Spokes 2 : Research References    (Table of Contents)
Common knowledge for Spokes obtained from various encyclopedias and dictionaries, including Encyclopedia Britannica, Everipedia, New World Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, World Book Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary,, and the infotainment serpent known as the Internet.

The author especially thanks those artists and photographers who freely provide their work for reproduction. The images in the Spokes series are often incidental to the content, but do help to accent a point. The images of life especially provide a modest reminder of the wondrous beauty in Nature.

The Web of Life
David Attenborough, Life, BBC Worldwide (2010).
Defining Life – History
Nurit Bird-David, "Animism revisited: personhood, environment, and relational epistemology," Current Anthropology 40: 67–91 (1991).
Elizabeth A. Williams, "A cultural history of medical vitalism," in Enlightenment Montpellier, Routledge (2003).
William Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson, "Vitalism," in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge (1998).
Peter Lipson, "The death and rebirth of vitalism," Science-Based Medicine (24 June 2009).
Life Defined
Paul Davies, The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life, Simon & Schuster (2015).
David McFarland (editor), The Oxford Companion to Animal Behavior, Oxford University Press (1981).
Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Merriam Webster (2002).
Aubrey Manning & Marian Stamp Dawkins, An Introduction to Animal Behavior, Cambridge University Press (1998).
Paul Watzlawick et al, Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes, Norton (2011).
Heather M. Whitney et al, "The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus," Naturwissenschaften (February 2013).
Katrina Alcorn et al, "Flower movement increases pollinator preference for flowers with better grip," Functional Ecology 26(4): 941–947 (August 2012).
Ivan Marazzi et al, "Suppression of the antiviral response by an influenza histone mimic," Nature 483: 428–433 (22 March 2012).
Justin R. Meyer et al, "Repeatability and contingency in the evolution of a key innovation in phage lambda," Science 335(6067): 428–432 (27 January 2012).
Tal Kramer & Lynn W. Enquist, "Alphaherpesvirus infection disrupts mitochondrial transport in neurons," Cell Host & Microbe 11(5): 504–514, (17 May 2012).
Fake Feces
Eunice J. Tan et al, "Why do orb-weaving spiders (Cyclosa ginnaga) decorate their webs with silk spirals and plant detritus?," Animal Behaviour 79(1): 179–186 (January 2010).
Min-Hui Liu et al, "Evidence of bird dropping masquerading by a spider to avoid predators," Scientific Reports (29 May 2014).
Sarah Zielinski, "Bird dropping disguise proves to be effective camouflage," Science News (6 June 2014).
Telltale Smell
"Mosquitoes: how we smell is why they bite," ScienceDaily (2 July 2012).
Allison F. Carey et al, "Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae," Nature 464: 66–71 (4 March 2010).
Cleaner Fish
Janine W.Y. Wong & Nico K. Michiels, "Control of social monogamy through aggression in a hermaphroditic shrimp," Frontiers in Zoology (11 November 2011).
Cellular Communication
Hyun Youk & Wendell A. Lim, "Secreting and sensing the same molecule allows cells to achieve versatile social behaviors," Science 343: 1242782-1–1242782-9 (7 February 2014).
Arupratan Das et al, "Flippase-mediated phospholipid asymmetry promotes fast Cdc42 recycling in dynamic maintenance of cell polarity," Nature Cell Biology (19 February 2012).
Anna Jisu Lee & Lingchong You, "Cells listen to their inner voice," Science 343: 624–625 (7 February 2014).
Michael C. Abt et al, "Commensal bacteria calibrate the activation thresh-old of innate antiviral immunity," Immunity (14 June 2012).
Stephanie K. Lathrop et al, "Peripheral education of the immune system by colonic commensal microbiota," Nature 478: 250–254 (13 October 2011).
Mitch Leslie, "Gut microbes keep rare immune cells in line," Science 335: 1428 (23 March 2012).
Vanessa Sperandio, "Virulence or competition?," Science 336: 1238–1239 (27 January 2012).
Intercellular Communication
"Body's own recycling system: researchers discover 'molecular emergency brake' in charge of regulating self-digestion," ScienceDaily (12 October 2012).
Melissa Chesarone-Cataldo et al, The myosin passenger protein Smy1 controls actin cable structure and dynamics by acting as a formin damper," Developmental Cell 21 (2): 217 (2011).
Kevin Thurley et al, "Reliable encoding of stimulus intensities within random sequences of intracellular Ca2+ spikes," Science Signaling 7(331): ra59 (24 June 2014).
"Biological signal processing: body cells – instrumentalists in a symphony orchestra," ScienceDaily (3 July 2014).
Stem Cell Conference
Junling Jia et al, "Regulation of pluripotency and self- renewal of ESCs through epigenetic-threshold modulation and mRNA pruning," Cell 151(3): 576–589 (26 October 2012).
Intercellular Communication
"Cells' 'molecular muscles' help them sense and respond to their environ-ments," (20 October 2013).
Tianzhi Luo et al, "Molecular mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing," Nature Materials 12: 1064–1071 (20 October 2013).
Ginés Morata & Salvador C. Herrera, "Eiger triggers death from afar," eLife 2:e01388 (24 September 2013).
Ainhoa Pérez-Garijo et al, "Apoptotic cells can induce nonautonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway," eLife 2:e10004 (24 September 2013).
Sweet Talk
Nathan Sharon & Halina Lis, "Carbohydrates in cell recognition," Scientific American 82–89 (January 1993).
Rosa M. Espinosa-Marzal et al, "Sugars communicate through water: orietned glycans induce water structuring," Biophysical Journal 104(12): 2686–2694 (18 June 2013).
Communal Encyclopedia
David Scanlan, "Bacterial vesicles in the ocean," Science 343: 143–144 (10 January 2014).
Brooke L. Deatherage & Brad T. Cookson, "Membrane vesicle release in bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea: a conserved yet underappreciated aspect of microbial life," Infection and Immunity 80(6): 1948–1957 (June 2012).
Steven J. Biller et al, "Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems," Science 343(6167): 183–186 (10 January 2014).
Primary Cilia
James R. Davenport & Bradley K. Yoder, "An incredible decade for the primary cilium: a look at a once-forgotten organelle," American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 289 (6): F1159–F1169 (2005).
Mike Adams, "The primary cilium: an orphan organelle finds a home," Nature Education 3(9): 54 (2010).
Sergei I. Fokin, "Life of Alexander Onufrievich Kowalevsky (1840–1901)," Evolution & Development 14(1): 3–8 (February 2012).
Mary Beth Gardiner, "The importance of being cilia," HHMI Bulletin 18:2 (September 2005).
Communication Lines
Wallace Ravven, "Antenna on cell surface is key to development and disease," The New York Times (19 May 2009).
Juan Song et al, "Neuronal circuitry mechanism regulating adult quiescent neural stem-cell fate decision," Nature (29 July, 2012).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Nouveaux antennas," Science News 16–18 (3 November 2012).
"Brain's stem cells 'eavesdrop' to find out when to act," ScienceDaily (6 August 2012).
Pernille Rørth, "Reach out and touch someone," Science 343: 848–849 (21 February 2014).
Killer Diagrams
"Immune system fighters speak in patterns of proteins, prefer squishy partners," ScienceDaily (26 October 2012).
Cancer Calls
Margaritis Voliotis et al, "Information transfer by leaky, heterogeneous, protein kinase signaling systems," PNAS (6 January 2014).
"Secondary goals," The Economist (15 February 2014).
M. Hagedorn & W. Heiligenberg "Court and spark: electric signals in the courtship of mating gymnotid fish," Animal Behaviour 33: 254–265 (1985).
"Romancing the firefly," ScienceDaily (26 June 2012).
Karen Marchetti, "Dark habitats and bright birds illustrate the role of the environment in species divergence," Nature 362: 149-152 (11 March 1993).
Sayoko Ueda et al, "A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus)," PLoS One 9(6): e98217 (June 2014).
Innes C. Cuthill et al, "The biology of color," Science 357(6350) (4 August 2017).
Jennifer Wathan & Karen McComb, "The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses," Current Biology 4(15): R677–R679 (4 August 2014).
Juvenile cherry-crowned mangabey monkey photo courtesy of Keven Law.
Fireflies Alight
A. South & S.M. Lewis, "Determinants of reproductive success across sequential episodes of sexual selection in a firefly," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (25 April 2012).
R.E. Young & C.F. Roper, "Bioluminescent countershading in midwater animals: evidence from living squid," Science 191 (4231): 1046–1048 (12 March 1976).
Hannah Rosen et al, "Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package," The Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 265–275 (2015).
Dawn D. Bennett, "Making sense of animal sounds," Science News 127: 314–317 (18 May 1985).
Emily J. Mockford et al, "Degradation of rural and urban great tit song: testing transmission efficiency," PLoS One 6 (12): e28242 (12 December 2011).
R.C. Paul & T.J. Walker, "Arboreal singing in a burrowing cricket, Anurogryllus arboreus," Journal of Comparative Physiology 132: 217–223 (1979).
E. R. Staaterman et al, "Rumbling in the benthos: acoustic ecology of the California mantis shrimp Hemisquilla californiensis," Aquatic Biology 13 (2): 97–105 (2011).
P.R. Marler & W.J. Hamilton III, Mechanisms of Animal Behavior, John Wiley & Sons (1966).
Phillip Ball, "Sounding out the science of whale song," Nature News (5 November 1999).
Gloriana Chaverri & Erin H. Gillam, "Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (16 October 2013).
Genevieve Spanjer Wright et al, "Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats," Current Biology (27 March 2014).
Aaron J. Corcoran & William E. Conner, "Bats jamming bats: food competi-tion through sonar interference," Science 346(6210): 745–747 (7 November 2014).
K.E. Jones et al, "Bats, clocks, and rocks: diversification patterns in chiroptera," Evolution 59 (10): 2243–2255 (2005).
Annemarie Surlykke & Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, "Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey," PLoS One (30 April 2008).
Li Gao et al, "Ear deformations give bats a physical mechanism for fast adaptation of ultrasonic beam patterns," Physical Review Letters, 107: 214301–214306 (14 November 2011).
Coen P. H. Elemans et al, "Superfast muscles set maximum call rate in echolocating bats," Science 333 (6051): 1885–1888 (30 September 2011).
James A. Simmons, "Temporal binding of neural responses for focused attention in biosonar," The Journal of Experimental Biology (15 August 2014).
Yossi Yovel et al, "Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system," PLoS Biology 9 (9): e1001150 (September 2011).
Mohamed Y. El-Naggar et al, "Electrical transport along bacterial nan-owires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1," PNAS 107(42): 18127–18131 (19 October 2010).
Dominic Clarke et al, "Detection and learning of floral electric fields by bumblebees," Science (21 February 2013).
Kenneth Catania, "The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel," Science 346(6214): 1231–1234 (5 December 2014).
Susan Milius, "Electric eels remote-control nervous systems of prey," Science News (4 December 2014).
Christine N. Bedore et al, "Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2 December 2015).
Henry Nicholls, "Zoology Notes 10: cuttlefish can hide their electrical signals," The Guardian (3 December 2015).
Edward O. Wilson, "Chemical communication in the social insects," Science (3 September 1965).
"Wisdom of crowds," The Economist (8 April 2009).
"Two 'noses' are necessary for flies to navigate well," ScienceDaily (26 December 2007).
Azteca Ants & Phorid Flies
Hsun-Yi Hsieh et al, "Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones," Ecology and Evolution (27 July 2012).
"Predatory beetles eavesdrop on ants' chemical conversations to find best egg-laying sites," ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Nematodes & Fungi
Andreas H. Ludewig & Frank C. Schroeder, "Ascaroside signaling in C. elegans," WormBook 18: 1–22 (January 2013).
Sylvia Anaid Diaz et al, "Diverse and potentially manipulative signalling with ascarosides in the model nematode C. elegans," BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(1): 46 (11 March 2014).
