lizard's tale," Scientific American 284: 64–69 (March 2001).
University Of Massachusetts, Amherst, "Lizards undergo rapid evolution after introduction to a new home," ScienceDaily (18 April 2008).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Lizard family tree solves 30-year-old mystery," ScienceNow (24 June 2013).
R. Alexander Pyron & Frank T. Burbrink, "Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles," Ecology Letters 17(1): 13–21 (January 2014).
Peter Crane, Ginkgo: The Tree That Time Forgot, Yale University Press (2013).
J. C. McElwain, "The life and times of a living fossil," Science 340(6134): 812–813 (17 May 2013).
The Great Dying
S.D. Burgess et al, "Initial pulse of Siberian Traps sills as the trigger of the end-Permian mass extinction," Nature Communiations (31 July 2017).
"What caused the world's greatest extinction?," ScienceDaily (31 July 2017).
Stuart Gary, "Great Dying caused by ocean acidification," ABC Science (10 April 2015).
Lowell Dingus & Timothy Rowe, The Mistaken Extinction, W.H. Freeman and Company (1998).
Seth D. Burgess et al, "High-precision timeline for Earth’s most severe extinction," PNAS (10 February 2014).
Richard A. Kerr, "Mega-eruptions drove the mother of mass extinctions," Science 342: 1424 (20 December 2013).
Yin Hon Fu & ASong Hai Jun, "Mass extinction and Pangea integration during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition," Science China – Earth Sciences (29 July 2013).
Benjamin A. Black et al, "Acid rain and ozone depletion from pulsed Siberian Traps magmatism," Geology (22 November 2013).
"Small but deadly," The Economist (27 July 2013).
Stephan V. Sobolev et al, "Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes," Nature 477: 312–316 (15 September 2011).
E. Tohver et al, "Geochronological constraints on the age of a Permo–Triassic impact event: U–Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results for the 40 km Araguainha structure of central Brazil," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 86: 214–227 (1 June 2012).
M.O. Clarkson et al, "Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass extinction," Science 348(6231): 229–232 (10 April 2015).
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Eric Hand, "Acid oceans cited in Earth's worst die-off," Science 348(6231): 165–166 (10 April 2015).
Daniel H. Rothman et al, "Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle," PNAS (31 March 2014).
Chelsea Wald, "Archaeageddon: how gas-belching microbes could have caused mass extinction," Nature (1 April 2014).
Carlo Romano et al, "Climatic and biotic upheavals following the end-Permian mass extinction," Nature Geoscience (21 December 2012).
M.O. Clarkson et al, "Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery," Nature Communications (19 July 2016).
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"After long-ago mass extinction, global warming hindered species' recovery," ScienceDaily (2 November 2012).
Arnaud Brayard et al, "Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna," Science Advances 3(2) (15 February 2017).
Nicholas St. Fleur, "After Earth’s worst mass extinction, life rebounded rapidly, fossils suggest," The New York Times (16 February 2017).
The Triassic
Dicynodont drawing courtesy of Dmitry Bogdanov.
Tritylodon cynodont drawing courtesy of Nobu Tamura.
Yadong Sun et al, "Lethally hot temperatures during the early Triassic greenhouse," Science 338: 366–370 (19 October 2012).
David J. Bottjer, "Life in the Early Triassic ocean," Science 338: 336–337 (19 October 2012).
Stephen Brusatte & Zhe-Xi Luo, "Ascent of the mammals," Scientific American 314(6): 28–35 (June 2016).
Flowering Plants
Shu-Miaw Chaw et al, "Dating the monocot–dicot divergence and the origin of core eudicots using whole chloroplast genomes," Journal of Molecular Evolution 58(4): 424–441 (April 2004).
C.A. Furness et al, "Evolution of endoapertures in early-divergent eudicots, with particular reference to pollen morphology in Sabiaceae," Plant Systematics and Evolution 263(1): 77–92 (January 2007).
Hélène L. Citerne et al, "Combining phylogenetic and syntenic analyses for understanding the evolution of TCP ECE genes in eudicots," PLoS One (3 September 2013).
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David J. Hearn et al, "The evolution of growth forms with expanded root and shoot parenchymatous storage is correlated across the eudicots," International Journal of Plant Sciences (7 August 2013).
Peter A. Hochuli & Susanne Feist-Burkhardt, "Angiosperm-like pollen and Afropollis from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of the Germanic basin (northern Switzerland)," Frontiers in Plant Science (1 October 2013).
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Methane Maelstrom
Roff Smith, "Dark days of the Triassic: lost world," Nature 479: 287–289 (17 November 2011).
Claire M. Belcher et al, "Increased fire activity at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in Greenland due to climate-driven floral change," Nature Geoscience 3: 426–429 (May 2010).
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Dinosaur Dominion
Dinosaurs, Scientific American (June 2014).
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John M. Grady et al, "Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs," Science 344(6189): 1268–1272 (13 June 2014).
Steve Parker, Dinosaurs, Firefly Books (2009).
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Roger B. J. Benson et al, "Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage," PLoS Biology (6 May 2014).
Steve C. Wang & Peter Dodson, "Estimating the diversity of dinosaurs," PNAS (12 September 2006).
Meghan Rosen, "Feathered dinosaurs may have been the rule, not the exception," Science News (24 July 2014).
Body Heat
Ferris Jabr, "What the supercool Arctic ground squirrel teaches us about the brain's resilience," Scientific American (26 June 2012).
Zoe Gough, "Arctic ground squirrels' supercool slumber," BBC Earth (18 February 2015).
Christina G. vonder Ohe et al, "Ubiquitous and temperature-dependent neural plasticity in hibernators," The Journal of Neuroscience 26(41): 10590-10598 (11 October 2006).
Hip Classification
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Brian Switek, "Palaeontology: The truth about T. rex," Nature (23 October 2013).
Pascal Godefroit et al, "A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales," Science 345(6195): 451–455 (25 July 2014). Brian Switek, "Rise of the feathered dinosaurs," Nature (2 July 2012).
Meghan Rosen, "All dinosaurs may have had feathers," Science News (2 July 2012).
Xing Xu, "A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China," Nature 484: 92–95 (5 April 2012).
Henry Gee, "Birds and dinosaurs - the debate is over," Nature News (2 July 1998).
John Roach, "Dinosaur tracks shed light on sauropod evolution," National Geographic News (20 May 2002).
Ian Sample, "'Bizarre' Jurassic dinosaur discovered in remarkable new find," The Guardian (27 April 2015).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "T. Rex’s relatives had more items on their menu," The New York Times (20 December 2010).
Matthew G. Barron et al, "A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution," Nature 543: 501-506 (23 March 2017).
Carolyn Gramling, "Ma, where did they put T. Rex?," Science 355(6331): 1249 (24 March 2017).
"A new way to classify dinosaurs," The Economist (23 March 2017).
Rahcel Ehrenberg, "Anatomy analysis suggests new dinosaur family tree," New Scientist (20 April 2017).
Phil R. Bell et al, "Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution," Biology Letters (7 June 2017).
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Stephen Brusatte, "Rise of the tyrannosaurs," Scientific American 312(5): 34–41 (May 2015).
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Lindsay E. Zanno & Peter J. Makovicky, "Neovenatorid theropods are apex predators in the Late Cretaceous of North America," Nature Communications (22 November 2013).
Stephen L. Brusatte et al, "New tyrannosaur from the mid-Cretaceous of Uzbekistan clarifies evolution of giant body sizes and advanced senses in tyrant dinosaurs," PNAS (14 March 2016).
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Robert A. DePalma II et al, "Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex," PNAS (15 July 2013).
Stephan Lautenschlager et al, "Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (7 May 2014).
Thomas D. Carr et al, "A new tyrannosaur with evidence for anagenesis and crocodile-like facial sensory system," Scientific Reports (30 March 2017).
Ian Sample, "Tyrannosaurus rex was a sensitive lover, new dinosaur discovery suggests," The Guardian (30 March 2017).
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Sebastián Apesteguía et al, "An unusual new theropod with a didactyl manus from the upper Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina," PLoS One (13 July 2016).
"Sharp-eared T. rex may have stalked the night like today’s owls," New Scientist (4 November 2015).
Sarah Spickernell, "T. rex didn't need proper arms thanks to its neck," New Scientist (15 April 2014).
E. Snively et al, "The role of the neck in the feeding behaviour of the Tyrannosauridae: inference based on kinematics and muscle function of extant avians," Journal of Zoology (1 April 2014).
Alok Jha & Dave Hone, "Lythronax argestes: 'King of Gore' joins T rex family tree," The Guardian (6 November 2013).
Anthony R. Fiorillo & Ronald S. Tykoski, "A diminutive new Tyranno-saur from the top of the world," PLoS One (12 March 2014).
Dakotaraptor illustration courtesy of Emily Willoughby.
Robert A. DePalma et al, "The first giant raptor (Theropoda: Drom-aeosauridae) from the Hell Creek Formation, Paleontological Contri-butions 14 (30 October 2015).
Sarah Kaplan, "Meet the ‘Dakotaraptor,’ the freaky feathered dinosaur that once roamed South Dakota," The Washington Post (5 November 2015).
Jon Tennant, "Giant raptor fossil discovered in South Dakota," Discover (2 November 2015).
Ellen Brait, "Meet Dakotaraptor: the feathered dinosaur that was 'utterly lethal'," The Guardian (5 November 2015).
Paul M. Barrett et al, "A palaeoequatorial ornithischian and new constraints on early dinosaur diversification," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (6 August 2014).
Richard T. McCrea et al, " A ‘terror of tyrannosaurs’: the first track-ways of tyrannosaurids and evidence of gregariousness and pathology in tyrannosauridae," PLoS One (23 July 2014).
Gregory M. Erickson, "Breathing life into T. rex," Dinosaurs, Scientific American (June 2014).
Spinosaurus drawing courtesy of Bogdanov.
Spinosaurus skeletal image courtesy of the University of Chicago Fossil Lab.
Nizar Ibrahim et al, "Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur," Science (11 September 2014).
Kenneth Chang, "A lost-and-found nomad helps solve the mystery of a swimming dinosaur," The New York Times (11 September 2014).
Dominion Forest Rohwer & Rebecca Vega Thurber, "Viruses manipulate the marine environment," Nature 459: 207–212 (14 May 2009).
Brian Switek, "Why do we love dinosaurs so much?," The Guardian (5 September 2014).
James Morgan, "'Biggest dinosaur ever' discovered," BBC News (16 May 2014).
Kristina A. Curry Rogers & Michael D. D'Emic, "Triumph of the titans," Dinosaurs, Scientific American (June 2014).
Sara Reardon, "Giant dino lived in Antarctica," Science (21 December 2011).
Henry C. Fricke et al, "Lowland–upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch," Nature 480: 513–515 (22 December 2011).
"Prehistoric monsters may not have been as monstrous as once believed," The Economist (24 June 2009).
"Dinosaurs 'much lighter than previously thought'," The Telgraph (6 June 2012).
David J. Button et al, "Cranial biomechanics underpins high sauropod diversity in resource-poor environments," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (8 October 2014).
Elsa Youngsteadt, "Could climate change alter lizard learning?," Science (10 January 2012).
Jordan C. Mallon & Jason S. Anderson, "Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (Upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada," PloS One (10 July 2013).
Gregory M. Erickson et al, "Complex dental structure and wear biomechanics in hadrosaurid dinosaurs," Science 338: 98–101 (5 October 2012).
David B. Weishampel et al, The Dinosauria, University of California Press (2004).
John B. Scannella et al, "Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana," PNAS (30 June 2014).
"Head decor linked to bigger dinos," Science News (4 February 2017).
Dinosaur Fleas
"Jurassic pain: giant 'flea-like' insects plagued dinosaurs," Oregon State University News (1 May 2012).
George O. Poinar Jr., "Palaeontology: the 165-million-year itch," Current Biology 22(8): R278–R280 (24 April 2012).
Diying Huang et al, "Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China," Nature 483: 201–204 (8 March 2012).
Christopher Joyce, "The dinosaurs' nemeses: giant, jurassic fleas," NPR (6 May 2012).
Ian Sample, "Giant Jurassic fleas drank the blood of dinosaurs and pterosaurs," The Guardian (29 February 2012).
Brian Switek, "Super-sized fleas adapted to feed off dinosaurs," Nature (29 February 2012).
David Derbyshire, "Riddle of how fleas can jump 100 times their height solved... they have 'multi-jointed' hind legs," Mail Online (10 February 2011).
Water Fleas
Water flea photo courtesy of Paul Hebert.
"Study of the evolution of the micro-crustacean group Cladocera," (16 December 2016).
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Ellen Decaestecker et al, "Cyclical Parthenogenesis in Daphnia: sexual versus asexual reproduction," Springer (September 2009).
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Henri J. Dumont, "The evolution of groundwater Cladocera," Hydrobiologia 307 (1): 69-74 (July 1995).
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Ostrich Dinosaurs
Paul M. Barrett, "The diet of ostrich dinosaurs (Theropoda: Ornitho-mimosauria)," Palaeontology 48(2): 347–358 (March 2005).
Anzu Anzu drawing courtesy of Mark A. Klingler.
Matthew C. Lamanna et al, "A new large-bodied oviraptorosaurian theropod dinosaur from the latest cretaceous of western North Amer-ica," PLoS One (19 March 2014).
"Dinos shook their tail feathers," Science 339: 125 (11 January 2013).
In The Skies
"Jurassic lark," The Economist (11 May 2013).
At Sea
Caroline Arnold, Giant Sea Reptiles, Clarion Books (2007).
Long Cheng et al, "A new marine reptile from the Triassic of China, with a highly specialized feeding adaptation," Naturwissenschaften 101(3): 251–259 (March 2014).
Atopodentatus drawing courtesy of Nobu Tamura.
David W. Krause et al, "First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism," Nature (5 November 2014).
Valentin Fischer et al, "Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility," Nature Communications (8 March 2016).
Qiyue Zhang et al, "Nothosaur foraging tracks from the Middle Triassic of southwestern China," Nature Communications (11 June 2014).
Yucatan Big Bang
Thomas Sumner, "Devastation detectives," Science News (4 February 2017).
"Dinosaurs fell victim to perfect storm of events, study shows," ScienceDaily (28 July 2014).
Paul R. Renne et al, "Time scales of critical events around the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary," Science 339(6120): 684–687 (8 February 2013).
Heiko Pälike, "Impact and extinction," Science 339(6120): 655–656 (8 February 2013).
Maria Popova, "‘Dark matter and the dinosaurs,’ by Lisa Randall," The New York Times (24 November 2015).
Richard Ingham, "Dinosaur-killing impact acidified oceans," (9 March 2014).
Johan Vellekoop et al, "Rapid short-term cooling following the Chicxulub impact at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary," PNAS (12 May 2014).
Claire M. Belcher et al, "An experimental assessment of the ignition of forest fuels by the thermal pulse generated by the Cretaceous–Palaeogene impact at Chicxulub," Journal of the Geological Society (22 January 2015).
Douglas S. Robertson et al, "K-Pg extinction: reevaluation of the heat-fire hypothesis," Journal of Geophysical Research (26 March 2013).
Stephen L. Brusatte et al, "Dinosaur morphological diversity and the end-Cretaceous extinction," Nature Communications (1 May 2012).
Manabu Sakamoto et al, "Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction," PNAS (18 April 2016).
Nicola Davis, "Dinosaurs in decline long before asteroid catastrophe, study reveals," The Guardian (18 April 2016).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Earlier mass extinction for most of marine life," The New York Times (10 September 2012).
Blair Schoene et al, "U-Pb geochronology of the Deccan Traps and relation to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction," Science (11 Decem-ber 2014).
Richard Stone, "Back from the dead," Science 346(6215): 1281–1283 (12 December 2014).
Sierra V. Petersen et al, "End-Cretaceous extinction in Antarctica linked to both Deccan volcanism and meteorite impact via climate change," Nature Communications (5 July 2016).
Howard Lee, "Global warming implicated in dinosaur extinction," The Guardian (13 July 2016).
Thomas S. Tobin et al, "Extinction patterns, d18 O trends, and magne-tostratigraphy from a southern high-latitude Cretaceous–Paleogene section: links with Deccan volcanism," Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 350–352: 180–188 (15 September 2012).
Richard A. Kerr, "Before the dinosaurs’ demise, a clambake extinction?," Science 337: 1280 (14 September 2012).
Stephen L. Brusatte et al, "The extinction of the dinosaurs," Biological Reviews (28 July 2014).
Ian Sample, "Asteroid's 'bad timing' killed off dinosaurs, new evidence shows," The Guardian (28 July 2014).
Nicholas R. Longrich et al, "Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary," PNAS 109(52): 21396–21401 (26 December 2012).
Sid Perkins, "Why some species thrived when dinos died," Science (24 July 2013).
Douglas S. Robertson et al, "K-Pg extinction patterns in marine and freshwater environments: the impact winter model," Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences (11 July 2013).
Sandra M. Rehan et al, "First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary," PLoS One (23 October 2013).
Roger B.J. Benson et al, "Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage," PLoS Biology (6 May 2014).
Sheyna E. Gifford, "The incredible shrinking dinosaur," Astrobiology Magazine (20 May 2014).
David Godkin, "Toothless beaks for the win," Scientific American (August 2016).
Meghan Rosen, "The survivors," Science News (4 February 2017).
Susan Milius, "The lucky ones," Science News (4 February 2017).
"Gross anatomy," National Geographic, 26 (August 2012).
"Fossil egg links dinosaurs to modern birds," ScienceDaily (12 July 2012).
Nieves López-Martínez & Enric Vicens, "A new peculiar dinosaur egg, Sankofa pyrenaica from the Upper Cretaceous coastal deposits of the Aren Formation, southcentral Pyrenees, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain," Palaeontology (13 March 2012).
Stephen L. Brusatte et al, "Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition," Current Biology (25 September 2014).
Brian Stallard, "Shrinking dinosaurs survived, are now birds, claim experts," Nature World News (31 July 2014).
"Shrinking dinosaurs evolved into flying birds," University of Southampton (30 July 2014).
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Michael J. Benton, "How birds became birds," Science 345(6196): 508–509 (1 August 2014).
Stephen L. Bursatte et al, "The origin and diversification of birds," Current Biology 25(19): R888-R898 (5 October 2015).
John R. Horner et al, "Early birds," Dinosaurs, Scientific American (June 2014).
Xing Xu et al, "A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings," Nature (29 April 2015).
Pascal Godefroit et al, "A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds," Nature 498: 359–362 (20 June 2013).
Chris Woolston, "New contender for first bird," Nature (29 May 2013).
Ian Sample, "Early bird beat Archaeopteryx to worm by 10m years," The Guardian (29 May 2013).
Sid Perkins, "Peacock-sized creature predates the oldest known bird," Science News (25 September 2009).
Pascal Godefroit et al, "Reduced plumage and flight ability of a new Jurassic paravian theropod from China," Nature Communications (22 January 2013).
Michael Balter, "Bad birthday news for first bird?," Science 333: 511 (29 July 2011).
Gregory M. Erickson et al, "Was dinosaurian physiology inherited by birds? Reconciling slow growth in Archaeopteryx," PLoS One (9 October 2009).
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Microraptor drawing courtesy of William Beebe (1915).
Nishad Karim, "Four-winged flying dinosaur unearthed in China," The Guardian (15 July 2014).
Michael Balter, "Flying dinos and baby birds offer new clues about how avians took wing," Science 338: 591–592 (2 November 2012).
Gang Han et al, "A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance," Nature Communications (15 July 2014).
"Four wings, good. Two wings, better," The Economist (10 November 2012).
Xiaoting Zheng et al, "Hind wings in basal birds and the evolution of leg feathers," Science 339: 1309–1312 (15 March 2013).
Min Wang et al, "The oldest record of ornithuromorpha from the early cretaceous of China," Nature Communications (5 May 2015).
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Robert W. Meredith et al, "Evidence for a single loss of mineralized teeth in the common avian ancestor," Science 346(6215): (12 December 2014).
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Gerald Mayr & Volker Wilde, "Eocene fossil is earliest evidence of flower-visiting by birds," Biology Letters (28 May 2014).
Susan Milius, "Bird family tree alters avian history," Science News , 15 (1 December 2012).
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Christian Foth, et al, "New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers," Nature 511: 79–82 (3 July 2014).
Julia Clarke, "Feathers before flight," Science 340: 690–692 (10 May 2013).
Richard O. Prum & Alan H. Brush, "Which came first, the feather or the bird?," Dinosaurs, Scientific American (June 2014).
Marie-Claire Koschowitz et al, "Beyond the rainbow," Science 346(6208): 416–418 (24 October 2014).
W. Scott Persons et al, "Oviraptorosaur tail forms and functions," Acta Paleeontologica Polonica (4 January 2013).
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Susan Milius, "Drab female birds had more colorful evolution," Science News (23 May 2014).
Bethany Brookshire, "Bright bird plumage resulted from natural, sexual selection," Science News (27 March 2015).
Peter O. Dunn et al, "Natural and sexual selection act on different axes of variation in avian plumage color," Science Advances (27 March 2015).
Natalie Angier, "The owl comes into its own," The New York Times (25 February 2013).
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Giovanni Brocchi
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Charles Darwin
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Seabird Colonies
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Random Mutation
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Nematode Timing
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Selection's Selector
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The Science of Evolution
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Sex Ratios
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Attitude Counts
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Human Mating Strategies
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Caterpillar Bodyguards
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Baldwin Effect
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Genetic Inheritance
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Gene Flow
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Gene Conversion
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Vinegar Flies
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Evolution Eternal Robert S. Pitcher et al, "NHEJ protects mycobacteria in stationary phase against the harmful effects of desiccation," DNA Repair 6(9): 1271–1276 (1 September 2007).
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Ciliate Protozoa
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DNA Mavens
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Dual-Track Bacteria
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Viral Infection
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Adaptation In Disguise
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Sandra Garrett & Joshua J.C. Rosenthal, "RNA editing underlies temperature adaptation in K+ channels from polar octopuses," Science 335(6070): 848–851 (5 January 2012).
Jennifer L. Guler et al, "Asexual populations of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, use a two-step genomic strategy to acquire accurate, beneficial DNA amplifications," PLoS Pathogens 9(5): e1003375 (May 2013).
George C. Williams, Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought, Princeton University Press (1966).
Tropical Rainforest Spiders
Catherine R. Hoffman & Leticia Avilés, "Rain, predators, and spider sociality: a manipulative experiment," Behavioral Ecology (15 February 2017).
"Survival instinct, not family bonds, weave massive spider colonies together," ScienceDaily (7 March 2017).
*** Christopher Weiss-Lehman et al, "Rapid trait evolution drives increased speed and variance in experimental range expansions," Nature Communications (27 January 2017).
"Rapid trait evolution crucial to species growth, study finds," (27 January 2017).
Blair G. Paul et al, "Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses," Nature Communications (23 March 2015).
Brian Stallard, "This virus can 'choose' how it mutates to live in a hostile world," Nature World News (24 March 2015).
Frank Groenewoud et al, "Predation risk drives social complexity in cooperative breeders," PNAS (28 March 2016).
Kevin Laland et al, "Does evolutionary theory need a rethink? Yes, urgently," Nature (8 October 2014).
K. Kunte et al, "doublesex is a mimicry supergene," Nature (5 March 2014).
Mathieu Joron et al, "Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry," Nature 477: 203–206 (8 September 2011).
Mark Rowland & Douglas J. Emlen, "Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles," Science 323(5915): 773–776 (6 February 2009).
Esther Inglis-Arkell, "Island gigantism: how islands really do breed giant creatures," io9 (9 May 2014).
Peter Tyson, " Gigantism & dwarfism on islands," Nova (8 January 2011).
Patrick H. Kavanagh & Kevin C. Burns, "The repeated evolution of large seeds on islands," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (21 May 2014).
Gall Plumbing
Mayako Kutsukake et al, "An insect-induced novel plant phenotype for sustaining social life in a closed system," Nature Communications (13 November 2012).
Dung Beetles
Leigh W. Simmons & Douglas J. Emlen, "Evolutionary trade-off between weapons and testes," PNAS 103(44): 16346–16351 (31 October 2006).
Douglas J. Emlen, Animal Weapons: The Evolution of Battle, Henry Holt (2014).
Viviane Callier, "The animal arms race," Science 346(6215): 1305 (12 December 2014).
Douglas Emlen, "The astonishing weaponry of dung beetles," The New York Times (31 October 2014).
John Pickrell, "Horniest male beetles have tiniest testicles," New Scientist (16 October 2006).
Richard Madewell & Armin P. Moczek, "Horn possession reduces maneuverability in the horn-polyphenic beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris," The Journal of Insect Science (22 September 2006).
Feathers & Fur
"Fur and feathers keep animals warm by scattering light," ScienceDaily (23 January 2014).
Priscilla Simonis et al, "Fur and feathers keep animals warm by scattering light," Optics Express 22(2): 1940–1951 (2014).
Alexandra Witze, "Doing the wet-dog wiggle," Science News (22 Friday 2010).
M.A. Owen et al, "An experimental investigation of chemical communication in the polar bear," Journal of Zoology (3 November 2014).
James Gorman, "Length of lashes keeps eyes from drying, study finds," The New York Times (24 February 2015).
Poison Avoidance
James Gorman, "A bitter/sweet shift in cockroach defenses," The New York Times (23 May 2013).
Ayako Wada-Katsumata et al, "Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches," Science 340(6135): 972–975 (24 May 2013).
Pig Litters
Marlène Gamelon et al, "Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar," Biology Letters (31 July 2013).
Lusty Birds
Mike Webster, "Fickle fairies," Scientific American, 26 (November 2012).
Planthopper Leap Gear
Malcolm Burrows & Gregory Sutton, "Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect," Science 341(6151): 1254–1256 (13 September 2013).
planthopper photo courtesy of Richard Ling.
James Fenner, "Planthopper uses biological gears for pouncing," Las Vegas Guardian Express (13 September 2013).
planthopper nymph gears electron microscope photo courtesy of Malcolm Burrows.
"Gears evolved in nature long before humans 'invented' them," The Guardian (13 September 2013).
William Herkewitz, "Found: the first mechanical gear in a living creature," Popular Mechanics (12 September 2013).
Harvester Ants
Balaji Prabhakar et al, "The regulation of ant colony foraging activity without spatial information," PLoS Computational Biology 8(8): e1002670 (2012).
Deborah M. Gordon, "The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies," Nature 498: 91–93 (6 June 2013).
Rapid Adaptation
Y.E. Stuart et al, "Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener," Science 346(6208): 463–466 (24 October 2014).
Martin M. Turcotte et al, "The impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics in the wild: experimental test of eco-evolutionary dynamics," Ecology Letters 14(11): 1084–1092 (November 2011).
Shiping Liu et al, "Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears," Cell 157(4): 785–794 (8 May 2014).
Helen Shen, "Stickleback genomes reveal path of evolution," Nature (4 April 2012).
Felicity C. Jones et al, "The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks," Nature 484: 55–61 (5 April 2012).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "How evolution copies itself," Science (4 April 2012).
Isaac Wirgin et al, "Mechanistic basis of resistance to PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River," Science 1322–1325 (17 February 2011).