Yen-Ping Hsueh et al, "Nematode-trapping fungi eavesdrop on nematode pheromones," Current Biology 23(1): 83–86 (7 January 2013).
Moth Advertising
D.B. Dusenberry, Sensory Ecology, W.H. Freeman (1992).
Benthic Scents
Mark Hay, "Chemistry as the language of life," The New York Times (14 October 2011).
Kerstin E. Thonhauser et al, "Scent marking increases male reproductive success in wild house mice," Animal Behaviour 86(5): 1013–1021 (No-vember 2013).
D.L. Clark & G.W. Uetz, "Morph-independent mate selection in a dimorphic jumping spider: demonstration for movement bias in female choice using video-controlled courtship behaviour," Animal Behaviour 43: 247–254 (1992).
Greg Miller, "Behavioral neuroscience uncaged," Science 306: 432–434 (15 October 2004).
H. Proctor, "Courtship behavior in the water mite Neumania papillator," Animal Behaviour 42: 589–598 (1991).
C. Lofstedt et al, "Diet related courtship success in the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Tortricidae)," Oikos 55: 1402–1408 (1989).
"Underwater noise decreases whale communications in Stellwagen Bank sanctuary," NOAA (15 August 2012).
John Pickrell, "U.S. Navy sonar may harm killer whales, expert says," National Geographic News (31 March 2004).
"Lethal sounds," National Resources Defense Council (6 October 2008).
Miguel Llanos, "Navy raises sonar impact on dolphins, whales dramatically," NBC News (11 May 2012).
"How navy sonar kills whales and dolphins," Seattle PI (2012).
Kieran Mulvaney, "Navy admits whales and dolphins in harm's way," Discovery News (6 July 2012).
Pete Yost, "U.S. Navy wins dispute over sonar, whales," National Geographic News (13 November 2008).
Susan Milius, "Chicks do worse in noisy nests," Science News 182(2): 8 (28 July 2012).
"Birds sing louder amidst the noise and structures of the urban jungle," ScienceDaily (22 February 2012).
"Grasshoppers change their tune to stay tuned over traffic noise," ScienceDaily (13 November 2012).
Alexandra Witze, "How to hear above the cocktail party din," Science News (3 January 2011).
Oliver M. Bannard & Jason G. Cyster, "When less signaling is more," Science 336(6085): 1120–1121 (1 June 2012).
Ashraf M. Khalil et al, "B cell receptor signal transduction in the gc is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity," Science 336(6085): 1178–1181 (1 June 2012).
John Alcock, Animal Behavior, Sinauer Associates (2005).
David Maximiliano Gómez et al, "Language universals at birth," PNAS (8 April 2014).
Mangrove Snapper
Susan Milius, "Baby fish are noisier than expected," Science News 186(10): 9 (15 November 2014).
Spotted Hyena
Spotted hyena drawing courtesy of Thomas Pennant (1726 – 1798).
"Spot the difference," The Economist (22 February 2014).
Kevin R. Theis et al, "Symbiotic bacteria appear to mediate hyena social odors," PNAS (15 October 2013).
"Bacteria may allow animals to send quick, voluminous messages," (11 November 2013).
Kevin R. Theis et al, "Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas," Scientific Reports (30 August 2012).
Coinciding Interests
"Nice organisms finish first: Why cooperators always win in the long run," (1 August 2013).
J.R. Krebs & R. Dawkins, "Animal signals: mind reading and manipula-tion," in Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 2nd edition 380–402, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1984).
Springbok stotting photo courtesy of Yathin sk.
John W. Wilson et al, "Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey," Biology Letters (4 September 2013).
Melissa Hellmann, "And the world’s new fastest land animal is…," TIME (30 April 2014).
R. Kilner & R.A. Johnstone, "Begging the question: are offspring solicita-tion behaviours signals of need?" Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(1): 11–15 (1997).
Susan Milius, "Impatiens plants are more patient with siblings," Science News (12 November 2009).
"Plants recognize their siblings, biologists discover," ScienceDaily (13 June 2007).
Susan Milius, "Face smarts," Science News (6 October 2012).
D. Baracchi et al, "Speed and accuracy in nest-mate recognition: a hover wasp prioritizes face recognition over colony odour cues to minimize intrusion by outsiders," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (4 February 2015).
"These wasps remember a friend's face," Nature World News (10 February 2015).
Helen Thompson, "Tropical wasps memorize friendly faces," Science News (5 February 2015).
Michael J. Sheehan, et al, "Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps," Science 334: 1272–1274 (4 De-cember 2011).
Alla Katsnelson, "Wasp clock faces like humans," Nature News (1 December 2011).
Markus Boeckie & Thomas Bugnyar, "Long-term memory for affiliates in ravens," Current Biology 22: 1–6 (8 May 2012).
Yossi Yovel et al, "The voice of bats: how greater mouse-eared bats recognize individuals based on their echolocation calls," PLoS Computational Biology (5 June 2009).
David W. Pfennig & Paul W. Sherman, "Kin recognition," Scientific American 98–103 (June 1995).
Sage Rats
Belding's ground squirrel photo courtesy of Alan Vernon.
Status Sniff
Daniel W. Wesson, "Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy," Current Biology (7 March 2013).
Tina Hesman Saey, "Yeast use scents to entice fruit flies," Science News 186(10): 13 (15 November 2014).
Audience Effect
Davy Ung et al, "Heaven it's my wife! Male canaries conceal extra-pair courtships but increase aggressions when their mate watches," PLoS One (9 August 2011).
Anne C. Keddy Hector et al, "Male parental care, female choice and the effect of an audience in vervet monkeys," Animal Behaviour 38: 262–271 (August 1989).
Simon W. Townsend & Klaus Zuberbuhler, "Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls," Communicative & Integrative Biology 2: 282–284 (15 June 2009).
Gabrielle Tachon et al, "Agonistic displays and the benefits of fighting in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus," Journal of Insect Behavior 12(4): 533-543 (July 1999).
Anna C. Price & F. Helen Rodd, "The effect of social environment on male–male competition in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)," Ethology (12 January 2006).
Rui F. Oliveira et al, "Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 June 1998).
Claire Doutrelant & Peter K. McGregor, "Eavesdropping and mate choice in female fighting fish," Behaviour 137(12): 1655–1668 (2000).
Marc Naguib & Dietmar Todt, "Effects of dyadic vocal interactions on other conspecific receivers in nightingales," Animal Behaviour 54(6): 1535–1543 (December 1997). Mathieu Amy & Gérard Leboucher, "Effects of eavesdropping on subse-quent signalling behaviours in male canaries," Ethology (29 January 2009).
James P. Higham, "How does honest costly signaling work?," Behavioral Ecology 25(1): 8-11 (1 January 2014).
Ryan J. Weaver et al, "What maintains signal honesty in animal colour displays used in mate choice?," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (22 May 2017).
Roaring Deer
T.H. Clutton-Brock & S.D. Albon, "The roaring of red deer and the evolution of honest advertisement," Behaviour 69: 145-170 (1979).
Benjamin J. Pitcher et al, "Fallow bucks attend to vocal cues of motivation and fatigue," Behavioral Ecology (9 Feburary 2014).
Cricket Song
Natash Mhatre et al, "Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect," PNAS (30 April 2012).
Lizard Flashes and Dances Russell A. Ligon & Kevin J. McGraw, "Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information," Biology Letters (11 December 2013).
Y. Brandt, "Lizard threat display handicaps endurance," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2070: 1061–1068 (2003).
Hyrax Songs
"The song of songs," The Economist (15 January 2009).
Douglas J. Emlen et al, "A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons," Science 337(6096): 860–864 (17 August 2012).
Phil Gates, "Weevil wheeze: staying alive by feigning death ," The Guardian (19 May 2016).
Hendrik J.T. Hoving et al, "First in situ observations of the deep-sea squid Grimalditeuthis bonplandi reveal unique use of tentacles," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (28 August 2013).
William Calvin, The Ascent of Mind: Ice Age Climates and the Evolution of Intelligence, iUniverse (2001).
Michael Lewis & Carolyn Saami (editors), Lying and Deception in Everyday Life, The Guilford Press (1993).
Susana Martinez-Conde & Stephen L. Macknik, "Animal magicians," Scientific American Mind 27(2): 18-19 (March/April 2016).
Parachute Plant
J. Lorang et al, "Tricking the guard: exploiting plant defense for disease susceptibility," Science 338: 659–662 (2 November 2012).
Annemarie Heiduk et al, "Ceropegia sandersonii mimics attacked honeybees to attract kleptoparasitic flies for pollination," Current Biology (6 October 2016).
"This flower smells like a bee under attack," Cell Press (6 October 2016).
Female Dragonflies Fake Death
Rassim Khelifa, "Faking death to avoid male coercion: extreme sexual conflict resolution in a dragonfly," Ecology (24 April 2017).
"Female dragonflies found to fake death to avoid male advances," (1 May 2017).
Walk Like an Ant
Paul S. Shamble et al, "Walking like an ant: a quantitative and experimental approach to understanding locomotor mimicry in the jumping spider Myrmarachne formicaria," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (12 July 2017).
"Walking like ants gives spiders a chance," ScienceDaily (14 July 2017).
Backstabbing Butterfly
Richa Malhotra, "Back-stabbing butterflies rob the ants that once protected them," New Scientist (17 June 2016).
Phillip J. Torres, "Butterfly kleptoparasitism and first account of immature stages, myrmecophily, and bamboo host plant of the metalmark Adelotypa annulifera (Riodinidae)," Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 70(2): 130–138 (2016).
Nir Drayman et al, "Pathogens use structural mimicry of native host ligands as a mechanism for host receptor engagement," Cell 14(1): 63–73 (17 July 2013).
Matthew F. Barber & Nels C. Elde, "Evolutionary biology: Mimicry all the way down," Nature 501: 38–39 (5 September 2013).
Wintergreen Oil
Xavier Martini et al, "Plant pathogen-induced volatiles attract parasitoids to increase parasitism of an insect vector," Frontiers in Ecology and Evo-lution (29 May 2014).
"UF/IFAS researchers find chemicals that treat citrus greening in the lab," University of Florida News (4 June 2014).
Martin Stevens et al, "Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds," Nature Ecology & Evolution (31 July 2017).
"How camouflaged birds decide where to blend in," ScienceDaily (31 July 2017).
Ed Yong, "Invisible: the high-vis trick that blinds the eye," New Scientist (24 March 2014).
Looking Dangerous
Susan Milius, "It’s true: butterfly spots can mimic scary eyes," Science News (7 April 2015).
C.A. Ristau, editor, Cognitive Ethology: the Minds of other Animals, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1991).
Rohan M. Brooker et al, "You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish," Proceedings of the Royal Society B (10 December 2014).
Jeanna Iacurci, "Clever filefish play hide-and-seek in smelly corals," Nature World News (11 December 2014).
G.A. Sonerud, "To distract display or not: grouse hens and foxes," Oikos 51: 233–237 (1988).
Charles A. Munn, "Birds that 'cry wolf'," Nature 319: 143–145 (9 January 1986).
Virginia Morell, "African bird 'cries wolf' to steal food," Science (1 May 2014).
African drongo photo courtesy of Mats Carnmarker.
Bruce D. Baigrie et al, "Interspecific signalling between mutualists: food-thieving drongos use a cooperative sentinel call to manipulate foraging partners," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (30 July 2014).
Sarah Zielinski, "Drongos deceive but weavers let them," Science News (4 August 2014).
Susan Milius, "Bird mimicry lets hustlers keep cheating," Science News (1 May 2014).
"Two-faced cuttlefish," Nature 487: 143 (12 July 2012).
Jakob Bro-Jørgensen & Wiline M. Pangle, "Male topi antelopes alarm snort deceptively to retain females for mating," The American Naturalist 176(1) (July 2010).