"Waters of change," The Economist (29 October 2011).
Frank Hailer & Jennifer A. Leonard, "Hybridization among three native North American canis species in a region of natural sympatry," PLoS One (8 October 2008).
Zachary Davies Boren, "Coywolf: new coyote-wolf hybrid sees explosion in numbers," Indpendent (1 November 2015).
"Greater than the sum of its parts," The Economist (31 October 2015).
Paul J. Wilson, "DNA profiles of the eastern Canadian wolf and the red wolf provide evidence for a common evolutionary history independent of the gray wolf," Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(12): 2156–2166 (2000).
Burce Bower, "Foragers first settle Tibetan Plateau," Science News (4 February 2017).
Emilia Huerta-Sánchez et al, "Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA," Nature (2 July 2014).
Florida Lizards
"Florida lizards evolve rapidly, within 15 years and 20 generations," ScienceDaily (23 October 2014).
Big-headed Ants
"Big-headed ants grow bigger when faced with fierce competitors," (2 October 2014).
Bill D. Wills et al, "Body size variation and caste ratios in geographically distinct populations of the invasive big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)," Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 113(2): 423–438 (October 2014).
Jessica Hua et al, "Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: Induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations," Evolutionary Applications (25 July 2013).
Katrien Vandepitte et al, "Rapid genetic adaptation precedes the spread of an exotic plant species," Molecular Ecology 23(9): 2157–2164, (May 2014).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "How evolution copies itself," Science (4 April 2012).
Polluted People
Carina M. Schlebusch et al, "Human adaptation to arsenic-rich environments," Molecular Biology and Evolution (3 March 2015).
Carl Zimmer, "An unlikely driver of evolution: arsenic," The New York Times (12 March 2015).
Peppered Moths
peppered moth photo courtesy of Cyndy Sims Parr.
Arjen E. van’t Hof et al, "The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element," Nature 534: 102–105 (2 June 2016).
"Jumping to attention: peppered moths," The Economist (4 June 2016).
Justa L. Heinen-Kay et al, "Human-caused habitat fragmentation can drive rapid divergence of male genitalia," Evolutionary Applications (31 October 2014).
Justa L. Heinen-Kay et al, "Mosquitofish genitalia change rapidly due to human impacts," NC State University News (4 November 2014).
"Mosquitofish genital shape linked to presence of predators," NC State University News (10 October 2013).
Malcolm D. Schug et al, "Isolation and genetic diversity of Gambusia hubbsi (mosquitofish) populations in blueholes on Andros Island, Bahamas," Heredity 80: 336–346 (1998).
Roger B. J. Benson et al, "Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage," PLoS Biology (6 May 2014).
W. Jetz et al, "The global diversity of birds in space and time," Nature 491: 444–448 Nature (15 November 2012). Donald R. Griffin, Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness, University of Chicago Press (2001).
Sangeet Lamichhaney et al, "A beak size locus in Darwin’s finches facilitated character displacement during a drought," Science 352(6284): 470–473 (22 April 2016).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Gene found that controls beak size in Darwin’s finches," Science News (28 May 2016).
"Evolution in action detected in Darwin's finches," (21 April 2016).
Peter R. Grant, Ecology and evolution of Darwin’s finches, 393 Princeton University Press (1986).
Potato Whiteflies Anna G. Himler et al, "Rapid spread of a bacterial symbiont in an invasive whitefly is driven by fitness benefits and female bias," Science 332(6026): 254–256 (8 April 2011).
C. Mark Eakin et al, "Caribbean corals in crisis: record thermal stress, bleaching, and mortality in 2005," PLoS One (15 November 2010).
C. Mark Eakin, "Lamarck was partially right – and that is good for corals," Science 344(6186): 798–799 (23 May 2014).
Andrew C. Baker et al, "Coral reefs: corals' adaptive response to climate change," Nature 430: 741 (12 August 2004).
Stephen R. Palumbi et al, "Mechanisms of reef coral resistance to future climate change," Science 344(6186): 895–898 (23 May 2014).
Germ Plasm
Teri Evans et al, "Acquisition of germ plasm accelerates vertebrate evolution," Science 344(6180): 200–203 (11 April 2014).
"Does germ plasm accelerate evolution?," (14 April 2014).
white-lipped tree frog photo courtesy of Bignoter. Andrew D. Johnson et al, "Regulative germ cell specification in axolotl embryos: a primitive trait conserved in the mammalian lineage," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 358(1436): 1371–1379 (29 August 2003).
Claire N. Spottiswoode & Martin Stevens, "Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance," The American Naturalist 179(5): 633–648 (May 2012).
J.M. Petersen et al, "Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses," Nature 476: 176–180 (11 August 2011).
"Bacteria in wasp antennae produce antibiotic cocktails," ScienceDaily (April 12, 2011).
N. Muchhala et al, "A new species of anoura (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from the Ecuadorian Andes," Journal of Mammalogy 86(3): 457-461 (2005).
R. Simon et al, "Floral acoustics: conspicuous echoes of a dish-shaped leaf attract bat pollinators," Science 333 (6042): 631–633 (29 July 2011).
"Faecal position," The Economist (7 December 2013).
"Protect and suvive," The Economist (25 January 2014).
Christopher J. Meehan et al, "Herbivory in a spider through exploita-tion of an ant–plant mutualism," Current Biology 19(19): R892–R893, (13 October 2009).
Robecca Morelle, "'Veggie' spider shuns meat diet," BBC News (12 Ocober 2009).
Frédéric Partensky & Laurence Garczarek, "Microbiology: arms race in a drop of sea water," Nature 474: 582–583 (30 June 2011).
Sarit Avrani et al, "Genomic island variability facilitates Prochloro-coccus–virus coexistence," Nature 474: 604–608 (30 June 2011).
Henry Fountain, "Jumping spider prefers green leaves to meat," The New York Times (13 October 2009).
Bad Taste
John P. Dumbacher et al, "Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds," PNAS 101(45): 15857–15860 (9 November 2004).
John P. Dumbacher et al, "Homobatrachotoxin in the genus Pitohui: chemical defense in birds?," Science (30 October 1992).
Mathieu Chouteau & Bernard Angers, "The role of predators in maintaining the geographic organization of aposematic signals," The American Naturalist 178 (6): 810 (2011).
Richard Wrangham, "The taste of birds: pitohui!," Science (18 December 1992).
False Eyespots
Oona M. Lönnstedt et al, "Predator-induced changes in the growth of eyes and false eyespots," Scientific Reports 3:25 (25 July 2013).
Andrei Sourakova, "Two heads are better than one: false head allows Calycopis cecrops (Lycaenidae) to escape predation by a jumping spider, Phidippus pulcherrimus (Salticidae)," Journal of Natural History 47(15-16): 1047–1054 (2013).
Aashiq H. Kachroo et al, "Systematic humanization of yeast genes reveals conserved functions and genetic modularity," Science 348(6237): 921 – 925 (22 May 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, "A billion years of evolution doesn’t change some genes," Science News (22 May 2015).
Weak Linkage
James K Nuñez et al, "Cas1–Cas2 complex formation mediates spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity," Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (4 May2014).
Valda Vinson, "Cas proteins help acquire immunity," Science 344(6186): 869 (23 May 2014).
Y.E. Zhang et al, "Accelerated recruitment of new brain development genes into the human genome," PLoS Biology 9 (10): e1001179 (2011).
Convergent Evolution
Simon Conway Morris, Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe, Cambridge University Press (2003).
Peter B. Reich et al, "From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning," 94(25): 13730–13734 PNAS (9 December 1997).
*** "Foraging patterns found in fossils," Nature 511: 386 (24 July 2014).
Devin Powell, "Albatross forage with fractal-like flight," Science News (23 April 2012).
Lucas Laursen, "Predictable evolution trumps randomness of mutations," Nature (19 February 2013).
Susan Lingle & Tobias Riede, "Deer mothers are sensitive to infant distress vocalizations of diverse mammalian species," The American Naturalist 184(4): 510–522 (October 2014).
Natalie Angier, "A taste for blood," The New York Times (21 October 2008).
Swimming Ants
S.P. Yanoviak & D.N. Frederick, "Water surface locomotion in tropical canopy ants," The Journal of Experimental Biology (15 June 2014).
Rove Beetles
Elizabeth Pennisi, "A new evolutionary classic," Science 354(6314): 813 (18 November 2016).
High-Altitude Hummingbirds
Joana Projecto-Garcia et al, "Repeated elevational transitions in hemoglobin function during the evolution of Andean hummingbirds," PNAS 110(51): 20669–20674 (17 December 2013).
Chandrasekhar Natarajan et al, "Predictable convergence in hemoglobin function has unpredictable molecular underpinnings," Science 354(6310): 336–339 (21 October 2016).
Insect Eusociality
Annette Van Oystaeyen et al, "Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing," Science 343: 287–290 (17 January 2014).
Aviva Hope Rutkin, "Insect minions banned from breeding by same signal," New Scientist (16 January 2014).
Blue Tarantulas
Bor-Kai Hsiung et al, "Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity," Science Advances 1(10): e1500709 (6 November 2015).
Tarantula photo courtesy of Claudio Giovenzana.
Susan Milius, "When tarantulas grow blue hair," Science News (5 January 2016).
Susan Milius, " Mystery deepens for what made tarantulas blue," Science News (27 November 2015).
P. George Lovell et al, "Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail," Current Biology (17 January 2013).
Endogenous Retroviruses
Tokuji Tsuchiya & Thomas Eulgem, "An alternative polyadenylation mechanism coopted to the Arabidopsis RPP7 gene through intronic retrotransposon domestication," PNAS 110(37): E3535–E3543 (10 September 2013).
Gkikas Magiorkinis et al, "Env-less endogenous retroviruses are genomic superspreaders," PNAS 109(19): 7385–7390 (8 May 2012).
M.C. Cowperthwaite et al, "The ascent of the abundant: how muta-tional networks constrain evolution," PLoS Computational Biology 4(7): e1000110 (2008).
Adipose Fins
Black bullhead catfish illustration courtesy of Duane Raver.
J.A. Buckland-Nicks et al, "Neural network detected in a presumed vestigial trait: ultrastructure of the salmonid adipose fin," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (6 July 2011).
Thomas A. Stewart et al, "The origins of adipose fins: an analysis of homoplasy and the serial homology of vertebrate appendages," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (5 March 2014).
David W. Murphy et al, "Underwater flight by the planktonic sea butterfly," Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 535–543 (2016).
James Gorman, "A sea snail that moves like a flying insect," The New York Times (22 February 2016).
"The belly of the beast," The Economist (12 November 2011).
Kirsten M. Bohn et al, "Social context evokes rapid changes in bat song syntax," Animal Behaviour 86(6): 1485–1491 (June 2013).
Erin Wayman, "Bird, human tweets come from similar parts of the brain," Science News (9 March 2013).
Erich Jarvis, "Learned birdsong and the neurobiology of human language," AAAS Annual Meeting (15 February 2013).
Toxic Adaptation Ying Zhen et al, "Parallel molecular evolution in an herbivore community," Science 337(6102): 1634–1637 (28 September 2012).
L.W. Smith et al, "Plant sources of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids," Journal of Natural Products 44: 129–15 (1981).
Linzhu Wang et al, "Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths," PLoS ONE 7(2): e31796 (2012).
Beata Ujvari et al, "Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution," PNAS (18 August 2015).
Thomas W. Cronin et al, Vision Ecology, Princeton University Press (2014).
Michael Le Page, "This single-celled bug has the world's most extraordinary eye," New Scientist (16 June 2015).
Przemyslaw Gorzelak et al, "Microlens arrays in the complex visual system of Cretaceous echinoderms," Nature Communications (1 April 2014).
Sea Urchins
Kathryn Knight, "Sea urchins use whole body as eye," Journal of Experimental Biology (2010).
D. Yerramilli & S. Johnsen, " Spatial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea)," Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 249–255 (2010).
Susan Milius, "Strange visions," Science News (28 May 2016).
Chiton photo courtesy of Hans Hillewaert.
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Crystalline eyes of chitons inspire materials scientists," Science 350(6263): 899 (20 November 2015).
Ling Li et al, "Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system," Science 350(6263): 952–956 (20 November 2015).
Susan Milius, "How to see with eyes made of rock," Science News (26 December 2015).
Douglas J. Eernisse, "Chitons," untitled book excerpt (undated) (web download from
Daniel I. Speiser et al, "A chiton uses aragonite lenses to form images," Current Biology 21(8): 665–670 (26 April 2011).
Ed Yong, "Chitons see with eyes made of rock," Discover (14 April 2011).
Mona Hoppenrath et al, "Molecular phylogeny of ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates (Warnowiaceae) as inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA sequences," BMC Evolutionary Biology (25 May 2009).
Paper Wasps
Michael Sheehan et al, "Co-evolution of visual signals and eye morphology in Polistes paper wasps," Biology Letters (30 April 2014).
"The big bad wolf was right: among wasps, bigger eyes evolved the better to see social cues," (29 April 2014).
Fernando Montealegre-Z. et al, "Convergent evolution between insect and mammalian audition," Science 338: 968–971 (16 November 2012).
Old World fruit bat drawing courtesy of Gustav Mützel (ca 1927).
Jessica Shugart, "Many genes in dolphins and bats evolved in the same way to allow echolocation," Science News (6 September 2013).
"Narwhals are really, really good at echolocation," Science News (10 December 2016).
Arjan Boonman et al, "Nonecholocating fruit bats produce biosonar clicks with their wings," Current Biology (5 December 2014).
"Old world fruit bats use unique form of echolocation, researchers find," Sci-News (4 December 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, "Fruit bats use wing clicks to find their way," Nature World News (5 December 2014).
Jonathan H. Geisler et al, "A new fossil species supports an early origin for toothed whale echolocation," Nature 508: 383–386 (17 April 2014).
Joe Parker et al, "Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals," Nature 502: 228–231 (10 October 2013).
Andy Coghlan, "Zoologger: the blind fish that sucks it and 'sees'," New Scientist (4 April 2014).
Nervous Systems
Comb jelly photo courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth.
"Forget sponges: the earliest animals were marine jellies", Vanderbilt University (10 April 2017).
Leonid L. Moroz et al, "The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems," Nature (21 May 2014).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Nervous systems may have evolved twice," Science 339: 391 (25 January 2013).
Ewen Callaway, "Jelly genome mystery," Nature (21 May 2014).
"Comb jellies show there is more than one way to make a brain," Nature World News (22 May 2014).
"New chemical language of neural systems is revealed," University of Florida News (21 May 2014).
Nathan J. Emery & Nicola S. Clayton, "The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes," Science 306(5703): 1903–1907 (10 December 2004).
Reversion Evolution
Edwin Ray Lankester, Degeneration, Macmillan and Co. (1880).
R. Collin & R. Cipriani, "Dollo's law and the re-evolution of shell coiling," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270 (1533): 2551–2555 (2003).
Katja Domes et al, "Reevolution of sexuality breaks Dollo's law," PNAS 104(17): 7139–7144 (24 April 2007).
Bob Holmes, "Extreme evolution: how snakes became the über-eater," New Scientist (5 June 2014).
Bob Holmes, "Snakes outpacing other vertebrates in race to evolve," New Scientist (3 December 2013).
Jason J. Head & P. David Polly, "Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function," Nature (5 January 2015).
Todd A. Castoe et al, "The Burmese python genome reveals the molecular basis for extreme adaptation in snakes," PNAS 110(51): 20645–20650 (17 December 2013).
Matthew T. Close et al, "Highly extensible skeletal muscle in snakes," The Journal of Experimental Biology (6 May 2014).
Bryan G. Fry et al, "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes," Nature 439: 584–588 (2 February 2006).
Michael Tennesen, "Snakes alive! What's your poison?," New Scientist (30 September 2006).
Baldomero M. Olivera & Russell W. Teichert, "Chemical ecology of pain," Nature 479: 306–307 (17 November 2011).
Christopher J. Bohlen et al, "A heteromeric Texas coral snake toxin targets acid-sensing ion channels to produce pain," Nature 479: 410–141 (17 November 2011).
Pavel B. Klimov & Barry OConnor, "Is permanent parasitism reversible? – critical evidence from early evolution of house dust mites," Systematic Biology (15 February 2013).
Arshan Nasir, Kyung Mo Kim & Gustavo Caetano-Anolles, "Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukar-ya," BMC Evolutionary Biology (24 August 2012).
Rachel Ehrenberg, "As evidence of the influence of viruses escalates, appreciation of these master manipulators grows," Science News 176(8): 22–28 (10 October 2009).
"How ancient viruses became genomic 'superspreaders'," ScienceDaily (23 April 2012).
Patrick Forterre, "The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions," Virus Research (Mendeley) 117(1): 5–16 (2008).
Patrick Forterre, "Defining life: the virus viewpoint," Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 40: 151–160 (3 March 2010).
Curtis A. Suttle, "Viruses in the sea," Nature 437: 356–361 (15 September 2005).
Michael Slezak, "Origin of organs: thank viruses for your skin and bone," New Scientist (27 February 2014).
"Study of giant viruses shakes up tree of life," ScienceDaily (13 September 2012).
Bernard La Scola et al, "A giant virus in amoebae," Science 299: 2033 (28 March 2003).
Patrick Forterre, "Defining life: the virus viewpoint," Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 40: 151–160 (3 March 2010).
Juliette Fedry et al, "The ancient gamete fusogen HAP2 is a eukaryotic class II fusion protein," Cell (23 February 2017).
"New link found between sex and viruses," University of Maryland (23 February 2017).
Christine L. Dudgeon et al, "Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark," Scientific Reports (16 January 2017).
Stuart Auld et al, "Sex as a strategy against rapidly evolving parasites," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (21 December 2016).
Julie G. Hussin et al, "Recombination affects accumulation of damaging and disease-associated mutations in human populations," Nature Genetics (16 February 2015).
S. Scheu & B. Drossel, "Sexual reproduction prevails in a world of structured resources in short supply," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274(1614): 1225–1231 (7 May 2007).
Mary Hoff, "Slithering toward clarity: snakes shed new light on the evolution and function of sex chromosomes," PLoS Biology 11(8): e1001644 (August 2013).
Graham Bell, The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution and Genetics of Sexuality, University of California Press (1982).
Julia Böhm et al, "Sexual reproduction and mating-type–mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum," PNAS 110(4): 1476–1481 (22 January 2013).
Jennifer C. Perry et al, "The ontogeny and evolution of sex-biased gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster," Molecular Biology and Evolution (12 February 2014).
Peter W. Harrison et al, "Sexual selection drives evolution and rapid turnover of male gene expression," PNAS (23 March 2015).
'Most attractive' male birds don't have the best genes, (23 March 2015).
Sarah M. Zala et al, "Female house mice initially shun infected males, but do not avoid mating with them," Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (14 February 2015).
C. Ruth Archer et al, "Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans," Functional Ecology (25 November 2014).
"Research finds clue to why females live longer than males," University of Exeter (1 December 2014).
Seven Sexes
Marcella D. Cervantes et al, "Selecting one of several mating types through gene segment joining and deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila," PLoS Biology 11(3): e1001518 (March 2013).
Beth Skwarecki, "Seven sexes on the menu," Science (26 March 2013).
Andrea A. Cocucci et al, "The buck in the milkweed: evidence of male–male interference among pollinaria on pollinators," New Phytologist (20 March 2014).
Diane L. Marshall et al, "Does interference competition among pollen grains occur in wild radish?," Evolution 50(5): 1842–1848 (1 October 1996).
Tree Frogs
Jessica L. Ward et al, "Multitasking males and multiplicative females: dynamic signalling and receiver preferences in Cope's grey treefrog," Animal Behavior 86(2): 231–243 (August 2013).
B.J. LeBoeuf, "Male-male competition and reproductive success in elephant seals," American Zoologist 14: 163–176 (1974).
C.R. Cox & B.J. Be Boeuf, "Female incitation of mate competition: a mechanism of mate selection," American Naturalist 111: 317–335 (1977).
R.V. Alatalo et al, "Female pied flycatchers choose territory quality not male characteristics," Nature 323: 152–153 (11 September 1986).
Patricia L.R. Brennan et al, "Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl," PLoS One (2 May 2007).
Michael Marshall, " Zoologger: gender-bending cave insects found in Brazil," New Scientist (17 April 2014).
Liz Williams, "Duck genitals locked in arms race," Cosmos (3 May 2007).
Kevin G. McCracken et al, "Sexual selection: are ducks impressed by drakes' display?," Nature 413: 128 (13 September 2001).
Alexander I. Arkhipkin & Vladimir V. Laptikhovsky, "Observation of penis elongation in Onykia ingens: implications for spermatophore transfer in deep-water squid," Journal of Molluscan Studies (30 June 2010).
Lester R. Aronson & Madeline L. Cooper, "Penile spines of the domestic cat: their endocrine-behavior relations," The Anatomical Record 157(1): 71–78 (January 1967).
Rowan Hooper, "Bat bugs turn transsexual to avoid stabbing penises," New Scientist (19 September 2007).
Anne Minard, "Bat bugs evolved fake genitals to avoid sex injuries," National Geographic News (25 September 2007).
"Papa pipefish's pregnancy good for young's immunity," New Scientist (24 November 2012).
Pavel B. Klimov & Ekaterina A. Sidorchuk, "An enigmatic lineage of mites from Baltic amber shows a unique, possibly female-controlled, mating," Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (10 February 2011).
G. Shohat-Ophir et al, "Sexual deprivation increases ethanol intake in Drosophila," Science 335(6074): 1351–1355 (16 March 2012).
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"Double or quits," The Economist (28 June 2014).
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Competition in Guadalupe Canyon William H. Baltosser, "Nectar availability and habitat selection by hummingbirds in Guadalupe Canyon," The Wilson Bulletin 101 (4): 559–578 (December 1989).
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Lake Constance Sticklebacks
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Orca Culture
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Galápagos Islands
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Evolution By Perception
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Ernesto Gianoli & Fernando Carrasco-Urra, "Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory," Current Biology (24 April 2014).
Batesian Mimicry
Peter Forbes, "Masters of disguise," Scientific American 80–83 (May 2011).
"Butterfly ball," The Economist (2 November 2013).
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Inclusive Fitness
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Fitness Through Ignorance David C. Queller & Joan E. Strassmann, "The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation," Biology Letters (16 October 2013).
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Joan E. Strassmann et al, "Altruism and social cheating in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum," Nature 408: 965–967 (21 Decem-ber 2000).
Laurent Keller, "Indiscriminate altruism: unduly nice parents and siblings," Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12(3): 99–103 (March 1997).
Altruism Innate
Pierre M. Durand et al, "Programmed death in a unicellular organism has species-specific fitness effects," Biology Letters (26 February 2014).
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"Generous people live happier lives," University of Zurich (11 July 2017).
Life-History Variables
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James A. Foley, "Larger animals show greatest response to climate change," Nature World News (22 January 2014).
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"Personality changes can affect fish body shape, locomotion," ScienceDaily (3 June 2016).
Robert Lanfear et al, "Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution," Nature Communications (21 May 2013).
Nicholas M. Caruso et al, " Widespread rapid reductions in body size of adult salamanders in response to climate change," Global Change Biology (25 March 2014).
Rachel Nuwer, "Climate change is shrinking species, research suggests" The New York Times (16 October 2011).
C.J. Clemente et al, "Optimal body size with respect to maximal speed for the yellow-spotted monitor lizard (Varanus panoptes; Varanidae)," Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85(3):265–273 (May-June 2012).
Jordan G. Okie et al, "Effects of allometry, productivity and lifestyle on rates and limits of body size evolution," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (12 June 2013).
Lauren Sallan & Andrew K. Galimberti, "Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction," Science 350(6262): 812–815 (13 November 2015).
Jayanth R. Banavar et al, "Form, function, and evolution of living organisms," PNAS 11(9): 3332–3337 (4 March 2014).
T. Ryan Gregorye et al, "The smallest avian genomes are found in hummingbirds," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (5 August 2009).
Rahcel Ehrenberg, "Tiny bird, tiny genome," Science News (4 August 2008).
Chris L. Organ et al, "Origin of avian genome size and structure in non-avian dinosaurs," Nature 446: 180–184 (8 March 2007).
Peter J. Wagner, "One era you are in – the next you are out," Science 350(6262): 736–737 (13 November 2015).
Bat Echolocation
Lasse Jakobsen et al, "Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats," Nature 493: 93–96 (3 January 2013).
Lasse Jakobsen & Annemarie Surlykke, "Vespertilionid bats control the width of their biosonar sound beam dynamically during prey pursuit," PNAS 107(31): 13930–13935 (3 August 2010).
Lasse Jakobsen et al, "Echolocation beam shape in emballonurid bats, Saccopteryx bilineata and Cormura brevirostris," Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66(11): 1493–1502 (November 2012).
Maria Sagot & Richard D. Stevens, "The evolution of group stability and roost lifespan: perspectives from tent-roosting bats," Biotropica 44(1): 90–97 (January 2012).
Roger Lewin, Human Evolution, Blackwell Publishing (2005).
Infanticide "Baby monkeys grow faster to avoid being killed by adult males," ScienceDaily (17 March 2016).
Iulia Badescu et al, "Infanticide pressure accelerates infant development in a wild primate," Animal Behavior 114: 231–239 (April 2016).
Richard Monastersky, "Long-lived insects raise prime riddle," Nature (28 May 2013).
Walter D. Koenig & Andrew M. Liebhold, "Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length," The American Naturalist 181(1): 145–149 (January 2013).
Mammal Predators
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SNV, "Skunky or social," Science (21 March 2014).
Mammal Defecation Chelsea Whyte, "Most mammals big or small take about 12 seconds to defecate," New Scientist (3 May 2017).
Diving Birds Kyle H. Elliott et al, "High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins," PNAS (20 May 2013).
"Flight of the penguin," Science 340: 906 (24 March 2013).
"Sea and sky comes at a cost," Nature (29 May 2013).
Nicholas J. Butterfield, "Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Meso-proterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes," Paleobiology 26(3):386–404 (2000).
Ram Horns & Longevity
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Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
Fred B. Bercovitch et al, "Age-specific changes in reproductive effort and terminal investment in female Nile lechwe," Journal of Mammalogy 90(1): 40–46 (February 2009).
Lechwe photo courtesy of PanBk.
Jennifer S. Mascaro et al, "Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers," PNAS 110(39): 15746–15751 (24 September 2013).
Megan L. Head et al, "Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour," Ecology Letters (2014).
Mating & Parental Care
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Bergmann’s rule
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Hot Horse
Sifrhippus illustration courtesy of Danielle Byerley.
Miguel Á. Olalla-Tárraga et al, "Broad-scale patterns of body size in squamate reptiles of Europe and North America," Journal of Bioge-ography 33(5): 791–793 (May 2006).
Ross Secord et al, "Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum," Science 335(6071): 959–962 (24 February 2012).
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Wandering Albatross Winds
Wandering albatross photo courtesy of J.J. Harrison.
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Patrik Lindenfors et al, "Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex," BMC Biology (10 May 2007).
Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
Sociality Margarita M. López-Uribe et al, "Reduced cellular immune response in social insect lineages," Biology Letters (9 March 2016).
"More social insects have weaker immune response, highlights role of hygiene," ScienceDaily (9 March 2016).