M.D. Morris, "Large scale deceit: deception by captive elephants?," in Deception: Perspectives on Human and Nonhuman Deceit, edited by R.W. Mitchell & N.S. Thompson, State University of New York, Albany (1986).
Dan Vergano, " Study: Dogs can dig through human deception," USA Today (17 August 2009).
J.E. Lovelock, "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere," Atmospheric Environment 6(8): 579–580 (August 1972).
James E. Lovelock & Lynn Margulis, "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis," Tellus XXVI (1974).
James Lovelock, Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine, Gaia Books (1991).
Bradley J. Cardinale et al, "Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity," Nature 486: 59–67 (7 June 2012).
"Earth's interior cycles contribute to long-term sea-level and climate change, researchers find," ScienceDaily (18 May 2013).
Steffen. Kutterolf et al, "A detection of Milankovitch frequencies in global volcanic activity," Geology (30 November 2012).
Michael R. Rampino et al, "Can rapid climatic change cause volcanic eruptions?," Science 206(4420): 826–829 (16 November 1979).
David B. Rowley et al, "Dynamic topography change of the eastern United States since 3 million years ago," Science (16 May 2013).
Michael Ruse, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, University of Chicago Press (2013).
Toby Tyrell, "My verdict on Gaia hypothesis: beautiful but flawed," New Scientist (30 October 2013).
Michael Bond, "Exploring our love/hate relationship with Gaia," New Scientist (26 August 2013).
Theodore W. Wilson et al, "A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles," Nature 525: 234–238 (10 September 2015).
Biomes – Classification
Stuart A. Harris, "Comments on the application of the Holdridge system for classification of world life zones as applied to Costa Rica," Arctic and Alpine Research 5 (3): A187–A191 (1973). Nobuhito Ohte & Naoko Tokuchi, "Hydrology and biogeochemistry of temperate forests," Ecological Studies, 216(3): 261–283 (2011).
Heinrich Walter & Elgene Box, "Global classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems," Plant Ecology 32(2): 75–81 (1976).
David M. Olson et al, "Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth," BioScience, 51(11): 933–938 (2001).
Bastian Steudel et al, "Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning change along environmental stress gradients," Ecology Letters (2012).
Jonathan S. Lefcheck et al, "Biodiversity enhances ecosystem multifunctionality across trophic levels and habitats," Nature Communications (24 April 2015).
"Biodiversity promotes multitasking in ecosystems," ScienceDaily (24 April 2015).
Ecology Gyre
Jane J. Lee, "Tropical oceans dried out East Africa," Science (17 February 2012).
Steve Banwart, "Save our soils," Nature 474: 151–152 (9 June 2011).
Cameron Wagg et al, "Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality," PNAS 111(14): (8 April 2014).
E.H. Polak & J. Provasi, "Odor sensitivity to geosmin enantiomers," Chemical Senses 17(1): 23–26 (January 1992).
Kyla M. Dahlina et al, "Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem," PNAS (8 April 2013).
Benoit P. Guillod et al, "Reconciling spatial and temporal soil moisture effects on afternoon rainfall," Nature Communications (5 March 2015).
"Forests lose essential nitrogen in surprising way, find scientists," (3 November 2014).
Sarah K. Wexler et al, "Isotopic signals of summer denitrification in a northern hardwood forested catchment," PNAS (4 November 2014).
Melissa A. Donaldson et al, "Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid," PNAS (15 De-cember 2014).
Chris Greening et al, "A soil actinobacterium scavenges atmospheric H2 using two membrane-associated, oxygen-dependent [NiFe] hydrogenas-es," PNAS 111(11): 4257–4261 (18 March 2014).
Jenna Iacurci, "Creepy crawlers crucial to grasslands," Nature World News (3 October 2014).
Mark A. Bradford et al, " Discontinuity in the responses of ecosystem processes and multifunctionality to altered soil community composition," PNAS (3 October 2014).
Juan A. Bonachela et al, "Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change," Science 347(6222): 651–655 (6 February 2015).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Africa's soil engineers: termites," Science 347(6222): 596–597 (6 February 2015).
Natalie Angier, "Termites: guardians of the soil," The New York Times (2 March 2015).
Community Ecology
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Samir Suweis et al, "Emergence of structural and dynamical properties of ecological mutualistic networks," Nature 500: 449–452 (22 August 2013).
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Kelly J. Benoit-Bird & Margaret A. McManus, "Bottom-up regulation of a pelagic community through spatial aggregations," Biology Letters (2 May 2012).
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Daniel B. Stouffer et al, "Evolutionary conservation of species’ roles in food webs," Science 335: 1489–1493 (23 March 2012).
Stefano Allesina & Si Tang, "Stability criteria for complex ecosystems," Nature 483: 205–208 (8 March 2012).
Sean R. Connolly et al, "Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere," PNAS (27 May 2014).
"Pelagic predators face double jeopardy, too," Science 33: 268 (15 July 2011).
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Plant Stress
Sara L. Jackrel & J. Timothy Wootton, "Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (18 March 2015).
Ecosystem Self-Organized Criticality
Stephen R. Carpenter, "Complex systems: spatial signatures of resilience," Nature 496: 308–309 (18 April 2013).
Lei Dai et al, "Slower recovery in space before collapse of connected populations," Nature 496: 355–358 (18 April 2013).
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Island Biomes
Manuel Jonas Steinbauer et al, "Increase of island endemism with altitude - speciation processes on oceanic islands," Ecography 35(1): 23 (5 April 2012).
"The storm that never was: why meteorologists are often wrong," ScienceDaily (25 January 2013).
Thomas Reichler et al, "A stratospheric connection to Atlantic climate variability," Nature Geoscience (23 September 2012).
Polar Vortex
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Climate & Weather "Past tropical climate change linked to ocean circulation," ScienceDaily (23 August 2012).
Sid Perkins, "Dust, the thermostat," Science News (25 September 2001).
Andrew Bomford, "Slow death of Africa's Lake Chad," BBC News (14 April 2006).
Jeffrey Bartholet, "Swept from Africa to the Amazon," Scientific American 306(2): 44–49 (February 2012).
Paul H. Glaser, "Holocene dynamics of the Florida Everglades with respect to climate, dustfall, and tropical storms," PNAS 110(43): 17211–17216 (22 October 2013).
Beth Mole, "African dust fertilized Everglades," Science News (16 Novem-ber 2013).
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Joseph M. Prospero et al, "High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms," Science 335(6072): 1078–1082 (2 March 2012).
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The Sahara Desert
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Zhongshi Zhang et al, "Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene," Nature 513: 401–404 (18 Sep-tember 2014).
Cloud cover photo courtesy of NASA Earth Observations (2015).
Stuart Gary, "Two-thirds of Earth is covered in clouds," ABC Science (12 May 2015).
Daniel J. Cziczo et al, "Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation," Science 340(6138): 1320–1324 (14 June 2013).
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Shiva Kavosi & Joachim Raeder, "Ubiquity of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves at Earth’s magnetopause," Nature Communications (11 May 2015).
Jenna Iacurci, "'Breaking waves' disturb earth's magnetic field surprising-ly often," Nature World News (12 May 2015).
"UNH scientists show 'breaking waves' perturb Earth's magnetic field," University of New Hampshire (11 May 2015).
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Microbes in the Rain
Natasha DeLeon-Rodriguez et al, "Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications," PNAS (28 January 2013).
David L. Bones et al, "Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol," PNAS (2 July 2012).
Kate Ravilious, "Rain makers: How high-flying bacteria could control the clouds," New Scientist (13 April 2016).
Microbes on the Ocean
Roman Stocker, "Marine microbes see a sea of gradients," Science 338(6107): 628–633 (2 November 2012).
Shinichi Sunagawa et al, "Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome," Science 348(6237)(22 May 2015).
E. Virginia Armbrust & Stephen R. Palumbi, "Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity," Science 348(6237): 865-867 (22 May 2015).
Jessica Mackaro, "Plankton: a small, but important, player in life on Earth," GLOBE Scientist's Blog (10 July 2013).
Carl Zimmer, "Scientists find a microbe haven at ocean’s surface," The New York Times (28 July 2009).
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Brandon K. Swan et al, "Prevalent genome streamlining and latitudinal divergence of planktonic bacteria in the surface ocean," PNAS (24 June 2013).
Nick Dygert et al, "Spatial variations in cooling rate in the mantle section of the Samail ophiolite in Oman: Implications for formation of lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges," Earth and Planetary Science Letters 465: 134–144 (1 May 2017).
"Rock samples indicate water is key ingredient for crust formation," (1 May 2017).
Zhengguang Zhang et al, "Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies," Science 345(6194): 322–324 (18 July 2014).
Diane K. Adams et al, "Surface-generated mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea products from hydrothermal vents," Science 332: 580–583 (29 April 2011).
Sandrine Ceurstemont, "'Black holes' of the ocean could curb climate change," New Scientist (26 September 2013).
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Eiji Watanabe et al, "Enhanced role of eddies in the Arctic marine biological pump," Nature Communications (27 May 2014).
Ocean Conveyor Belt
Matthew W. Schmidt et al, "Impact of abrupt deglacial climate change on tropical Atlantic subsurface temperatures," PNAS (4 September 2012).
John Marshall & Kevin Speer, "Closure of the meridional overturning circulation through Southern Ocean upwelling," Nature Geoscience 5: 171–180 (26 February 2012).
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Andrew J. Weaver et al, "Stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: a model intercomparison," Geophysical Research Letters (24 October 2012).
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Water Cycle
Tom Garth & Andreas Rietbrock, "Order of magnitude increase in subducted H2O due to hydrated normal," Geology (10 January 2014).
Alexandra Witze, "Rivers in the sky," Science News 179(5): 20–21 (26 February 2011).
Fiona Tomkinson, "How raindrops fall," Nature (20 July 2009).
Olivier Pauluis & Juliana Dias, "Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere," Science 335 (6071): 953–956 (24 February 2012).
Philip Ball, "Rainfall calms storms," Nature (23 February 2012).
Michael L. Roderick et al, "Water cycle varies over land and sea," Science 336(6086): 1230–1231 (8 June 2012).
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Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, "The rainforest's water pump," Nature 489: 217–218 (13 September 2012).
Sid Perkins, "Amazon seeds its own rain," Science (30 August 2012).
D.V. Spracklen et al, "Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests," Nature (5 September 2012).
Paul J. Durack et al, "Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000," Science 336(6080): 455–458 (27 April 2012).
Janet Raloff, "Marsh sediment analysis reveals fastest sea level rise in 2,000 years," Science News 180(2): 13 (16 July 2011).
Richard A. Kerr, "The greenhouse is making the water-poor even poorer," Science 336(6080): 405 (27 April 2012).
Don L. Anderson & Scott D. King, "Driving the Earth machine?," Science 346(6214): 1184–1185 (5 December 2014).
Rob L. Evans, "Making the Earth move," Nature 509: 40–41 (1 May 2014).
David Sifré et al, "Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone," Nature 509: 81–85 (1 May 2014).
Rob L. Evans, "Geophysics: making the Earth move," Nature 509: 40–41 (1 May 2014).
Continental Drift
Alexandra Witze, "Evidence falls into place for once and future supercontinents," Science News (11 January 2017).
Naomi Lubick, "Tiny minerals may have shaped Earth's first plate boundaries," Science News (6 April 2014).
David Bercovici & Yanick Ricard, "Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance," Nature 508: 513–516 (24 April 2014).
Alexandra Witze, "Plate tectonics got a bumpy start," Science News 11 (2 June 2012).
"The Nd of the innocence," Science 340: 1142 (7 June 2013).
"Studies show movements of continents speeding up after slow 'middle age'," (13 June 2014).
Jeff Hecht, "Why did evolution stall during the 'boring billion'?," New Scientist (1 May 2014).
"Continental formation more complicated than previously understood," (24 October 2014).
N. Rawlinson, "Complex continental growth along the proto-Pacific margin of East Gondwana," Geology 42: 783–786 (September 2014).