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"Study explains the worldwide variation in plant life-histories," (21 December 2015).
"Small but speedy: short plants live in the evolutionary fast lane," ScienceDaily (21 May 2013).
Robert Lanfear et al, "Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution," Nature Communications (21 May 2013).
Georges Kunstler et al, "Plant functional traits have globally con-sistent effects on competition," Nature (23 December 2015).
Sandra Diaz et al, "The global spectrum of plant form and function," Nature (23 December 2015).
"Trees employ similar strategies to outcompete their neighbors," ScienceDaily (7 January 2016).
Rate of Living Kevin Healy et al, "Metabolic rate and body size are linked with perception of temporal information," Animal Behaviour 86(4): 685–696 (October 2013).
"Correction: hummingbird," The Economist (19 April 2014).
John R. Speakman, "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan," The Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 1717–1730 (1 May 2005).
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Kevin Healy et al, "Ecology and mode-of-life explain lifespan variation in birds and mammals," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (16 April 2014).
"Fly more, live longer," Science News (16 May 2014).
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"Ming the clam is oldest mollusc," BBC News (28 October 2007).
George the Lobster
"NY eatery frees ancient lobster," BBC News (10 January 2009).
Full Lives
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"Time is in the eye of the beholder: time perception in animals depends on their pace of life," ScienceDaily (16 September 2013).
Negligible Senescence
Abigail Zuger, "Secrets of the ages," The New York Times (24 February 2014).
Miguel Coelho et al, "Fission yeast does not age under favorable conditions, but does so after stress," Current Biology 23(19): 1844–1852 (7 October 2013).
Daniel E. Martínez, "Mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence in hydras," Experimental Gerontology 33(3): 217–225 (1998).
Bob Yirka, "Soil beneath ocean found to harbor long lived bacteria, fungi and viruses," (29 August 2013).
Stanley D. Beck & R.K. Bharadwaj, "Reversed development and cellular aging in an insect," Science 178(4066): 1210–1211 (15 December 1972).
"Quaking aspen," Bryce Canyon, U.S. National Park Service (2014).
Lechwe Reproductive Strategy
Synopsis Addy Pross, "Life’s restlessness," Aeon Magazine (29 April 2014).
N. Eldredge & S.J. Gould, "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism," in: Models In Paleobiology, edited by T.J. Schopf, 82–243, Freeman, Cooper & Company (1972).

Human Descent
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Richard G. Klein, The Dawn of Human Culture, John Wiley & Sons (2002).
Chip Walter, Last Ape Standing, Walker Publishing Company (2013).
Glenn C. Conroy, Reconstructing Human Origins, W.W. Norton (2005).
Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, Harper (2015).
Louis-Jean Boë et al, "Evidence of a vocalic proto-system in the baboon (Papio papio) suggests pre-hominin speech precursors," PLoS One (11 January 2017).
Marina Davila-Ross et al, "Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) produce the same types of ‘laugh faces’ when they emit laughter and when they are silent," PLoS One (10 June 2015). "Putting muscle into birdsong: wide range of pitch is due to vocal muscles more than air pressure," ScienceDaily (30 June 2010).
Tobias Riede et al, "Sexual dimorphism of the zebra finch syrinx indicates adaptation for high fundamental frequencies in males," PLoS One (29 June 2010).
Doug Jones et al, "Sexual selection, physical attractiveness and facial neoteny: cross-cultural evidence and implications," Current Anthropology 136(5): 737-738 (December 1995).
Lauren A. Michel et al, "Remnants of an ancient forest provide ecological context for Early Miocene fossil apes," Nature Communications (18 February 2014).
Chris Stringer & Peter Andrews, The Complete World of Human Evolution, Thames & Hudson (2005).
Yves Coppens, Human Origins, Hachette Illustrated (2004).
Ashley S. Hammond et al, "Middle Miocene Pierolapithecus provides a first glimpse into early hominid pelvic morphology," Journal of Human Evolution 64(6): 658–666 (June 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Human-ape split gets an earlier date," Science News 186(1): 12 (12 July 2014).
"Evolution's human and chimp twist," BBC News (18 May 2006).
A.E. Lebatard et al, "Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad," PNAS 105(9): 3226–3231 (8 March 2008).
Richard D. Wilkinson et al, "Dating primate divergences through an integrated analysis of palaeontological and molecular data," Systems Biology 60(1): 16–31 (2011).
Jeff Hecht, "Ape fossils put the origin of humanity at 10 million years ago," New Scientist (2 October 2015).
Erin Wyman, "Human ancestors scrambled to their feet, a new explanation for bipedalism asserts," Science News (1 July 2013).
David R. Carrier, "The advantage of standing up to fight and the evolution of habitual bipedalism in hominins," PLoS One (18 May 2011).
Tracy L. Kivell & Daniel Schmitt, "Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor," PNAS 106(34): 14241–14246 (25 August 2009).
Louis Buckley, "This chimp is made for walking," Nature (16 July 2007).
Bruce Bower, "Ancient walking gets weirder," Science News (19 May 2012).
Yohannes Haile-Selassie et al, "A new hominin foot from Ethiopia shows multiple Pliocene bipedal adaptations," Nature 483: 565–570 (29 March 2012).
"For early hominins in Africa, many ways to take a walk," Science 336: 538 (4 May 2012).
Daniel E. Lieberman, "Those feet in ancient times," Nature 483: 550–551 (29 March 2012).
Meghan M. Cotter et al, "Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures," PloS One (19 October 2011).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "The burdens of being a biped," Science 336: 974 (25 May 2012).
Jennifer Ackerman, "The downside of upright," National Geographic (July 2006).
Dennis M. Bramble & Daniel E. Lieberman, "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo," Nature 432: 345–352 (18 November 2004).
Brain Size
Alex R. DeCasien et al, "Primate brain size is predicted by diet but not sociality," Nature Ecology & Evolution (27 March 2017).
"Why are primates big-brained? Researchers' answer is food for though," (27 March 2017).
Lauren A. Gonzales et al, "Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys," Nature Communications (3 July 2015).
"Old World monkey had a tiny complex brain," Medical Express (3 July 2015).
Gretchen Reynolds, "Exercise and the ever-smarter human brain," The New York Times (26 December 2012).
Timothy Noakes & Micheal Spedding, "Run for your life," Nature 487: 295–296 (19 July 2012).
Dean Falk et al, "Metopic suture of Taung (Australopithecus africanus) and its implications for hominin brain evolution," PNAS 109(22): 8467–8470 (29 May 2012).
Mo Costandi, "Bipedalism, birth and brain evolution," The Guardian (8 May 2012).
Ewen Callaway, "Plant and animal DNA suggests first Americans took the coastal route," Nature (10 August 2016).
Mikkel W. Pedersen et al, "Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor," Nature (10 August 2016).
Eric J. Steig et al, "Recent climate and ice-sheet changes in West Antarctica compared with the past 2,000 years," Nature Geoscience (14 April 2013).
M.A. Martínez-Botí et al, "Boron isotope evidence for oceanic carbon dioxide leakage during the last deglaciation," Nature 518: 219–222 (12 February 2015).
H. Jesse Smith, "Mysterious rise," Science (31 May 2013).
A.C. Tessin & D.C. Lund, "Isotopically depleted carbon in the mid-depth South Atlantic during the last deglaciation," Paleoceanography (2013).
Michail I. Petaev et al, "Large Pt anomaly in the Greenland ice core points to a cataclysm at the onset of Younger Dryas," PNAS 110(32): 12917–12920 (6 August 2013).
Wallace S. Broecker et al, "Putting the Younger Dryas cold event into context," Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 1078–1081 (2010).
T.V. Lowell et al, " Testing the Lake Agassiz meltwater trigger for the Younger Dryas," EOS Transactions 86(40): 365–373 (4 October 2005).
Marten Scheffer et al, "Anticipating critical transitions," Science 328: 344–348 (19 October 2012).
Alan Condrona & Peter Winsorb, " Meltwater routing and the Younger Dryas," PNAS (5 November 2012).
R. Muscheler et al, "Tree rings and ice cores reveal 14C calibration uncertainties during the Younger Dryas," Nature Geoscience (9 March 2008).
The Holocene Extinction Christopher Sandom et al, "Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (4 June 2014).
"Humans blamed for loss of mammoths and other giants," Science (5 June 2014).
Stephen Wroe et al, "Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)," PNAS (6 May 2013).
Eske Willerslev et al, "Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet," Nature 506: 47–50 (6 February 2014).
Michael Balter, "What killed the great beasts of North America?," Science (28 January 2014).
Robin McKie, "What killed off the giant beasts – climate change or man?," The Guardian (15 March 2014).
"Climate change, not human activity, led to megafauna extinction," ScienceDaily (6 May 2013).
"Human history of extinction," Science News (26 July 2014).
"Dodos might have been quite intelligent, new research finds," ScienceDaily (23 February 2016).
Maria Eugenia Leone Gold et al, "The first endocast of the extinct dodo (Raphus cucullatus) and an anatomical comparison amongst close relatives (Aves, Columbiformes)," Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (23 February 2016).
Morten Erik Allentoft et al, "Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization," PNAS (17 March 2014).
Richard N. Holdaway et al, "An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa," Nature Communications (7 November 2014).
Erin Wayman, "Becoming human: the evolution of walking upright," (6 August 2012).
Savannah Hypothesis
"Grassed up," The Economist (16 February 2013).
Isabelle C. Winder et al, "Complex topography and human evolution: the missing link," Antiquity 87(336): 333–349 (May 2013).
Bernard Wood, "Welcome to the family," 311(3): 43–47 Scientific American (September 2014).
Bernard Wood, Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Wiley-Blackwell (2013).
Ann Gibbons, "How a fickle climate made us human," Science 341: 474–479 (2 August 2013).
Charles Lockwood, The Human Story, Sterling Publishing (2007).
Sergio Almécija et al, "The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins," Nature Communications (3 December 2013).
Bruce Bower, "For ancient hominids, thumbs up on precision grip," Science News 177(10) (8 May 2010).
Australopithecus Douglas Palmer, Origins: Human Evolution Revealed, Octopus Publishing Group (2010).
Julia Lee-Thorp et al, "Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad," PNAS 109(50): 20369–20372 (11 December 2012).
Patricia J. Ash & David J. Robinson, The Emergence of Humans, Wiley-Blackwell (2010).
Sandi R. Copeland et al, "Strontium isotope evidence for landscape use by early hominins," Nature 474: 76–78 (2 June 2011).
Nicholas Wade, "Teeth of human ancestors hold clues to their family life," The New York Times (1 June 2011).
Jonathan Webb, "Male faces 'buttressed against punches' by evolu-tion," BBC News (9 June 2014).
Michael H. Morgan & David R. Carrier, "Protective buttressing of the human fist and the evolution of hominin hands," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 236–244 (15 January 2013).
David R. Carrier & Michael H. Morgan, "Protective buttressing of the hominin face," Biological Reviews (9 June 2014).
David R. Carrier & Christopher Cunningham, "The effect of foot posture on capacity to apply free moments to the ground: implications for fighting performance in great apes," Biology Open (2017).
"Study finds that heel-down posture in great apes and humans confers a fighting advantage," (15 February 2017).
Au. afarensis
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Joanna Klein, "Study Suggests 3.2 million-year-old Lucy spent a lot of time in trees," The New York Times (30 November 2016).
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Lucy's Northern Cousin
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Lucy's Next-Door Neighbor
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Au. bahrelghazali
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The Paleolithic Ewen Callaway, "Neanderthal settlements point to earlier extinction," Nature News (4 February 2013).
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H. habilis Bernard Wood, "Human evolution: fifty years after Homo habilis," Nature (2 April 2014).
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H. antiquus
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H. rudolfensis
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H. helmei
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H. gautengensis
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H. erectus
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H. georgicus
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Lumping, Take 2
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Michael Marshall, "Complete skull of 1.8-million-year-old hominin found," New Scientist (17 October 2013).
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Tina Hesman Saey, DNA data offer evidence of unknown extinct human relative," Science News (21 October).
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Ewen Callaway, "Hominin DNA baffles experts," Nature 504: 16–17 (5 Deember 2013).
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Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo et al, "Earliest porotic hyperostosis on a 1.5-million-year-old hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania," PLoS One (3 October 2012).
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Meat & Vegetables
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On the Hunt Neil T. Roach et al, "Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo," Nature 498: 483–486 (27 June 2013).
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Craig B. Stanford, "The predatory behavior and ecology of wild chimpanzee," University of Southern California (~2000).
Bruce Bower, "Earliest evidence of fire making in Europe found," Science News (2 June 2016).
Francesco Berna et al, "Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa," PNAS (2 April 2012).
Alok Jha, "Scientists find clue to human evolution's burning ques-tion," The Guardian (2 April 2012).
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Michael Balter, "RIP for a key Homo species?," Science 345(6193): 129 (11 July 2014).
Michael Balter, "The killing ground," Science 344(6138): 1080–1083 (6 June 2014).
H. rhodesiensis G.J. Sawyer & Viktor Deak, The Last Human, Yale University Press (2011).
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Neanderthal drawing by Hermann Schaaffhausen in 1888.
Pat Shipman, The Invaders, Belknap Press (2015).
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Rachel Ehrenberg, "Neaderthals evolved in fits and starts," Science News (26 July 2014).
Jean-Jacques Hublin, " How to build a Neandertal," Science 344(6190): 1338–1339 (20 June 2014).
"Early man: probing the chamber of secrets," Economist (21 June 2014).
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Virginie Volpato et al, "Hand to mouth in a Neandertal: right-handedness in Regourdou 1," PLoS One (22 August 2012).
Bruce Bower, "Running past Neandertals," Science News (12 March 2011).