Katherine A. Kelley, "Inside earth runs hot and cold," Science 344(6179): 51–52 (4 April 2014).
Colleen A. Dalton et al, "Geophysical and geochemical evidence for deep temperature variations beneath mid-ocean ridges," Science 344(6179): 80–83 (4 April 2014).
"A stiff new layer in Earth's mantle," ScienceDaily (23 March 2015).
"Geologists discover new layer in Earth's mantle," (24 March 2015).
Hauke Marquardt & Lowell Miyagi, "Slab stagnation in the shallow lower mantle linked to an increase in mantle viscosity," Nature Geoscience (23 March 2015).
David Bercovici et al, "Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage," PNAS 112(5): 1287–1291 (3 February 2015).
David Sifré et al, "Electrical conductivity during incipient melting in the oceanic low-velocity zone," Nature 509: 81–85 (1 May 2014).
T. A. Stern et al, "A seismic reflection image for the base of a tectonic plate," Nature 518: 85–88 (05 February 2015).
Thomas Sumner, "Geologists discover tectonic plate’s slippery underbelly," Science News (4 February 2015).
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Maxwell L. Rudolph et al, "Viscosity jump in Earth’s mid-mantle," Science 350(6266): 1349–1352 (11 December 2015).
Thomas Sumner, "Gooey rock in mantle thickens 1,000 kilometers down," Science News 189(1): 11 (9 January 2016).
Sid Perkins, "Gravity lows mark rock burial sites," Science News 177(12): 13 (5 June 2010).
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Fraser Keppie, "How the closure of paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans controlled the early breakup of Pangaea," Geology (27 February 2015).
Thomas Sumner, "Tethys Ocean implicated in Pangaea breakup," Science News (8 March 2015).
Submerged Continents
Elizabeth M. Dowding & Malte C. Ebach, "Geography: Zealandia is not a continent," Nature (8 March 2017).
The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia," Science 326(5959): 1541–1545 (11 December 2009).
Till Hanebuth et al, "Rapid flooding of the Sunda Shelf: a late-glacial sea-level record ," Science 288(5468): 1033–1035 (12 May 2000).
Sunil Prasannan, "Where was Atlantis? Sundaland fits the bill, surely!," Free Republic (29 October 2004).
Sea Level
Kenneth G. Miller et al, "The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change," Science 310(5752): 1293–1298 (25 November 2005).
Ross N. Mitchell et al, "Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time," Nature 482: 208-211 (9 February 2012).
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Evolutionary Effects
Carrie Arnold, "When Earth was a snowball," Scientific American 304(2): 32 (February 2011).
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Continental Rift
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Alexandra Witze, "Continent prepares to do the splits," Science News 179(8): 12 (9 April 2011).
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Heading to Hothouse
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John Carey, "Global warming: faster than expected?," Scientific American 51–55 (November 2012).
E. Rignot et al, "Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica," Science (June 13 2013).
Catherine Brahic & Aviva Hope Rutkin, "Blame slow jet stream for US deep freeze," New Scientist (7 January 2014).
"Fire and ice: wildfires darkening Greenland snowpack, increasing melting," ScienceDaily (6 December 2012).
Antarctic Gyre
Jane Qiu, "Winds of change," Science 338: 879–881 (16 November 2012).
El Niño & La Niña
Emily Becker, "On the trail of El Niño," Scientific American 315(4): 68–75 (October 2016).
Katinka Bellomo & Amy C. Clement, "Evidence for weakening of the Walker circulation from cloud observations," Geophysical Research Letters (21 September 2015).
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Aaron F.Z. Levine & Michael J. McPhaden, "How the July 2014 Easterly wind burst gave the 2015-6 El Niño a head start," Geophysical Research Letters (26 April 2016).
Thomas Sumner, "Fizzled 2014 El Niño fired up ongoing monster El Niño," Science News (2 May 2016).
Thomas Sumner, "Failure spurred current El Niño," Science News (28 May 2016).
"Global warming: in the red," The Economist (28 May 2016).
Dennis Normile, "El Niño's warmth devastating reefs worldwide," Science 352(6281): 15–16 (1 April 2016).
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Climatic Patterns
Steffen Kutterolf et al, "A detection of Milankovitch frequencies in global volcanic activity," Geology (30 November 2012).
N. Nakata & R. Snieder, "Estimating near-surface shear wave velocities in Japan by applying seismic interferometry to KiK-net data," Journal of Geophysical Research 117: B01308–B01321 (2012).
John R. Taylor & Roman Stocker, "Trade-offs of chemotactic foraging in turbulent water," Science 338(6107): 675–679 (2 November 2012).
Food Web
Martin J. Ingrouille & Bill Eddie, Plants – Diversity and Evolution, Cambridge University Press (2006).
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Pacific Salmon
Nathan F. Putman et al, "An inherited magnetic map guides ocean navigation in juvenile pacific salmon," Current Biology (6 February 2014).
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David Attenborough, Nature's Great Events, BBC Worldwide (2009).
Joel Greenberg, "Animal behaviour: nomads of necessity," Nature 508: 317–318 (17 April 2014).
"How sounds make goldfish skittish," Nature (5 October 2011).
Leif Ristroph et al, "Lateral line layout correlates with the differential hydrodynamic pressure on swimming fish," Physical Review Letters (6 January 2015).
Robert H. Busch, Salmon Country, Key Porter Books Limited (2000).
photo of a bear cub carrying a salmon courtesy of Jitze Couperus.
Peter Coates, Salmon, Reakton Books (2006).
"Bears, scavengers count on all-you-can-eat salmon buffet lasting for months," ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Thomas P. Quinn, The Behavior and Ecology of Pacific Salmon and Trout, University of Washington Press (2005).
"Bears, scavengers count on all-you-can-eat salmon buffet lasting for months," ScienceDaily (3 August 2012).
Oceanic Life
James Lovelock, Gaia, Oxford University Press (2000).
James W. Nybakken & Steven K. Webster, "Life in the ocean," in The Oceans, Scientific American (1998).
Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy et al, "Multiple B-vitamin depletion in large areas of the coastal ocean," PNAS (23 July 2012).
Kakani Katija1 & John O. Dabiri, "A viscosity-enhanced mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing," Nature 460: 624–626 (30 July 2009).
Till Bayer et al, "The microbiome of the red sea coral Stylophora pistillata is dominated by tissue-associated Endozoicomonas bacteria," Applied and Environmental Microbiology (24 May 2013).
C. Kopp et al, "Highly dynamic cellular-level response of symbiotic coral to a sudden increase in environmental nitrogen," mBio 4(3): e00052-13 (14 May 2013).
Coral Gardeners Hiroki Hata et al, "Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo-West Pacific," BMC Evolutionary Biology (18 June 2010).
Cleaner Fish
Sean B. Carroll, "For fish in coral reefs, it's useful to be smart," The New York Times (20 October 2009).
Nichola J. Raihani et al, " Female cleaner fish cooperate more with unfamiliar males," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 February 2012).
Redouan Bshary, "Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image–scoring client reef fish," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 October 2002) Nichola J. Raihani et al, "Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (15 June 2011).
Laura E. Stummer et al, "Size and stripes: how fish clients recognize cleaners," Animal Behaviour 68(10): 145–150 (July 2004).
Vampire Squid
Hendrik J. T. Hoving & Bruce H. Robison, "Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (26 September 2012).
Henk-Jan T. Hoving et al, "Vampire squid reproductive strategy is unique among coleoid cephalopods," Current Biology 25(8): R322–R32 (20 April 2015).
Bruce H. Robison, "Light in the ocean's midwaters," Scientific American, 59–64 (July 1995).
Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal et al, "Node-by-node disassembly of a mutualistic interaction web driven by species introductions," PNAS 110(41): 16503–16507 (8 October 2013).
Rudolf P. Rohr et al, "On the structural stability of mutualistic systems," Science 345(6195) (25 July 2014).
Marine Microbes
Joakim Stenhammar et al, "Role of correlations in the collective behavior of microswimmer suspensions," Physical Review Letters (13 July 2017).
"Synopsis: bacteria never swim alone," APS Physics (13 July 2017).
"Bacteria never swim alone," Lund University (14 July 2017).
Elizabeth A. Ottesen et al, "Multispecies diel transcriptional oscillations in open ocean heterotrophic bacterial assemblages," Science 345(6193): 207–212 (11 July 2014). Lauren Hitchings, "Marine microbes march to the beat of the same drum," New Scientist (11 July 2014).
Frank O Aylward et al, "Microbial community transcriptional networks are conserved in three domains at ocean basin scales," PNAS (16 March 2015).
"Oceanic microbes behave in a synchrony across ocean basins," ScienceDaily (16 March 2015).
Lily R. Lewis et al, "First evidence of bryophyte diaspores in the plumage of transequatorial migrant birds," PeerJ (2014).
Witches' Broom
"The sorceress's apprentice," The Economist (12 April 2014).
Christin Siewert et al, "Analysis of expressed genes of the bacterium ‘candidatus phytoplasma mali’ highlights key features of virulence and metabolism," PLoS One (11 April 2014).
Wan-Chia Chung et al, "Comparative analysis of the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma genome reveals horizontal transfer of potential mo-bile units and effectors," PLoS One (23 April 2013).
Kenro Oshima et al, "Dramatic transcriptional changes in an intracellular parasite enable host switching between plant and insect," PLoS One (16 April 2011).
"Ants 'screen' for beneficial bacteria to assist them," ScienceDaily (21 August 2012).
Power Grid
Shawn E. McGlynn et al, "Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia," Nature (16 September 2015).
"Microorganisms in the sea organize their power supply via nanowire power cables," (21 October 2015).
Jessica Stoller-Conrad, "Flowing electrons help ocean microbes gulp methane," (18 September 2015).
Hydrothermal Vents
Victoria J. Orphan & Tori M. Hoehler, "Microbiology: hydrogen for dinner," Nature 476: 154–155 (11 August 2011).
Jillian M. Petersen et al, "Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses," Nature 476: 176–180 (11 August 2011).
Bean Bugs & Burkholderia
Yoshitomo Kikuchi et al, "Symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance," PNAS 109(22): 8618–8622 (29 May 2012).
Yoshitomo Kikuchi & Isao Yumoto, "Efficient colonization of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris by an environmentally transmitted Burkholderia symbiont," Applied and Environmental Microbiology (4 January 2013).
Jiyeun Kate Kim et al, "Polyester synthesis genes associated with stress resistance are involved in an insect–bacterium symbiosis," PNAS 110(26): E2381–E2389 (25 June 2013).
The Nematode & Its Killer Bacteria
Vishal S. Somvanshi et al, "A single promoter inversion switches Photorhabdus between pathogenic and mutualistic states," Science 337(6090): 88–93 (6 July 2012).
Plant Pollination Networks
Samraat Pawar, "Why are plant-pollinator networks nested?," Science 345(6195) (25 July 2014).
Agricultural Ants
Gillaume Chomicki & Susanne S. Renner, "Obligate plant farming by a specialized ant," Nature Plants (21 November 2016).
Reef Police
Christie Wilcox, "Clever coral," Scientific American, 22 (January 2013).
Loïc M. Thibaut et al, "Diversity and stability of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs," ESA Ecology 93(4): 891–901 (April 2012).
Clownfish & Anemone
Clownfish amidst an anemone photo courtesy of Nick Hobgood.
Joseph T. Szczebak et al, "Anemonefish oxygenate their anemone hosts at night," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 970–976 (15 March 2013).
Marea Martlew, "Humble plants may save the planet," (16 August 2013).
Seagrass & Clams
Tjisse van der Heide et al, "A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems," Science 336: 1432–1434 (15 June 2012).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Seagrasses partner with clams to stay healthy," Science 336: 1367–1368 (15 June 2012).
Donna Hesterman, "Little clams play big part in keeping seagrass ecosystems healthy, new study finds," (14 June 2012).