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Ian Sample, "Neanderthals were not less intelligent than modern humans, scientists find," The Guardian (30 April 2014).
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Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Life span of early man same as Neanderthals'," The New York Times (10 January 2011).
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Colin Barras, "World's oldest string found at French Neanderthal site," New Scientist (3 November 2013).
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"Complexity of Neanderthal tools," BBC News (26 August 2008).
Seiji Kadowaki et al, "Variability in Early Ahmarian lithic technology and its implications for the model of a Levantine origin of the Proto-aurignacian," Journal of Human Evolution (25 April 2015).
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Kearn Reubens, "Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: a comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability," Journal of Human Evolution (6 August 2013).
Marie Soressi et al, "Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe," PNAS (12 August 2103).
Friedemann Schrenk and Stephanie Muller, The Neanderthals, Routledge (2005).
Michael P. Richards & Erik Trinkaus, "Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans," PNAS (11 August 2009).
Christoph Wißing et al, "Isotopic evidence for dietary ecology of late Neandertals in North-Western Europe," Quaternary International (15 December 2015).
Laura T. Buck & Chris B. Stringer, "Having a stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?," Quaternary Science Reviews (29 September 2013).
C.B. Stringer et al, "Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar," PNAS (22 September 2008).
Ainara Sistiaga et al, "The Neanderthal meal: a new perspective using faecal biomarkers," PLoS One 9(6): e101045 (June 2014).
Matt Kaplan, "Neanderthals ate their greens," Nature (18 July 2012).
Amanda G. Henry et al, "Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)," PNAS (27 December 2010).
Sarah Kaplan, "Neanderthal microbes reveal surprises about what they ate — and whom they kissed," The Washington Post (8 March 2017).
Laura S. Weyrich et al, "Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus," Nature (8 March 2017).
Michael P. Richards et al, "Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes," PNAS (13 June 2000).
A.G. Henry et al, "Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)," PNAS 108 (2): 486–491 (12 November 2010).
Karen Hardy et al, "Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus," Naturwissen-schaften 99(8): 617–626 (August 2012).
Marina Lozano et al, "Toothpicking and periodontal disease in a Neanderthal specimen from Cova Foradà Site (Valencia, Spain)," PLoS One (16 October 2013).
Hervé Bocherens et al, " Evidence for a 15N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: implications for early modern human pal-aeodiet and palaeoenvironment," Journal of Human Evolution (13 March 2014).
Bruce Bower, "Human-Neanderthal mating gets a new date," Science News (5 October 2012).
Benjamin Vernot & Joshua M. Akey, "Complex history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals," The American Journal of Human Genetics (12 February 2015).
Matt Ridley, "Did your ancestor date a Neanderthal?," The Wall Street Journal (17 August 2012).
Ann Gibbons, "Oldest Homo sapiens genome pinpoints Neandertal input," Science 343: 1417 (28 March 2014).
"Neanderthals and humans had 'ample time' to mix," (20 August 2014).
Ann Gibbons, "Neandertals and moderns made imperfect mates," Science 343: 471–472 (31 January 2014).
Sriram Sankararaman et al, "The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans," Nature 507: 354–357 (20 March 2014).
Benjamin Vernot & Joshua M. Akey, "Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes," Science 343: 1017–1018 (28 February 2014).
Ian Sample, "Fifth of Neanderthals' genetic code lives on in modern humans," The Guardian (29 January 2014).
Robert L. Hotz, "Most people carry Neanderthal genes," The Wall Street Journal (6 May 2010).
Mathias Currt & Laurent Excofier, "Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression," PNAS 108(37): 15129–15134 (13 September 2011).
Sriram Sankararaman et al, "The date of interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans," PLoS Genetics 8(10): e1002947 (2012).
Kate Wong, "Our inner Neanderthal," Scientific American 18–20 (July 2010).
"A gift from the Neanderthals," The Week (8 September 2011).
Benjamin A. Black et al, "Campanian Ignimbrite volcanism, climate, and the final decline of the Neanderthals," 43(4) Geology (April 2015).
Robin McKie, "Why did the Neanderthals die out?," The Guardian (1 June 2013).
Kenneth Chang, "Neanderthals in Europe died out thousands of years sooner than some thought, study says," The New York Times (20 Au-gust 2014).
Tom Higham et al, "The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance," Nature (20 August 2014).
William Davies, "Palaeoanthropology: the time of the last Neanderthals," Nature 512: 260–261 (21 August 2014).
Ewen Callaway, "Neandertals disappeared from Europe earlier than thought," Scientific American (20 August 2014).
Viviane Slon et al, "A fourth Denisovan individual," Science Advances (7 July 2017).
Bruce Bower, "Fossil tooth pushes back record of mysterious Neandertal relative," Science News (7 July 2017).
David Reich et al, "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia," Nature (22 December 2010).
Matthias Meyer et al, "A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual," Science 338: 222–226 (12 October 2012).
Bruce Bower, "DNA unveils enigmatic Denisovans," Science News (30 August 2012).
Jamie Shreeve, "Our missing ancestor," National Geographic 224(1): 90–101 (July 2013).
Michael Marshall, "Denisovans: the lost humans who shared our world," New Scientist (3 April 2014).
Michael Marshall, "Mystery human species emerges from Denisovan genome," New Scientist (19 November 2013).
Ann Gibbons, "Who were the Denisovans?," Science 333: 1084–1087 (26 August 2011).
Carl Zimmer, "Siberian fossils were Neanderthals' eastern cousins, DNA reveals," The New York Times (24 December 2010).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "More genomes from Denisova cave show mixing of early human groups," Science 340: 799 (17 May 2013).
Michael F. Hammer et al, "Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa," PNAS 108(37): 15123–15128 (13 September 2011).
Charles Choi, "Genome of mysterious extinct human reveals brown-eyed girl," LiveScience (30 August 2012).
H. naledi
Paul HGM Dirks et al, "The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa," eLife (9 May 2017).
John Hawks et al, "New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa," eLife (9 May 2017).
Lee R. Berger et al, "Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominin evolution in subequatorial Africa," eLife (9 May 2017).
Sarah Wild, "Small-brained early human lived more recently than expected," Nature News (9 May 2017).
EAnn Gibbons, "New human species discovered," Science 349(6253): 1149–1150 (11 September 2015).
Lee R. Berger et al, "Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Home from the Dinaledi chamber, South Africa," eLife (10 September 2015).
Jamie Shreeve, "Mystery man," National Geographic (October 2015).
Bruce Bower, "Debate over Homo naledi continues," Science News (14 May 2016).
Jamie Shreeve, "This face changes the human story. But how?". National Geographic News (10 September 2015).
Ian Sample, "Homo naledi: new species of ancient human discovered, claim scientists," The Guardian (10 September 2015).
Sarah Knapton, "Homo naledi, a new species of human, discovered in a cave in South Africa," The Telegraph (10 September 2015).
John Noble Wilford, "New species in human lineage is found in a South African cave," The New York Times (10 September 2015).
"Ecce Homo naledi," The Economist (12 September 2015).
Bruce Bower, "New date suggested for Homo naledi," Science News (6 August 2016).
H. floresiensis
Eleanor M. Weston & Adrian M. Lister, Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis," Nature 459: 85–88 (7 May 2009).
Adam Brumm et al, "Hominins on Flores, Indonesia, by one million years ago," Nature 464: 748–752 (1 April 2010).
Bruce Bower, "Hobbits died out earlier than thought," Science News (30 March 2016).
Peter Brown, "LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins," Journal of Human Evolution 62(2): 201–224 (February 2012).
Thomas Sutikna et al, "Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia," Nature (30 March 2016).
T. Jacob et al, " Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: Population affinities and pathologi-cal abnormalities," PNAS 103(36): 13421–13426 (5 September 2006).
Karen L. Baab et al, "Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples," PLoS One (10 July 2013).
Gerrit D. van den Bergh et al, "Homo floresiensis-like fossils from the early Middle Pleistocene of Flores," Nature 534: 245–248 (9 June 2016).
Thomas Sutikna et al, "Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia," Nature 532: 366–369 (21 April 2016).
Carl Zimmer, "New fossils strengthen case for ‘Hobbit’ species," The New York Times (8 June 2016).
Daisuke Kubo et al, "Brain size of Homo floresiensis and its evolution-ary implications," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sci-ences (17 April 2013).
Caley M. Orr et al, "New wrist bones of Homo floresiensis from Llang Bua (Flores, Indonesia)," 64(2): 109–129 Journal of Human Evolu-tion (February 2013).
Robert B. Eckhardt et al, "Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon," PNAS (4 August 2014).
Maciej Henneberg et al, "Evolved developmental homeostasis disturbed in LB1 from Flores, Indonesia, denotes Down syndrome and not diagnostic traits of the invalid speciesHomo floresiensis," PNAS (4 August 2014).
Chris Woolston, "Strong words over a 'Hobbit'," Nature 512: 235 (21 August 2014).
Daisuke Kubo et al, "Brain size of Homo floresiensis and its evolutionary implication," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (17 April 2013).
Kate Wong, "The littlest human," Scientific American 48–57 (June 2006).
George H. Perry et al, "Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers," PNAS (18 August 2014).
"Why pygmies are so short," Nature World News (19 August 2014).
Homo sapiens
Ewen Callaway, "Oldest Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species' history," Nature News (8 June 2017). Chris Stringer & Julia Galway-Witham, "On the origins of our species," Nature 546: 212-213 (8 June 2017).
Jean-Jacques Hublin et al, "New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens," Nature 546: 289-292 (8 June 2017).
Daniel Richter et al, "The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age," Nature 546: 293-296 (8 June 2017).
Bruce Bower, "Fossils push back origin of humans," Science News (8 & 22 July 2017).
Ann Gibbons, "Oldest members of our species discovered in Morocco," Science 356(6342): 993-994 (9 June 2017).
"The oldest Homo sapiens yet," The Economist (10 June 2017).
Kate Wong, "Sourcing sapiens," Scientific American 289(2): 23-24 (August 2003).
Serena Tucci & Joshua M. Akey, "Population genetics: a map of human wanderlust," (21 September 2016).
Elizabeth Culotta & Ann Gibbons, "Aborigines and Eurasians rode one migration wave," Science 353(6306): 1352–1353 (23 September 2016).
Swapan Mallick et al, "The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations," Nature (21 September 2016).
Luca Pagani et al, "Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia," Nature (21 September 2016).
Peter B. deMenocal & Chris Stringer, "Human migration: climate and the peopling of the world," Nature (21 September 2016).
Axel Timmermann & Tobias Friedrich, "Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration," Nature (21 September 2016).
Ian Sample, "Fossilised finger points to previously unknown group of human relatives," The Guardian (22 December 2010).
Brenna M. Henn et al, "The great human expansion," PNAS (17 October 2012).
"Peopling the planet," Nature 485: 23 (3 May 2012).
J.R. Stewart & C.B. Stringer, "Human evolution out of Africa: the role of refugia and climate change," Science 335: 1317–1321 (16 March 2012).
Pamela R. Willoughby, "The middle and later Stone Age in the Iringa Region of southern Tanzania," Quaternary International 270: 103–118 (23 August 2012).
Alyssa A. Botelho, "Lost river guided early humans out of Africa," Science News (16 September 2013).
Tom J. Coulthard et al, "Were rivers flowing across the Aahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa," PLoS One 8(9): e74834 (September 2013).
Tim Appenzeller, "Easter odyssey," Nature 485: 24–26 (3 May 2012).
Bruce Bower, "Before Europe, humans went to Asia," Science News (14 November 2015).
Chris Clarkson et al, "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago," Nature 547: 306–310 (20 July 2017).
Curtis W. Marean, "Archaeology: early signs of human presence in Australia," Nature 547: 285–287 (20 July 2017).
Nicola Davis, "Humans arrived in Australian interior 49,000 years ago, archaeologists believe," The Guardian (2 November 2016).
Morten Rasmussen et al, "An aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia," Science 334: 94–98 (7 October 2011).
Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas et al, "A genomic history of aboriginal Australia," Nature (21 September 2016).
Bruce Bower, "DNA illuminates reverse migration," Science News (14 November 2015).
James C. Chatters et al, "Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link paleoamericans and modern native Americans," Science 344(6185): 750–754 (16 May 2014).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Prehistoric skeleton in Mexico is said to link modern indians to earliest Americans," The New York Times (15 May 2014).
Nicholas Wade, "Earliest Americans arrived in waves, DNA study finds," The New York Times (11 July 2012).
Andrew Curry, "Coming to America," Nature 485: 30–32 (3 May 2012).
"Atlas of the human journey," National Geographic (2 May 2007).
Bruce Bower, "Arrival to South America pushed back," Science News (26 December 2015).
Bruce Bower, "Disputed finds put humans in South America 22,000 years ago," Science News (20 April 2013).
Morten E. Allentoft et al, "Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia," Nature 522: 167–172 (11 June 2015).
Toba Super-eruption
Michael R. Rampino & Stephen Self, "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of ~74,000 years ago," Quaternary Research 40: 269–280 (1993).
Katherine Sanderson, "Super-eruption: no problem?," Nature (5 July 2007).
John Hawks et al, "Population bottlenecks and Pleistocene human evolution," Molecular Biology and Evolution 17(1): 2– 22 (2000).
David Whitehouse, "Humans came 'close to extinction'," BBC News (8 September 1998).
David Whitehouse, "When humans faced extinction," BBC News (9 June 2003).
Shu-Jin Luo et al, "Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris)," PLoS Biology (7 December 2004).
Ryan D. Hernandez et al, "Demographic histories and patterns of linkage disequilibrium in Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques," Science 316(5822): 240–243 (13 April 2007).
O. Thalman et al, "The complex history of gorillas: insights from genomic data," Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 146–158 (2007).