Michelle Waycott et al, "Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems," PNAS 106(30): 12377–12381 (28 July 2009).
Seagrass Comeback
"Sea otters promote recovery of seagrass beds," (26 August 2013).
Brent B. Hughes et al, "Recovery of a top predator mediates negative eutrophic effects on seagrass," PNAS 110(38): 153137–15318 (17 September 2013).
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Amazonian Ant-Plant
Alain Dejean et al, "Arboreal ants build traps to capture prey," Nature 434: 973 (21 April 2005).
Pierre-Jean G. Malé et al, "Retaliation in response to castration promotes a low level of virulence in an ant–plant mutualism," Evolutionary Biology (July 2013).
Sloths & Moths et cetera
Three-toed sloth photo courtesy of Stefan Laube (Tauchgurke).
Jonathan N. Pauli et al, "A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (22 January 22 2014).
Nicholas Wade, "The sloth's busy inner life," The New York Times (27 January 2014).
"Slow food movement," The Economist (1 February 2014).
Helen Briggs, "Sloth's lazy image 'a myth'," BBC News (13 May 2008).
Eduardo Garcia, "Laziness: an evolutionary trait," Scientific American (December 2016).
Take a Load Off
Nepenthes hemsleyana photo courtesy of Vincent Bazile.
"Pitcher plants," Science 360 News (3 April 2015).
Stephanie Pain, "The Borneo hills diet: pitcher plants' strange prey," New Scientist (3 February 2014).
Melinda Greenwood et al, "A unique resource mutualism between the giant bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community," PLoS One (14 June 2011).
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Caroline R. Schöner et al, "Supply determines demand: influence of partner quality and quantity on the interactions between bats and pitcher plants," Oecologia 173(1): 191–202 (September 2013).
Birds & Alligators
Lucas A. Nell et al, "Presence of breeding birds improves body condition for a crocodilian nest protector," PLoS One (2 March 2016).
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Tim A. Hoek et al, "Resource availability modulates the cooperative and competitive nature of a microbial cross-feeding mutualism," PLoS Biology (24 August 2016).
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Sardine Tongue Trap
Karen Bass, editor, "The great tide," Nature's Great Events, The University of Chicago Press (2009).
Albert O. Bush et al, Parasitism: The diversity and ecology of animal parasites, Cambridge University Press (2001).
Janice Moore, Parasites and the Behavior of Animals, Oxford University Press (2002).
Fluke life cycle drawing based upon a similar drawing by Conery Calhoon.
Parasitic Plants
Gunjune Kim et al, "Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts," Science 345(6198): 808–811 (15 August 2014).
Cape Sumach
Jan Schnitzler et al, "Causes of plant diversification in the cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa," Systematic Biology (28 February 2011).
Parasite Zombies
Carl Zimmer, "How to control an army of zombies," The New York Times (5 December 2012).
Shelley A. Adamo & Joanne P. Webster, "Neural parasitology: how parasites manipulate host behaviour," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 1–2 (1 January 2013).
Shelley Anne Adamo, "Parasites: evolution’s neurobiologists," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216(1): 3–10 (1 January 2013).
Tangle Web Spider
William G. Eberhard, "Recovery of spiders from the effects of parasitic wasps: implications for fine-tuned mechanisms of manipulation," Animal Behavior 79(2): 375–383 (February 2010).
William G. Eberhard, "Spider manipulation by a wasp larva," Nature 406: 255–256 (20 July 2000).
Nicholas Wade, "Wasp invades a spider and puts it to work," The New York Times (25 July 2000).
Carl Zimmer, "Deciphering the tools of nature’s zombies," The New York Times (5 December 2012).
S.P. Yanoviak et al, "Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant," The American Naturalist 171(4): 536–544 (April 2008).
Ant Berry
Infected Cephalotes atratus ant photo courtesy of Steve Yanoviak.
Robert Sanders, "Ant parasite turns host into ripe red berry, biologists discover," UC Berkeley News 434 (16 January 2008).
Robert Poulin, "Parasite manipulation of host personality and behavioural syndromes," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 18–26 (1 Janu-ary 2013).
Hired Protection
Masaru K. Hojo et al, "Lycaenid caterpillar secretions manipulate attendant ant behavior," Current Biology 25(17): 2260–2264 (31 August 2015).
Richard Gray, "Caterpillar drugs ants to enslave them as bodyguards: sugary snack from butterfly larvae alters brains of insects," Daily Mail (31 July 2015).
Susan Milius, "Caterpillar treats and tricks ants by oozing spiked juice," Science News (30 July 2015).
Toxoplasma gondii
J.G. Montoya & O. Liesenfeld, "Toxoplasmosis," The Lancet 363(9425): 1965–1976 (12 June 2004).
M. Berdoy et al, "Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 267: 1591–1594 (2000).
Joanne P. Webster, "The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: playing cat and mouse," Schizophrenia Bulletin (11 January 2007).
Gustavo Arrizabalaga & Bill Sullivan, "Played by a parasite," Scientific American Mind 26(2):63-67 (March/April 2015).
Ajai Vyas, "Parasite-augmented mate choice and reduction in innate fear in rats infected by Toxoplasma gondii," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 120–126 (1 January 2013).
Glenn A. McConkey et al, "Toxoplasma gondii infection and behaviour – location, location, location?" The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 113–119 (1 January 2013).
Jaroslav Flegr, "Influence of latent Toxoplasma infection on human personality, physiology and morphology: pros and cons of the Toxoplasma–human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 127–133 (1 January 2013).
Strepsiptera halictophagida drawing courtesy of Halvard Hatlen.
Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, "Host-parasitoid associations in Strepsiptera," Annual Review of Entomology 54: 227–249 (January 2009).
Daniel P. Wojcik, "Behavioral interactions between ants and their parasites," The Florida Entomologist 72(1):43–51 (1989).
Charles Choi, "Newfound parasite could fight fire ants," UPI (30 Septem-ber 2003).
Jeyaraney Kathirithamby & David P. Hughes, "Caenocholax fenyesi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) parasitic in Camponotus planatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Mexico: is this the original host?," Ecology & Population Biology (2002).
Joanne P. Webster et al, "Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?," The Journal of Experimental Biology 216 (1): 99–112 (1 January 2013).
"Single-cell parasites co-opt 'ready-made' genes from host," ScienceDaily (18 July 2012).
Jean-François Pombert et al, "Gain and loss of multiple functionally related, horizontally transferred genes in the reduced genomes of two microsporidian parasites," PNAS 109(31): 12638–12643 (31 July 2012).
Andrew F Read et al, "Animal defenses against infectious agents: is damage control more important than pathogen control," PLoS Biology (23 December 2008).
Karen L. Haag et al, "Evolution of a morphological novelty occurred before genome compaction in a lineage of extreme parasites," PNAS (13 October 2014).
Erik H. Poelman et al, "Hyperparasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their parasitoid host," PLoS Biology (27 November 2012).
Energy Flow
Alexandra Witze, "Deep life," Science News 181(3): 18–21 (11 February 2012).
John R. Taylor & Roman Stocker, "Trade-offs of chemotactic foraging in turbulent water," Science 338(6107): 675–679 (2 November 2012).
Trophic Loops
Mark Denny, How the Ocean Works, Princeton University Press (2008).
Death for Life
Bernd Heinrich, Life Everlasting: The Animal Way of Death, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2012).
Marine Food Webs
Craig A. Lyaman et al, "Thresholds of ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment from fish aggregations," Ecology 94(2): 521–529 (February 2013).
Jacob E. Allgeier et al, "Consumers regulate nutrient limitation regimes and primary production in seagrass ecosystems," Ecology 94(2): 485–496 (February 2013).
"Fish have enormous nutrient impacts on marine ecosystems, study finds," ScienceDaily (11 December 2012).
Yellowstone Wolves
William J. Ripple & Robert L. Beschta, "Wolves, elk, willows, and trophic cascades in the upper Gallatin Range of Southwestern Montana, USA," Forest Ecology and Management 200: 161–181 (2004).
Mary Ellen Hannibal, "Why the beaver should thank the wolf," The New York Times (28 September 2012).
Biotic Webs
José M. Montoya et al, "Ecological networks and their fragility," Nature 442: 259–264 (20 July 2006).
Michael J. O. Pocock et al, "The robustness and restoration of a network of ecological networks," Science 335(6071): 973–977 (24 February 2012).
Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz & Steve Blake, "Megagardeners of the forest – the role of elephants in seed dispersal,"Acta Oecologica 37(6): 542–553 (November–December 2011).
Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz et al, "Asian tapirs are no elephants when it comes to seed dispersal," Biotropica 44(2): 220–227 (March 2012).
"Absence of elephants and rhinoceroses reduces biodiversity in tropical forests," ScienceDaily (11 May 2012).
Arnold H. Taylor, The Dance of Air & Sea, Oxford University Press (2011).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "The river masters," Science 346(6211): 802–805 (14 November 2014).
Matt Soniak, Elephants are really messy eaters – and that's great for other animals," The Week (10 March 2014).
Rainforest Ants
Hannah M. Griffiths et al, "Ants are the major agents of resource removal from tropical rainforests," Journal of Animal Ecology (8 August 2017).
"Ants dominate waste management in tropical rainforests," ScienceDaily (9 August 2017).
Jeffrey L. Beck et al, "Consequences of treating Wyoming big sagebrush to enhance wildlife habitats," Rangeland Ecology & Management 65(5):444–455 (September 2012).
Carl Zimmer, "When predators vanish, so does the ecosystem," The New York Times (15 May 2014).
Marco Marani et al, "Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states," PNAS (11 February 2013).
Mark D. Bertness et al, "Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off," Ecology Letters (28 April 2014).
Giulio Mariottia & Sergio Fagherazzia, "Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise," PNAS (19 March 2013).
David Mouillot et al, "Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems," PLoS Biology (28 May 2013).
Jonathan Chase, "An inordinate fondness of rarity," PLoS Biology (28 May 2013).
Takuya Sato et al, "Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem," Ecology 92(1): 201–207 (January 2011).
Tommy Leung, "Good parasite, bad parasite: nature has a job for everyone," (14 March 2014).
Diana Crow, "Keystone pathogen," Scientific American 311(5): 24 (November 2014).
Kim N. Mouritsen & Robert Poulin, "Parasitism as a determinant of community structure on intertidal flats," Marine Biology 157(1): 201–213 (January 2010).
Dennis Gordon & Maggy Wassilieff, "Marine animals without backbones – simple worms," Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand (13 July 2012).
"Horsehair worm," Iowa State University – Horticulture and Home Pest News (undated).
Olivia Judson, "The hemiparasite season," The New York Times (25 December 2014).
"Under the mistletoe," The Economist (14 July 2012).
David M. Watson & Matthew Herring, "Mistletoe as a keystone resource: an experimental test," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (11 July 2012).
Helene C. Muller-Landau, "Ecology: plant diversity rooted in pathogens," Nature 506: 44–45 (6 February 2014).
Robert Bagchi et al, "Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition," Nature 506: 85–88 (6 February 2014).
Invasive Species
"Nature's marauders," The Week (10 December 2010).
Balise Petitpierre et al, "Climatic niche shifts are rare among terrestrial plant invaders," Science 335: 1334–1348 (16 March 2013).
Reid Tingley et al, "Establishment success of introduced amphibians increases in the presence of congeneric species," The American Naturalist 177(3): 382–388 (March 2011).
Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett, "Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant," Science 342: 364–366 (18 October 2013).
Abhineshwar V. Prasad & Simon Hodge, "Factors influencing the foraging activity of the allodapine bee Braunsapis puangensis on creeping daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata) in Fiji," Journal of Hymenoptera Research 35: 56–69 (25 October 2013).
Jennifer Firn et al, "Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities," Ecology Letters 14(3): 274–281 (March 2011).
Matthew J. Heard & Dov F. Sax, "Coexistence between native and exotic species is facilitated by asymmetries in competitive ability and susceptibility to herbivores," Ecology Letters 16(2): 206–213 (February 2013).