M.E. Steiper, "Population history, biogeography, and taxonomy of orangutans (Genus: Pongo) based on a population genetic meta-analysis of multiple loci," Journal of Human Evolution 50: 509–522 (2006).
Pedro Soares et al, "Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock," The American Journal of Human Genetics (4 June 2009).
"New 'molecular clock' aids dating of human migration history," ScienceDaily (22 June 2009).
Red Deer Cave People
Darren Curnoe et al, "Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of Southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians," PLoS One (14 March 2012).
James Owen, "Cave fossil find: new human species or 'nothing extraordinary'?," National Geographic News (14 March 2012).
Ian Sample, "'Red Deer Cave people' may be new species of human," The Guardian (14 March 2012).
Brian Fagan, Cro-Magnon, Bloomsbury Press (2010).
Chip Walter, "Neanderthals: why us and not them?" The Wall Street Journal (25 January 2013).
"Neanderthals – the other white meat," The Week (5 June 2009).
Recent Changes
Dorothy H. Crawford, Deadly Companions, Oxford University Press (2007).
L.C. Alello, "Allometry and the analysis of size and shape in human evolution," Journal of Human Evolution 22: 127–147 (1992).
R.J. Smith, "Biology and body size in human evolution," Current Anthropology 37: 451–481 (1996).
"How are we different and what gave us the advantage over extinct types of humans like the Neanderthals?," ScienceDaily (22 April 2014).
Colin Barras ,"Why we get autism but our Neanderthal cousins didn't," Science News (17 April 2014).
D. Gokhman et al, "Reconstructing the DNA Methylation Maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan," Science (17 April 2014).
C.B. Ruff, "Morpholgoical adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominoids," Physical Anthropology Yearbook 231: 11–223 (1994).
Hannah Devlin, "Study shows humans are evolving faster than previously thought," The Guardian (25 March 2015).
Agnar Helgason et al, "The Y-chromosome point mutation rate in humans," Nature (25 March 2015).
John Hawks, "Still evolving (after all these years)," Scientific American 311(3): 86–91 (September 2014).
Sandra Wilde et al, "Direct evidence for positive selection of skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in Europeans during the last 5,000 years," PNAS (10 March 2014).
"Anthropology: not what they were," The Economist (14 May 2016).
Yair Field et al, "Detection of human adaptation during the past 2,000 years," bioRxiv (7 May 2016).
Human Speciation
Ewen Callaway, "How to build a Neanderthal," Nature (17 April 2014).
David Gokhman et al, "Reconstructing the DNA methylation maps of the Neandertal and the Denisovan," Science (17 April 2014).
Tábita Hünemeier et al, "Cultural diversification promotes rapid phenotypic evolution in Xavánte Indians," PNAS (19 December 2011).
Laurent Abi-Rached et al, "The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans," Science 334 (6052): 69–74 (7 October 2011).
"People choose to marry individuals with genetic similarities," Nature World News (20 May 2014).
"People more likely to choose a spouse with similar DNA, finds CU-Boulder study," University of Colorado, Boulder (19 May 2014).
Rich Morin, "New academic study links rising income inequality to ‘assortative mating’," Pew Research Center (29 January 2014).
Annie Murphy Paul, "The real marriage penalty," The New York Times (19 November 2006).
Bjorn Carey, "The rules of attraction in the game of love," LiveScience (13 February 2006).
Michael F. Hammer et al, "Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa," PNAS 108(37): 15123–15128 (13 September 2011).
Randy Thornhill & Craig T. Palmer, A Natural History of Rape, MIT Press (2000).
Propelling Human Evolution
Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby, The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and The Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press (1992).
Peter B. deMenocal, "Climate shocks," Scientific American 311(3): 48–53 (September 2014).
Jacob Brownoski, The Ascent of Man, BBC Books (1973).
Aaron Sell, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, "The human anger face evolved to enhance cues of strength," Evolution & Human Behavior 35(5): 425–429 (September 2014).
"Researchers explain the 'anger face'," Nature World News (30 August 2014).
"The universal 'anger face': each element makes you look physically stronger and more formidable," ScienceDaily (28 August 2014).
Peter Cook & Margaret Wilson, "Do young chimpanzees have extraordinary working memory?," Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 17(4): 599–600 (August 2010).
Rowan Hooper, "Chimps outperform humans at memory task," New Scientist (3 December 2007).
Brains & Brawn
Carl Zimmer, "Stronger brains, weaker bodies," The New York Times (27 May 2014).
Dennis M. Bramble & Daniel E. Lieberman, "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo," Nature 432: 345–352 (18 November 2004).
Sang-Hee Lee & Milford H. Wolpoff, "The pattern of evolution in Pleistocene human brain size," Paleobiology 29(2): 186–196 (2003).
Katarzyna Bozek et al, "Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness," PLoS Biology (27 May 2014).
Robert A. Barton & Chris Venditti, "Human frontal lobes are not relatively large," PNAS (13 May 2013).
Genevieve Konopka et al, "Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain," Neuron 75(4): p601–617 (23 August 2012 ).
Ana Navarrete et al, "Energetics and the evolution of human brain size," Nature 480: 91–94 (1 December 2011).
"More sophisticated wiring, not just bigger brain, helped humans evolve beyond chimps, geneticists find," ScienceDaily (22 August 2012).
David Maximiliano Gómez et al, "Language universals at birth," PNAS (31 March 2014).
Bob Holmes, "Born to chat: humans may have innate language instinct," New Scientist (31 March 2014).
Ewen Callaway, "Steppe migration rekindles debate on language origin," Nature (18 February 2015).
Jennifer Culbertson & David Adgerb, "Language learners privilege structured meaning over surface frequency," PNAS (31 March 2014).
Robin I.M. Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language, Reed Business Information (1997).
Hiroki Koda et al, "Soprano singing in gibbons," American Journal of Physical Anthropology (July 2012).
"Babel or babble?," The Economist (14 April 2011).
"Hard tone: the evolution of language," The Economist (3 September 2010).
Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language, Harper (2007).
Guy Dsutscher, The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of Mankind's Greatest Invention, Holt (2006).
Adam Tierney & Nina Kraus, "The ability to move to a beat is linked to the consistency of neural responses to sound," Journal of Neuroscience 33(38): 14981–14988 (18 September 2013).
"Decoding the secrets of dolphins’ language," BBC (13 June 2013).
Bruce Dorminey, "Researchers closer to decoding dolphin speak," Forbes (18 October 2012).
Johan J. Bolhuis et al, "How could language have evolved?," PNAS (26 August 2014).
Stephen Levinson, "Language and Wallace's problem," Science 344(6191): 1458–1459 (27 June 2014).
Derek Bickerton, More Than Nature Needs, Harvard University Press (2014).
Shigeru Miyagawa et al, "The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages," Frontiers in Psychology (9 June 2014).
Asif A. Ghazanfar, "Language evolution: neural differences that make a difference," Nature Neuroscience 11: 382–384 (2008).
James K. Rilling et al, "The evolution of the arcuate fasciculus revealed with comparative DTI," Nature Neuroscience (23 March 2008).
Mo Costandi, "Brain connectivity predicts reading skills," Nature (8 October 2012).
D. Kimbrough Oller et al, "Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language," PNAS (2 April 2013).
Natalie Thaïs Uomini & Georg Friedrich Meyer, "Shared brain lateralization patterns in language and acheulean stone tool produc-tion: a functional transcranial doppler ultrasound study," PLoS One 8(8): e72693 (August 2013).
Patricia M. Greenfield, "Language, tools and brain: the ontogeny and phylogeny of hierarchically organized sequential behavior," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(4): 531–551 (December 1991).
Nicholas Bakalar, "A village invents a language all its own," The New York Times (14 July 2013).
Alice Roberts, "Roar of the rutting stag: why men have deep voices," The Observer (5 October 2013).
Caleb Everett et al, "Climate, vocal folds, and tonal languages: connecting the physiological and geographic dots, PNAS (20 January 2015).
Paul Ibbotson & Michael Tomasello, "Language in a new key," Scientific American (November 2016).
Jon Hamilton, "From the mouths of apes, babble hints at origins of human speech," NPR (14 January 2015).
Adriano R. Lameira et al, "Speech-like rhythm in a voiced and voiceless orangutan call," PLoS One (8 January 2015).
Ian Sample, "The mystery of monogamy: scientists claim to have an answer," The Guardian (29 July 2013).
D. Lukas & T.H. Clutton-Brock "The evolution of social monogamy in mammals," Science 341: 526–530 (2 August 2013).
"New research shows social monogamy evolved as result of competition," (29 July 2013).
Christopher Opie et al, "Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates," PNAS (29 July 2013).
Mairi Macleod, "Monogamy evolved to keep baby-killers away," New Scientist (30 July 2013).
Jennifer S. Mascaroa et al, "Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers," PNAS 110(39): 15746–15751 (24 September 2013).
Ian Sample, "Testicle size may indicate men's childcare aptitude, suggests US study," The Guardian (9 September 2013).
Carl Zimmer, "Monogamy's boost for human evolution," The New York Times (2 August 2013).
Ben C. Sheldon & Marc Mangel, "Love thy neighbour," Nature 512: 381–382 (28 August 2014).
Sigrunn Eliassen & Christian Jørgensen, "Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods," PLoS One 9(7): e99878 (July 2014).
"Pack power," The Economist (30 May 2015).
E.S. Almberg et al, "Social living mitigates the costs of a chronic illness in a cooperative carnivore,"Ecology Letters (18 May 2015).
Social Cunning
Clémentine Vignal et al, "Audience drives male songbird response to partner's voice," Nature 430: 448–451 (22 July 2004).
Richard W. Byrne & Andrew Whiten, Machiavellian Intelligence, Clarendon Press (1998).
R.I. Dunbar, "The social brain hypothesis and its implications for social evolution," Annals of Human Biology 5: 562–572 (September – October 2009).
Sergey Gavrilets & Aaron Vose, "The dynamics of Machiavellian intelligence," PNAS 103(45): 16823–16828 (7 November 2006).
Robin I.M. Dunbar, "The social brain hypothesis," Evolutionary Anthropology (1998).
R. Dunbar, Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates, Journal of Human Evolution 20: 469–493 (1992).
Christopher McCarty et al, "Comparing two methods for estimating network size," Human Organization 60(1): 28–39 (Spring 2001).
"Male–male bonds as a key to the evolution of complex social systems," ScienceDaily (10 September 2014).
Ann Gibbons, "How we tamed ourselves – and became modern," Science 346(6208): 405–406 (24 October 2014). "The roots of human altruism," University of Zurich (27 August 2014).
J. M. Burkart et al, "The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation," Nature Communications (27 August 2014).
Rui Diogo et al, "Bonobo anatomy reveals stasis and mosaicism in chimpanzee evolution, and supports bonobos as the most appropriate extant model for the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans," Scientific Reports (4 April 2017).
"Study finds bonobos may be better representation of the last common ancestor with humans than common chimpanzees," (29 April 2017).
Michael Balter, "Human altruism traces back to the origins of humanity," Science (27 August 2014).
Michael Balter, "Why we're different: probing the gap between apes and humans," Science 319(5862): 404–405 (25 January 2008).
Annika Patzelt et al, "Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society," PNAS (8 September 2014).
"Society bloomed with gentler personalities, more feminine faces: technology boom 50,000 years ago correlated with less testosterone," ScienceDaily (1 August 2014).
Robert L. Cieri et al, "Craniofacial feminization, social tolerance, and the origins of behavioral modernity," Current Anthropology 55(4) (Au-gust 2014).
Sergey Gavrilets, "Collective action and the collaborative brain," Interface (26 November 2014).
Bruce Bower, "Massacre hints at early origin of war," Science News (20 February 2016).
Social Structure
Kim R. Hill et al, "Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure," Science 331(6022): 1286–1289 (11 March 2011).
Bernard Chapais, "The deep social structure of humankind," Science 331(6022): 1276–1277 (11 March 2011).
Cultural Diversity Dan Jones, "The ritual animal," Nature 493: 470–472 (24 January 2013).
Robert S. Walker & Drew H. Bailey, "Body counts in lowland South American violence," Evolution & Human Behavior 34(1): 29–34 (Jan-uary 2013).
Samuel Bowles, "Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors?," Science 324: 1293–1298 (5 June 2009).
Bruce Hood, The Domesticated Brain, Pelican Books (2014).
Technology "World's oldest butchering tools gave evolutionary edge to human communication: Oldowan technology behind genesis of language and teaching," ScienceDaily (13 January 2015).
T.H.J. Morgan et al, "Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making teaching and language," Nature Communications (13 January 2015).
Mark Pagel, Wired for Culture, W.W. Norton & Company (2012).

Early Human History
Colin Renfrew, Prehistory, The Modern Library (2007).
Gustavo Arriaga et al, "Of mice, birds, and men: the mouse ultrasonic song system has some features similar to humans and song-learning birds," PLoS One (10 October 2012).
Grover S. Krantz, "Laryngeal descent in 40,000 year old fossils," in The Genesis of Language (edited by M.E. Langsberg), 173–180, Mouton de Gruyter (1988).
Tome Froese et al, "Turing instabilities in biology, culture and consciousness? On the enactive origins of symbolic material culture," Adaptive Behavior 21(3): 199–214 (2013).
Jennifer Ouellette, "When math meets nature: Turing patterns and form constants," Scientific American (27 March 2013).
Jennifer Ouellette, "Biologists home in on Turing patterns," Quanta Magazine (25 March 2013).
Cave Paintings
M. Aubert et al, "Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia," Nature (8 October 2014).
Robert G. Benarik, "The earliest known palaeoart," International Federation of Rock Art Organisations (2003).
Randall White, Prehistoric Art, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2003).