"Desert invaders," Science 338: 1264 (7 December 2012).
Adam Hinterthuer, "Following the money," Scientific American, 27–28 (May 2008).
"Climate change opens new avenue for spread of invasive plants," ScienceDaily (30 November 2008).
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King Crabs Under Antarctica
Brian Merchant, "King crabs invade Antarctica for first time in 40 million years," TreeHugger (21 March 2011).
Douglas Fox, "Polar research: Trouble bares its claws," Nature (12 December 2012).
Wynne Parry, "King crabs encroach on Antarctica, scientists warn," LiveScience (7 September 2011).
"King crabs threaten seafloor life near Antarctica," ScienceDaily (8 September 2011).
Jaimie T. A. Dick et al, "Parasitism may enhance rather than reduce the predatory impact of an invader," Biology Letters (14 April 2010).

Life's Diversity
Donald Worster, Nature's Economy, Cambridge University Press (1994).
Laura Wegener Parfrey et al, "Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity," PLoS Genetics 2(12): e220 (22 December 2006).
Suzanne Goldenberg, "Planet Earth is home to 8.7 million species, scientists estimate," The Guardian (23 August 2011).
"Just how many species are there, anyway?," ScienceDaily (26 May 2003).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "New way to look at life," Science 338: 317 (19 October 2012).
W. Ford Doolittle, "Uprooting the tree of life," Scientific American (February 2000).
"Wealth of unsuspected new microbes expands tree of life: bacteria make up nearly two-thirds of all biodiversity on Earth, half of them uncultivable," ScienceDaily (11 April 2016).
R.H. Whittaker, "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms," Science 163(3863): 150–160 (10 January 1969).
Susan Milius, "The name of the fungus," Science News (18 April 2014).
Susan Milius, "The tree of life gets a makeover," Science News (29 July 2015).
Lynn Margulis, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Yale University Press (1971).
Romain Derelle et al, "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root," PNAS 112(7): E693–E699 (17 February 2015).
Portuguese man o' war drawing courtesy of Peri Coleman.
E. Sally Chang et al, "Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Myxozoa within Cnidaria," PNAS (16 November 2015).
"New discovery may redefine classifications in the animal kingdom," ScienceDaily (18 November 2015).
Andrew J. Roger & Alastair G.B. Simpson, "Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree," Current Biology 19(4): R165–R167 (24 February 2009).
Fabien Burki, "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective," Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology (August 2014).
Sina M. Adl et al, "The revised classification of eukaryotes," Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59(5): 429–514 (September 2012).
Linnaeus' Curse
Peter de Knijff, "How carrion and hooded crows defeat Linnaeus's curse," Science 344(6190): 1345–1346 (20 June 2014).
Classifying Crows
Hooded crow photo courtesy of Snowmanradio.
J.W. Poelstra et al, "The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows," Science 344(6190): 1410–1414 (20 June 2014).
Zoë A. Goodwin et al, "Widespread mistaken identity in tropical plant collections," Current Biology 25(22): R1066–R1067 (16 November 2015).
"Half the world's natural history specimens may have the wrong name," ScienceDaily (16 November 2015).
Vladimir A. Lukhtanov et al, "Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation," BMC Evolutionary Biology (20 April 2011).
Mauro Mandrioli et al, "Karyotype rearrangements and telomere analysis in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) strains collected on Lavandula sp. plants," Comparative Cytogenetics 8(4): 259–274 (31 October 2014).
Carl R. Woese & George E. Fox, "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms," PNAS 74(11): 5088–5090 (1 November 1977).
Cymon J. Cox et al, "The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes," PNAS 105(51): 20356–20361 (23 December 2008).
J.A. Lake et al, "Eocytes: a new ribosome structure indicates a kingdom with a close relationship to eukaryotes," PNAS 81(12): 3786–3790 (1 June 1984).
Tom A. Williams et al, "An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life," Nature 504: 231–236 (12 December 2013).
John M. Archibald, "The eocyte hypothesis and the origin of eukaryotic cells," PNAS 105(51): 20049–20050 (23 December 2008).
Laura A. Hug et al, "A new view of the tree of life," Nature Microbiology (11 April 2016).
John L. Ingraham & Roberto Kolter, March of the Microbes, Belknap Press (2010).
John Morgan Allman, Evolving Brains, Scientific American Library (1999).
Kenneth J. Locey & Jay T. Lennon, "Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity," PNAS (2 May 2016).
Helen Shen, "High-flying bacteria spark interest in possible climate effects," Nature (28 January 2013).
John Postgate, Microbes and Man, Cambridge University Press (2000).
James Gorman, "Scientists find life in the cold and dark under Antarctic ice," The New York Times (6 February 2013).
Brent C. Christner et al, "Biogeochemistry: microbes eat rock under ice," Nature 512: 256–257 (21 August 2014).
Martyn Tranter, "A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet," Nature 512: 310–313 (21 August 2014).
Marine Microbes
"How microbes survive at bare minimum: archaea eat protein," ScienceDaily (27 March 2013).
Karen G. Lloyd et al, "Predominant archaea in marine sediments degrade detrital proteins," Nature 496: 215–218 (11 April 2013).
Erin Loury, "Barely breathing microbes still living in 86-million-year-old clay," Science (17 May 2012).
Hans Røy et al, "Aerobic microbial respiration in 86-million-year-old deep-sea red clay," Science 336(6083): 922–925 (18 May 2012).
"Plumes Across the Pacific deliver thousands of microbial species to North American west coast," ScienceDaily (17 December 2012).
David J. Smith et al, "Intercontinental dispersal of bacteria and archaea by transpacific winds," Applied and Environmental Microbiology (7 December 2012).
Marc-André Lachance et al, "Saccharomycopsis fodiens sp. nov., a rare predacious yeast from three distant localities," International Journal of Systematic and Evolution Microbiology (12 June 2012).
Bernard J. Crespi, "The evolution of social behavior in microorganisms," Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16(4): 178–183 (1 April 2001).
Eshel Ben Jacob et al, "Bacterial linguistic communication and social intelligence," Trends in Microbiology 12(8): 366–372 (1 August 2004).
Stuart A. West et al, "The social lives of microbes," Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 53–77 (December 2007).
Michael T. Mee et al, "Syntrophic exchange in synthetic microbial communities," PNAS 111(20): E2149–E2156 (20 May 2014).
Elizabeth A. Ottesen et al, "Pattern and synchrony of gene expression among sympatric marine microbial populations," PNAS 110(6): E488–E497 (5 February 2013).
Joan Strassman, "Bacterial cheaters," Nature 404: 555-556 (6 April 2000).
Gregory J. Velicer, "Social strife in the microbial world," 11(7): 330–337 Trends in Microbiology (July 2003).
Gregory J. Velicer et al, "Developmental cheating in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus," Nature 404: 598-601 (6 April 2000).
Hélène Morlon, "Microbial cooperative warfare," Science 337: 1184–1885 (7 September 2012).
Stuart A. West et al, "The social lives of microbes," The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics (2007).
Ben Raymond et al, "The dynamics of cooperative bacterial virulence in the field," Science 337: 85–88 (6 July 2012).
Jintao Liu et al, "Coupling between distant biolfilms and emergence of nutrient time-sharing," Science (6 April 2017).
Charles Bankhead, "Biologists discover timesharing strategy in bacteria: communities found to coordinate feeding to streamline efficiency," ScienceDaily (7 April 2017).
Ute Römling, "Microbiology: Bacterial communities as capitalist economies," Nature 497: 321–322 (16 May 2013).
Eshel Ben-Jacob et al, "Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger's negative entropy to latent information," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 369(1):495-524 (January 2006).
Lars Plate & Michael A. Marleta, "Nitric oxide modulates bacterial biofilm formation through a multicomponent cyclic-di-gmp signaling network," Molecular Cell 46(4): 449–460 (25 May 2012).
Kun Zhao et al, "Psl trails guide exploration and microcolony formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms," Nature 497: 388–391 (16 May 2013).
Joseph A. Newman et al, "Molecular basis of the activity of SinR protein, the master regulator of biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis," The Journal of Biological Chemistry 288: 10766–10778 (12 April 2013).
J.W. Costerton & Philip S. Stewart, "Battling biofilms," Scientific American 75–81 (July 2001).
Gwyneth Dickey, "Hints of altruism among bacteria," Science News (1 September 2010).
Quorum Sensing
Melinda Wenner, "Don't talk, reproduce," Scientific American 19–20 (May 2009).
Robert Czajkowski & Sylwia Jafra, "Quenching of acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing by enzymatic disruption of signal molecules," Acta Biochimica Polonica 56(1): 1–16 (17 February 2009).
Michiko E. Taga & Bonnie L. Bassler, "Chemical communication among bacteria," PNAS (25 November 2003).
Bonnie L Bassler, "Small talk: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria," Cell 109(4):421-4 (June 2002).
Marguerite Holloway, "Talking bacteria," Scientific American 34–35 (February 2004).
Thommie Karlsson et al, "The Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules target iqgap1 and modulate epithelial cell migration," PLoS Pathogens (11 October 2012).
Sophie E. Darch et al, "Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations," PNAS 109(21): 8259–8263 (22 May 2012).
Adrian G. Patterson et al, "Quorum sensing controls adaptive immunity through the regulation of multiple CRISPR-Cas systems," Molecular Cell (18 November 2016).
"Bacteria communicate to ramp up collective immune response to viral threats," ScienceDaily (18 November 2016).
Edze R. Westra et al, "CRISPR–Cas systems: beyond adaptive immunity," Nature Reviews Microbiology (7 April 2014).
William W. Driscoll et al, "Allelopathy as an emergent, exploitable public good in the bloom-forming microalga Prymnesium parvum," Evolution 67(6): 1582–1590 (June 2013).
Stephen P. Diggle et al, "Cooperation and conflict in quorum-sensing bacterial populations," Nature 450: 411–414 (15 November 2007).
Ajai A. Dandekar et al, "Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic incentives to cooperate," 338(6104): 264–266 Science (12 October 2012).
Knut Drescher et al, "Solutions to the public goods dilemma in bacterial biofilms," Current Biology 24(1): 50–55 (6 January 2014).
Dominik K. Großkinsky et al, "Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18 determines biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis," Scientific Reports (17 March 2016).
Ayelet Caspi-Fluger et al, "Horizontal transmission of the insect symbiont Rickettsia is plant-mediated," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (23 November 2011).
Funky Viral Con
Kerry E. Mauck et al, "Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts," PNAS 107(8): 3600–3605 (23 Feb-ruary 2010).
Susan Milius, "Virus makes plants lie to insects," Science News (15 December 2009).
Simon C. Groen et al, "Virus infection of plants alters pollinator preference: a payback for susceptible hosts?," PLoS Pathogens (11 August 2016).
Tim Radford, "Cunning cucumber virus alters plant aromas to attract bees," The Guardian (11 August 2016).
Les Dethlefsen et al, "An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human–microbe mutualism and disease," Nature 449: 811–818 (18 October 2007).
Susan Milius, "Microscopic menagerie," Science News (11 January 2014).
"Bacteria blossom in apple flowers," Nature 495: 144 (14 March 2013).
Elizabeth A.C. Heath-Heckman et al, "Bacterial bioluminescence regulates expression of a host cryptochrome gene in the squid-vibrio symbiosis," mBio 4(2): e00167–13 (2 April 2013).
Jun Abe et al, "Atomic-scale origins of slowness in the cyanobacterial circadian clock," Science (25 June 2015).
Vanessa O. Ezenwa, "Animal behavior and the microbiome," Science 338: 198–199 (12 October 2012).
Elizabeth Pennisi, "How do microbes shape animal development," Science 340: 1159–1660 (7 June 2013).
Julie Reveillaud et al, "Host-specificity among abundant and rare taxa in the sponge microbiome," The ISME Journal (9 January 2014).
"Teeming with life," Science360 (15 July 2014) "Microbes control immune cells," Nature (22 January 2014).
Dingding An et al, "Sphingolipids from a symbiotic microbe regulate homeostasis of host intestinal natural killer T cells," Cell 156(1-2): 123–133 (16 January 2014).
Arya Khosravi et al, "Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection," Cell Host & Microbe 15(3): 374–381 (12 March 2014).
Vanessa O. Ezenwa et al, "Animal behavior and the microbiome," Science 338(6104): 198–199 (12 October 2012).
Javier A. Bravo et al, "Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotion-al behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve," PNAS 108(38): 16050–16055 (20 September 2011).
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz et al, "Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior," PNAS 108(7): 3047–3052 (15 February 2011).
Gil Sharon et al, "Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster," PNAS 106(46): 20051–20056 (16 November 2010).
Gut Flora
Azeen Ghorayshi, "The super-abundant virus controlling your gut bacteria," New Scientist (25 July 2014).
Johan Larsbrink et al, "A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes," Nature (19 January 2014).
Hassan Salem et al, "Actinobacteria as essential symbionts in firebugs and cotton stainers (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)," Environmental Microbiology (19 October 2012).
Joe Alcock et al, "Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms," BioEssays (7 August 2014).
Régis Stentz et al, "A bacterial homolog of a eukaryotic inositol phosphate signaling enzyme mediates cross-kingdom dialog in the mammalian gut," Cell Reports (13 February 2014).
Rheinallt M. Jones et al, "Symbiotic lactobacilli stimulate gut epithelial proliferation via Nox-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species," The EMBO Journal 32(23): 3009–3105 (27 November 2013).
"Gut microbes browse along a gene buffet," Duke University (7 August 2014).
Gina Kolata, "In good health? Thank your 100 trillion bacteria," The New York Times (13 June 2012).
Eric Epping, "Ocean ecology: life in an oceanic extreme," Nature Geoscience (17 March 2013).
Matthew Z. DeMaere et al, "High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake," PNAS (1 October 2013).
Laura Sanders, "Microbe's survival manual," Science News (3 February 2010).
E.F. Delong & N.R. Pace, "Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea," Systems Biology 50(4): 470–478 (August 2001).
Sarah E. DeWeerdt, "The world’s toughest bacterium," Genome News Network (5 July 2002).
Gutam Naik, "Deep inside bacteria, a germ of human personality," The Wall Street Journal (8 September 2009).
Jeremy L. England, "Statistical physics of self-replication," arXiv: 1209.1179 [] (6 September 2012).
Phillip Ball, "Bacteria replicate close to the physical limit of efficiency," Nature (20 September 2012).
"Bacteria's hidden traffic control," ScienceDaily (8 February 2015).
Bin Liu et al, "Helical motion of the cell body enhances Caulobacter crescentus motilitym," PNAS (22 July 2014).
"Bacteria can have a 'sense of smell'," ScienceDaily (16 August 2010).
Loo Chien Wang et al, "The inner membrane histidine kinase EnvZ senses osmolality via helix-coil transitions in the cytoplasm," The EMBO Journal (27 April 2012).
Franz Narberhaus, "RNAs at fever pitch," Nature 502: 178–179 (10 October 2013).
Ewen Callaway, "How bacteria break a magnet," Nature (15 December 2011).
Conghui You et al, "Coordination of bacterial proteome with metabolism by cyclic AMP signaling," Nature 500: 301–306 (15 August 2013).
Nicole M. Vega et al, "Salmonella typhimurium intercepts Escherichia coli signaling to enhance antibiotic tolerance," PNAS 110(35): 14420–14425 (27 August 2013).
"How Salmonella bounces back," Nature (20 August 2014).
Médéric Diard et al, "Antibiotic treatment selects for cooperative virulence of Salmonella typhimurium," Current Biology (20 August 2014).
Naama Katsowich et al, "Host cell attachment elicits posttranscriptional regulation in infecting enteropathogenic bacteria," Science 355: 735-739 (17 February 2017).
Jeongjoon Choi & Eduardo A. Groisman, "The lipopolysaccharide modification regulator PmrA limits Salmonella virulence by repressing the type three-secretion system Spi/Ssa," PNAS 110(23): 9499–9504 (4 June 2013).
"Salmonella uses protective switch during infection," ScienceDaily (27 May 2013).
Yury S. Polikanov et al, "How hibernation factors RMF, HPF, and YfiA turn off protein synthesis," Science 336: 916–918 (18 May 2012).
Gómez GómezJosé María et al, "Drying bacterial biosaline patterns capable of vital reanimation upon rehydration: novel hibernating bio-mineralogical life formations," Astrobiology (30 June 2014).
Karine A. Gibbs et al, "Genetic determinants of self identity and social recognition in bacteria," Science 321: 256–259 (11 July 2008).
Ram Maharjan et al, "The form of a trade-off determines the response to competition," Ecology Letters (31 July 2013).
Matthias Reiter et al, "Range expansion of heterogeneous populations," Physical Review Letters (11 April 2014).
"Bacteria use chat to play the 'prisoner's dilemma' game in deciding their fate," ScienceDaily (27 March 2012).
B. Brett Finlay, "The art of bacterial warfare," Scientific American 302(2): 56–63 (February 2010).
Victor Nizet & Tony Taksh, "Bacteria get on your nerves," Nature 501: 43–44 (5 September 2013).
Isaac M. Chiu et al, "Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation," Nature 501: 52–57 (5 September 2013).
Genetic Uptake
Michael Marshall, "DNA-grabbing bacteria hint at early phase of evolution," New Scientist (26 Septemer 2013).
Søren Overballe-Petersen et al, "Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA," PNAS (18 November 2013).
Robert V. Miller, "Bacterial gene swapping in nature," Scientific American 278(1): 66–71 (January 1998).
Stuart B. Levy, "The challenge of antibiotic resistance," Scientific American 278(3): 46–53 (March 1998).
Kevin J. Forsberg et al, "Bacterial phylogeny structures soil resistomes across habitats," Nature (21 May 2014).
Kevin J. Forsberg et al, "The shared antibiotic resistome of soil bacteria and human pathogens," Science 337(6098): 1107–1111 (31 August 2012).
Tom Berthold et al, "Mycelia as a focal point for horizontal gene transfer among soil bacteria," Scientific Reports (4 November 2016).
"Gene transfer on the fungal highway," Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (14 December 2016).
Tamim Al Jubair et al, "Haemophilus influenzae stores and distributes hemin by using Protein E," International Journal of Medical Microbiology 304(5–6): 662–668 (July 2014).
Nicole M Vega et al, "Signaling-mediated bacterial persister formation," Nature Chemical Biology (18 March 2012).
Melinda Wenner Moyer, "Nice germs finish last," Scientific American (November 2010).
E.J. Diner et al, "Identification of a target cell permissive factor required for contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI)," Genes & Development (March 2012).
Luke McNally et al, "Cooperative secretions facilitate host range expan-sion in bacteria," Nature Communications (5 August 2014).
Claude Saint-Ruf et al, "Massive diversification in aging colonies of Escherichia coli," Journal of Bacteriology (30 June 2014).
"Bacterial colonies evolve amazing diversity," ScienceDaily (30 June 2014).
Otto X. Cordero et al, "Ecological populations of bacteria act as socially cohesive units of antibiotic production and resistance," Science 337: 1228–1231 (7 September 2012).
Myxococcus xanthus
Marlene Cimons, "'Social' bacteria cooperate to hunt for food and survive under harsh conditions," (23 December 2013).
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Eating With the Enemy
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Energetic Drinker (Rhodopseudomonas palustris) A. Bose et al, "Electron uptake by iron-oxidizing phototrophic bacteria," Nature Communications (26 February 2014).
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Catherine Mary, "Giant viruses revive old questions about viral origins," Science 335: 1035 (2 March 2012).
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Carl Zimmer, "An infinity of viruses," Natural Geographic (20 February 2013).
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Alfred Nobel
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Mitch Leslie, "Cell-like giant virus found," Science 356(6333): 16-17 (7 April 2017).
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Paul Seaburn, "Giant Frankenstein viruses discovered in Austrian sewer," Mysterious Universe (12 April 2017).
Subvirals Matthias G. Fischer & Curtis A. Suttle, "A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons," Science 332(6026): 231–234 (8 April 2011).
Mama & Sputnik
Helen Pearson, "'Virophage' suggests viruses are alive," Nature (6 August 2008).
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Cafeteria Style
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Intrigue at Organic Lake
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Viral Assistances
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Communal Decisions Zohar Erez et al, "Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions," Nature 541: 488-493 (26 January 2017).
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Ocean Viruses
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Archaea Viruses
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Plant Viruses
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Viral Zombies
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Xenophyophores Sindya N. Bhanoo, "For a giant single-celled organism, home is the deepest address on the planet," The New York Times (31 October 2011).
Slime Molds – Intelligence
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Social Amoeba
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Amoeba Farmers
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Mycophagous Mammals
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Death Grip
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Sunflower Florets Sunflower photo courtesy of L. Shyamal.
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Chlorophyll's Color
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Xylem & Phloem
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Size Limits
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Cell Growth
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Flowering Plants
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Seed Production
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Maternal Care
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Asexual Reproduction
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Looted Fruit
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Killer Quorum Mimic
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Barberry Battles Barbarism Katrin M. Meyer et al, "Adaptive and selective seed abortion reveals complex conditional decision making in plants," The American Naturalist (29 January 2014).
Math in the Dark
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Lines of Communication
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Yuan Yuan Song et al, "Interplant communication of tomato plants through underground common mycorrhizal networks," PLoS One (13 October 2010).
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Meredith C. Schuman et al, "Herbivory-induced volatiles function as defenses increasing fitness of the native plant Nicotiana attenuata in nature," eLife (15 October 2012).
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Others on the Party Line
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The Scent of Ripening
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Sense of Self
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Rootless Duckweed
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Kwongan Root Strategies
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Border Building
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Inciting Cannibalism
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Beetle Juice
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Potato beetle larvae photo courtesy of Pollinator.
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Calling For Help
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caterpillar photo is of an army beetworm, a major crop pest.
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Tobacco's Defense
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Immune Systems
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Damn Spots Xiao-yu Zheng et al, "Coronatine promotes Pseudomonas syringae virulence in plants by activating a signaling cascade that inhibits salicylic acid accumulation," Cell Host & Microbe 11(6): 587–596 (14 June 2012).
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RNA Silencing
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Hopping Horsetail Legs Philippe Marmottant et al, "The walk and jump of Equisetum spores," Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1770) (11 September 2013).
Moss Spore Shoot Susan Milius, "Explosions, mushroom clouds — all good for short moss," Science News (23 July 2010).
Orchid blossom photo courtesy of Freier Denker.
Venus Flytrap
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Dodgy Dodders
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Susan Milius, "Plants and fungi recognize generous trading partners," Science News (11 August 2011).
Andreas Keymer et al, "Lipid transfer from plants to arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi," eLife 6:e29107 (20 July 2017).
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"Forest discovery: trees trade carbon among each other," ScienceDaily (14 April 2016).
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Thale Cress Pickiness
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The Comity of Sunflowers
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Jewelweed Relations
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All Together Now
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Plants & Animals
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Survival By Theft
Agouti drawing courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman.
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Just Don't Munch the Seeds
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Medicinal Plants Vincenzo De Luca et al, "Mining the biodiversity of plants: a revolution in the making," Science 336: 1658–1661 (29 June 2012).
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Medicinal Plants
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Ant Sounds
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Leafcutter Ants
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Weaver Ants
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Legumes & Rhizobia
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Yuccas & Moths
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Tentacled Snake
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Eggs Worth Fighting For Wen-San Huang et al, "Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus)," PNAS 108(18): 7455–7459 (3 May 2011).
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Playing Dead
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Snake Venom
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Songbird Patience
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Hen photo courtesy of Andrei Niemimäki.