Musical Instruments
Thomas Higham et al, "Testing models for the beginnings of the Aurignacian and the advent of figurative art and music: the radiocarbon chronology of Geißenklösterle," Journal of Human Evolution 62(6): 664–676 (June 2012). B.S. Akshaya, "Earliest musical instrument discovered,"International Business Times (26 May 2012).
"Chinese writing '8,000 years old'," BBC News (18 May 2007).
Clare Pain, "We recognise words like we do faces," ABC Science (25 March 2015).
"After learning new words, brain sees them as pictures." ScienceDaily (24 March 2015).
Ashley Yeager, "The brain sees words, even nonsense ones, as pictures," Science News (24 March 2015).
L.S. Glezer et al, "Evidence for highly selective neuronal tuning to whole words in the 'visual word form area'," Neuron 62(2):199–204 (30 April 2009).
Stone Age
Erin Biba, "Africa's great divide," Scientific American 311(2): 17–18 (August 2014).
Ludovic Slimak et al, "Late Mousterian persistence near the Arctic Circle," Science 332 (6031): 841–845 (13 May 2011).
Kyle S. Brown et al, "An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa," Nature (7 November 2012).
Sally McBrearty, "Sharpening the mind," Nature (7 November 2012).
Ian Sample, "Lethal weapons may have given early humans edge over neander," The Guardian (7 November 2012).
Settlement Richard W. Yerkes et al, "Form and function of early Neolithic bifacial stone tools reflects changes in land use practices during the Neolithi-zation process in the Levant," PLoS One (8 August 2012).
Helmut Ziegert, "A new dawn for humanity: Lower Paleolithic village life in Libya and Ethiopia," Minerva 18(4): 8–9 (July/August 2007).
Bruce Bower, "Shelters date to Stone Age," Science News (22 February 2012).
Lisa A. Maher et al, "Twenty thousand-year-old huts at a hunter-gatherer settlement in eastern Jordan," PLoS One (15 February 2012).
William James Burroughs, Climate Change in Prehistory, Cambridge University Press (2008).
Patricia Phillips, The Prehistory of Europe, Indiana University Press (1980).
Xiaohong We et al, "Early pottery at 20,000 years ago in Xianrendong Cave, China," Science 336: 1696–1700 (29 June 2012).
Gideon Shelach, "On the invention of pottery," Science 336: 1644–1645 (29 June 2012).
"Woven cloth dates back 27,000 years," BBC News (14 June, 2000).
Jean Guilaine, editor, Prehistory: The World of Early Man, Facts on File (1991).
"Should we thank god for civilsation?," New Scientist (26 March 2015).
Fred Pearce, "Jungle festivals led to first Maya cities," New Scientist (23 March 2015).
Nicholas Epley & Adam Waytz, "Mind perception," in Handbook of Social Psychology, Volume 1, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
James C. Scott, Against the Grain, Yale University Press (2017).
Suzanne Shablovsky, "The perils of permanence," Science 357(6350): 459 (4 August 2017).
Jared E. Decker et al, "Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle," PLoS Genetics (27 March 2014).
Robert J. Wenke & Deborah I. Olszewski, Patterns in Prehistory, Oxford University Press (2007).
Jessica E. Tierney & Peter B. deMenocal, "Abrupt shifts in horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum," Science 342(6160): 843–846 (15 November 2013).
Edouard Bard, "Out of the African humid period," Science 342(6160): 843–846 (15 November 2013).
Gordon Conway, One Billion Hungry, Cornell University Press (2012).
Evelyn Kim, "The amazing multimillion-year history of processed food," Scientific American 309(3): 50–55 (September 2013).
Amy McDermott, "Farming spread from two groups," Science News (6 August 2016).
Sara Reardon, "Ancient climate change picked the crops we eat today," New Scientist (15 August 2013).
Ian Kuijta & Bill Finlayson, "Evidence for food storage and pre-domestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley," PNAS 106(26): 10966–10970 (7 July 2009).
Ruth Bollongino et al, "2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age central Europe," Science 342: 479–481 (25 October 2013).
Catherin Brahic, "Stone Age DNA shows hunter-gatherers shunned farming," New Scientist (24 April 2014).
Alison George, "Stuff: humans as hunters and mega-gatherers," New Scientist (30 March 2014).
Soil & Human Fertility
"Noble or savage?," The Economist (19 December 2007).
Stephen Shennan et al, "Regional population collapse followed initial agriculture booms in mid-Holocene Europe," Nature Communications (1 October 2013).
Bruce Bower, "Ancient farming populations went boom, then bust," Science News (1 October 2013).
Mary C. Sholes & Robert J. Scholes, "Dust unto dust," Science 342: 565–566 (1 November 2013).
"Civilizations rise and fall on the quality of their soils," ScienceDaily (4 November 2013).
Amy Bogaard et al, "Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers," PNAS (16 July 2013).
Steven Le Blanc & Katherine E. Register, Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage, Macmillan (2013).
Lydie Dupont, "The human factor," Science 335: 1180–1181 (9 March 2012).
Jeff Tollefson, "Footprints in the forest," Nature 502: 160–162 (10 October 2013).
Boris V. Schmid et al, "Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe," PNAS (23 February 2015).
The great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), endemic to arid habitats in central Asia, portered the Black Death bacterium.
Tina Hesman Saey, "Written in bone," Science News (2 May 2014).
Eva Emerson, "Prying tales from ancient DNA and a far-away moon," Science News (17 May 2014).
Michael Balter, "European hunter-gatherers dined on domestic pigs," Science 341: 950 (30 August 2013).
Ben Krause-Kyora et al, "Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe," Nature Communications (27 August 2013).
Simone Riehl et al, "Emergence of agriculture in the foothills of the Zagros mountains of Iran," Science 341: 65–67 (5 July 2013).
Michael J. Montague et al, "Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication," PNAS (14 November 2014).
David Grimm, "The genes that turned wildcats into kitty cats," Science 346(6211): 799 (14 November 2014).
Jeanmaire Molina et al, "Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice," PNAS 108(20): 8351–8356 (17 May 2011).
Colin Barras, "Farming has deep roots in Chinese ice age," New Scientist (18 March 2013).
Hucai Zhang et al, "Morphological and genetic evidence for early Holocene cattle management in northeastern China," Nature Communications (8 November 2013).
Mary C. Stiner et al, "A forager–herder trade-off, from broad-spectrum hunting to sheep management at Asikli Höyük, Turkey," PNAS (28 April 2014).
Andrew Lawler, "Uncovering civilization's roots," Science 335 (6070): 790–793 (17 February 2012).
Animal Domestication
Tina Hesman Saey, "The road to tameness," New Scientist (8 July 2017).
Monamie Ringhofer & Shinya Yamamoto, "Domestic horses send signals to humans when they face with an unsolvable task," Animal Cognition (24 November 2016).
"When horses are in trouble they ask humans for help," ScienceDaily (15 December 2016).
Erika Engelhaupt, "Keeping silkworms secret," New Scientist (8 July 2017).
The Descent of Dogs
Golden retriever drawing courtesy of Kendra Goering.
Laurent A.F. Frantz et al, "Genomic and archaeological evidence suggests a dual origin of domestic dogs," Science 352(6290): 1228-1231 (2 June 2016).
David Grimm, "Dogs may have been domesticated more than once," Science 352(6290): 1153-1154 (2 June 2016).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Ancient DNA tells of two origins for dogs," Science News (2 June 2016).
Adam H. Freedman et al, "Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs," PLoS Genetics (16 January 2014).
James Gorman, "The big search to find out where dogs come from," The New York Times (18 January 2016).
"New twist in tale of dogs' origins," ScienceDaily (16 December 2015).
Pontus Skoglund et al, "Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds," Current Biology 25(11): 1515–1519 (1 June 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Ancient DNA pushes back timing of the origin of dogs," Science News (21 May 2015).
Micheael Slezak, "Ancient DNA suggests dogs split from wolves 40,000 years ago," New Scientist (21 May 2015).
Helen Thompson, "Ancient wolf skulls challenge dog domestication timeline," Science News (5 February 2015).
Mark Derr, "From the cave to the kennel," The Wall Street Journal (29 October 2011).
David Grimm, "Dawn of the dog," Science 348(6322): 274–279 (17 April 2015).
David Grimm, "How the wolf became the dog," Science 348(6322): 277 (17 April 2015).
Sudeshna Chowdhury, "Did dogs really evolve from wolves? New evidence suggests otherwise," The Christian Science Monitor (17 January 2014).
Laura M. Shannon et al, "Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin," PNAS (19 October 2015).
"First domestication of dogs took place in Asia, not Europe," New Scientist (19 October 2015).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Dogs' origins lie in Europe," Science News (14 November 2014).
Ewen Callaway, "Prehistoric genomes reveal European origins of dogs," Nature News (14 November 2013).
O. Thalmann et al, "Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs," Science 342: 871-874 (15 November 2013).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Old dogs teach a new lesson about canine origins," Science 342: 785-786 (15 November 2013).
Greger Larson et al, "Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography," PNAS 109(23): 8878 – 8883 (5 June 2012).
Nicholas Wade, "New finding puts origins of dogs in Middle East," The New York Times (17 March 2010).
Erik Axelsson et al, "The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet," Nature 495: 360–365 (21 March 2013).
Ewen Callaway, "Dog's dinner was key to domestication," Nature News (23 January 2013).
"Have we turned dogs into lazy thinkers through domestication," New Scientist (16 September 2015).
Monique A.R. Udell, "When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus)," Biology Letters (16 September 2015).
Carl Zimmer, "From fearsome predator to man's best friend," The New York Times (16 May 2013).
Guo-dong Wang et al, "The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans," Nature Communications (14 May 2013).
Friederike Range & Zsófia Virányi, "Social learning from humans or conspecifics: differences and similarities between wolves and dogs," Frontiers in Psychology (December 2013).
Nicholas Wade, "In taming dogs, humans may have sought a meal," The New York Times (8 September 2009).
Sanni Somppi et al, "Dogs evaluate threatening facial expressions by their biological validity – evidence from gazing patterns," PLoS One (13 January 2016).
Jan Hoffman, "The look of love is in the dog's eyes," The New York Times (16 April 2015).
Miho Nagasawa et al, "Oxytocin-gaze positive loop and the coevolution of human-dog bond," Science 348(6232): 333–334 (17 April 2015).
Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare, "Dogs hijack the human bonding pathway," Science 348(6232): 280–281 (17 April 2015).
Cultural Crops
T. Talhelm et al, "Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture," Science 344(6184): 603–608 (9 May 2014).
Joseph Henrich, "Rice, psychology, and innovation," Science 344(6184): 593–594 (9 May 2014).
Early Civilizations
Brian M. Fagan, World Prehistory, Pearson Education (2008).
Colin Renfrew, Prehistory, Modern Library (2007).
Peter Turchin et al, "War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies," PNAS (23 September 2013).
Sumer John Perlin, A Forest Journey, The Countryman Press (2005).
R. Alexander Bentley et al, "Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers," PNAS 109(24): 9326–9330 (12 June 2012).
"Inequality dates back to Stone Age: earliest evidence yet of differential access to land," ScienceDaily (28 May 2012).
Heather Pringle, "The ancient roots of the 1%," Science 344(6186): 822 –825 (23 May 2014).
Religion Barbara Tedlock, The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine, Random House (2005).
Minoan Civilization
Jeffery R. Hughey et al, "A European population in Minoan Bronze Age Crete," Nature Communications (14 May 2013).
Carl Zimmer, "DNA deciphers roots of modern Europeans," The New York Times (10 June 2015).
Ancient Egypt
David O'Connor, "Egypt and the Levant in the Bronze Age," in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Crown Publishers (1980).
Andrew Grant, "Egypt wasn't built in a day, but it did rise quickly," Science News (9 September 2013).
Michael Dee et al, "An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling," Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Science (8 November 2013).
Horus image courtesy of Jeff Dahl.
pyramids photo courtesy of Ricardo Liberato.
José Ortitz, "Akhenaten," National Geographic History 2(1): 18–26 (March/April 2016).
Akhenaten photo courtesy of Gérard Ducher.
Nefertiti photo courtesy of Philip Pikart.
"The real King Tut was sick, crippled, and ugly," Nature World News (21 October 2014).
Rose Troup Buchanan, "King Tutankhamun did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals," The Independent (20 October 2014).
Bronze Age Collapse
David Kaniewski et al, "Environmental roots of the Late Bronze Age Crisis," PLoS One (14 August 2013).
Isabel Kershner, "Pollen study points to drought as culprit in Bronze Age mystery," The New York Times (22 October 2013).
Iron Age
Thilo Rehren et al, "5,000 years old Egyptian iron beads made from hammered meteoritic iron," Journal of Archaeological Science (20 August 2013).
Ancient Rome
Simon Baker, Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, Random House (2010).
Ian Sample, "Ancient Rome's tap water heavily contaminated with lead, researchers say," The Guardian (21 April 2014).
Steve Boyle & Stephanie Owens, North American Beaver (Castor canadensis): A Technical Conservation Assessment, USDA Forest Service (6 February 2007).
Black Death
Vanessa Thorpe, "Black death was not spread by rat fleas, say researchers," The Guardian (29 March 2014).
Eutheria Zhe-Xi Luo et al, "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals," Nature 476: 442–445 (25 August 2011).
Grande Coupure
J.J. Hooker et al, "Eocene-Oligocene mammalian faunal turnover in the Hampshire Basin, UK: calibration to the global time scale and the major cooling event," Journal of the Geological Society 161(2): 161–172 (2004).
Meike Köhler & Salvador Moyà-Solà, "A finding of Oligocene primates on the European continent," PNAS 96(25): 14664–14667 (December 1999).
Red Queen hypothesis
Leigh Van Valen, "A new evolutionary law," Evolutionary Theory 1: 1–30 (July 1973).