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Finch Society
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Male zebra finch photo courtesy of Maurice van Bruggen.
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Songs and Such
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Singing in the City
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Karl Gruber, "Whisper while you lurk," Science Now (5 October 2011).
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Scaly-throated honeyguide photo courtesy of Dick Daniels.
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Planning & Memory
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Scrub Jay Caching
Western scrub jay photo courtesy of Rob Mutch.
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Bivouac Checking
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"Political ravens? Ravens notice the relationships among others, study shows," ScienceDaily (23 April 2014 ).
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Jorg J.M. Massen et al, "Ravens notice dominance reversals among conspecifics within and outside their social group," Nature Communica-tions (22 April 2014).
Jorg J.M. Massen et al, "Ravens intervene in others’ bonding attempts," Current Biology (22 April 2014).
"Divide and rule: raven politics," ScienceDaily (31 October 2014).
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Jason G. Goldman, "Western scrub jays are capable of metacognition," Scientific American (19 August 2014).
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Alex H. Taylor et al, "New Caledonian crows learn the functional properties of novel tool types," PLoS One (14 December 2011).
Tool Use
New Caledonian crow using a twig as a tool photo courtesy of Simon Walker.
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Jackdaw photo courtesy of Maxwell Hamilton.
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Pinyon Jays
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Sand Puppies
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Prairie Dogs
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African bull elephant photo courtesy of Muhammad Mahdi Karim.
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Marine Mammals
S.H. Ridgway et al, "Forward shift of feeding buzz components of dolphins and belugas during associative learning reveals a likely connection to reward expectation, pleasure and brain dopamine activation," The Journal of Experimental Biology (15 August 2014).
David Kirby, Death At Sea World, St. Martin's Press (2012).
Intelligence Physiology
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Hannah Joy Kriesell et al, "Identification and characteristics of signature whistles in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Namibia," PLoS One (9 September 2014).
"Dolphins have conversations," The Week (30 September 2016).
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Elizabeth Norton, "Nice to meet eet eet you," Science (28 February 2012).
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Orca photo courtesy of Robert Pittman.
Lauren J.N. Brent et al, "Ecological knowledge, leadership, and the evolution of menopause in killer whales," Current Biology 25(6): 746–750 (16 March 2015).
Emma A. Foster et al, "Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales," Science (14 September 2012).
"Orca helicopter moms," The Week (5 October 2012).
Susan Milius, "Killer whales follow postmenopausal leaders," Science News (5 March 2015).
Peter Knudtson, Orca, Sierra Club Books (1996).
Luke Rendell & Hal Whitehead, "Culture in whales and dolphins," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24: 309–382 (2001).
Candace Calloway Whiting, "Orca whales imitate each other and people – scientists correlate imitation with intelligence," Seattle PI (24 June 2013).
Kevin Speer, "How smart are killer whales? Orcas have 2nd-biggest brains of all marine mammals," (8 March 2010).
Sea Lion Slam
David Attenborough, Frozen Planet, BBC (2012).
Pilot Whales
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Erica van de Waal et al, "Wild vervet monkey infants acquire the food-processing variants of their mothers," Animal Behaviour 90: 41–45 (April 2014).
Lemur photo courtesy of Veszprémi Állatkert.
Lisa Gould & M.L. Sauther (editors), Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation, Springer (2006).
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Lydia K. Greene & Christine M. Drea, "Love is in the air: sociality and pair bondedness influence sifaka reproductive signaling," Animal Behaviour 88: 147–156 (February 2014).
Melanie Seiler et al, "Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis," PLoS One 8(6): e67397 (June 2013).
Alison Jolly, "Lemur social behavior and primate intelligence," Science 153(3735): 501–506 (29 July 1966).
Marie J.E. Charpentier & Christine M. Drea, "Victims of infanticide and conspecific bite wounding in a female-dominant primate: a long-term study," PLoS One 8(12): e82830 (December 2013).
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Monkey photo courtesy of Jim Ankan Deka.
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Red hot monkey love," Science (30 May 2007).
Marc Zabludoff, Monkeys, Marshal Cavendish (2008).
Jeet Sukumaran & L. Lacey Knowles, "Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species," PNAS (30 January 2017).
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James Randerson, "Monkey business reveals sense of fair play," New Scientist (17 September 2003).
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Capuchin monkey photo courtesy of Whaldener Endo.
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Frans B.M. de Waal et al, "The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger," PNAS 102(32): 11140–11147 (9 August 2005).
Squirrel Monkeys
Squirrel monkey photo courtesy of Jlahorn.
Night Monkeys
Night monkey photo courtesy of dsasso.
Spider Monkeys
Spider monkey photo courtesy of Michael Schamis.
Kayla S. Hartwell et al, "Assessing the occurrence of sexual segregation in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis), its mechanisms and function," International Journal of Primatology (2014).
Proboscis Monkeys
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Diana monkey photo courtesy of Adrian Kirton.
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Japanese Macaques Masayuki Nakamichi et al, "Carrying and washing of grass roots by free-ranging Japanese macaques at Katsuyama," International Journal of Primatology 69-1 (1998).
Bijal P. Trivedi, "‘Hot tub monkeys' offer eye on nonhuman ‘culture'," National Georgraphic News (6 February 2004).
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Patricia Miller-Schroeder, Japanese Macaques, Weigl Educational Publishers Limited (2002).
Hamadryas baboon photo courtesy of Dick Mudde.
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Daniel B. M. Haun, et al, "Great apes' risk-taking strategies in a decision making task," PLoS One 6 (12): e28801 (21 December 2011).
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"Borneo's orangutans are coming down from the trees," (29 July 2013).
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Matt Walker, "Wild orangutans treat pain with natural anti-inflammatory," New Scientist (28 July 2008).
Adam van Casteren et al, "Nest-building orangutans demonstrate engineering know-how to produce safe, comfortable beds," PNAS 109(18): 6873–6877 (1 May 2012).
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Francine Patterson & Eugene Linden, The Education of Koko, Holt, Rinehard and Winston (1981).
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Chimpanzees chimpanzee photo courtesy of Ruy Alvarez.
Karline R.L. Janmaat et al, "Chimpanzees use long-term spatial memory to monitor large fruit trees and remember feeding experiences across seasons," Animal Behaviour 86(6): 1183–1205 (December 2013).
Karline R.L. Janmaat et al, "Taï chimpanzees use botanical skills to discover fruit: what we can learn from their mistakes," Animal Cognition 16(6): 851 – 860 (1 November 2013).
Tool Use
Kathelijne Koops et al, "Chimpanzees prey on army ants at Seringbara, Nimba Mountains, Guinea: predation patterns and tool use characteristics," American Journal of Primatology (14 October 2014).
Martin Banks, Chimpanzee, Raintree Steck-Vaughn (2000).
Catherine Hobaiter et al, "Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees," PLoS Biology (30 September 2014).
Though ironwood trees are only about 10% of the trees, chimpanzees choose them 74% of the time.
David R. Samson & Kevin D. Hunt, "Chimpanzees preferentially select sleeping platform construction tree species with biomechanical properties that yield stable, firm, but compliant nests," PLoS One (16 April 2014).
Communication Jennifer Viegas, "Chimps 'talk' about favourite fruits, best trees," ABC Science (20 January 2015).
Stuart K. Watson et al, "Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees," Current Biology (5 February 2015).
Geoffrey C. Saign, Great Apes, Franklin Watts (1998).
Catherine Crockford et al, "Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger," Current Biology 22(2): 142–146 (29 December 2011).
"Chimpanzees show similar personality traits to humans, researchers say," (6 May 2014).
Personality & Emotions
Robert D. Latzman et al, "Personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): exploring the hierarchical structure and associations with the vasopressin v1a receptor gene," PLoS One (21 April 2014).
Hani D. Freeman et al, "Developing a comprehensive and comparative questionnaire for measuring personality in chimpanzees using a simultaneous top-down/bottom-up design," American Journal of Primatology (3 June 2013).
"Planet of the apes," The Economist (15 June 2013).
Darby Proctor et al, "Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game," PNAS (14 January 2013).
Katja Liebal et al, "Does sympathy motivate prosocial behaviour in great apes?," PLoS One (8 January 2014).
Shinya Yamamoto et al, "Chimpanzees help each other upon request," PLoS One (14 October 2009).
Matthew W. Campbell & Frans B.M. de Waal, "Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees," Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences (11 March 2014).
Maggie Koerth-Baker, "Want to understand mortality? Look to the chimps." The New York Times (25 June 2013).
Sonya M. Kahlenberg & Richard W. Wrangham, "Sex differences in chimpanzees' use of sticks as play objects resemble those of children," Current Biology 20(24): R1067–R1068 (21 December 2010).
Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen et al, "Early social deprivation negatively affects social skill acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)," Animal Cognition 17(2): 407–414 (March 2014).
"Chimpanzees of a feather sit together': friendships are based on homophily in personality," (9 October 2013).
Jorg J.M. Massen & Sonja E. Koski, "'Chimpanzees of a feather sit together': friendships are based on homophily in personality," Evolution and Human Behavior (4 October 2013).
Natalie Angier, "In society of female chimps, subtle signs of vital status," The New York Times (12 August 1997).
Toshisada Nishida & Kazuhiko Hosaka, "Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania," in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew, 114–134, Cambridge University Press (1996).
Ian C. Gilby et al, "Fitness benefits of coalitionary aggression in male chimpanzees," Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67(3): 373–381 (March 2013).
Michael L. Wilson et al, "Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts," Nature 513: 414–417 (18 Sep-tember 2014).
James Gorman, "Lethal violence in chimps occurs naturally, study suggests," The New York Times (17 September 2014).
Colin Barras, "Only known chimp war reveals how societies splinter," New Scientist (7 May 2014).
Joseph H. Manson & Richard W. Wrangham, "Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans," Current Anthropology 32(4): 369–390 (August – October 1991).
Claudia Rudolf von Rohr et al, "Impartial third-party interventions in captive chimpanzees: a reflection of community concern," PLoS One 7(3): e32494 (7 March 2012).
F.B.M. De Waal, "Conflict as negotiation," in Great Ape Societies, edited by William C. McGrew et al, Cambridge University Press (1996).
Victoria Horner et al, "Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees," PNAS 108(33): 13847–13851 (16 August 2011).
Felix Warneken et al, "Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children," PLoS Biology (26 June 2007).
Frans B. M de Waal, "With a little help from a friend," PLoS Biology (17 July 2007).
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Ant Foraging
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Tit Milk
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Wrasse Tool Use
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Colonial Intelligence
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Large Carnivores
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Quail Covey
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Health Care
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"Animal behaviour: smarter than the average bear," The Economist (10 March 2012).
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"Boozing fruit flies," The Week (1 March 2012).
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Fermented Fruit Flies
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Fermented Fruit Flies Balint Z. Kacsoh et al, "Fruit flies medicate offspring after seeing parasites," Science 339: 947–950 (22 February 2013).
Ben Hoare, Animal Migration, University of California Press (2009).
Susan Milius, "Overlooked mass migration spotted," Science News (4 February 2017).
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Human Comprehension
Gordon Ramel, "What is migration?" | link:
Monarch Butterfly Migration
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Michael Wines, "Migration of monarch butterflies shrinks again under inhospitable conditions," The New York Times (29 January 2014).
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Dragonfly Migration
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Dung Roll
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"Stars in their eyes," The Economist (26 January 2013).
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Magnetic Field Detection
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Travis W. Horton et al, "Straight as an arrow: humpback whales swim constant course tracks during long-distance migration," Biology Letters (20 April 2011).
Daniel Cressey, "The mystery of the magnetic cows," Nature (11 Novem-ber 2011).
Vlastimil Hart et al, "Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth’s magnetic field," Frontiers in Zoology (27 December 2013).
Cryptochrome on the Wing Robert J. Gegear et al, "Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism," Nature 463: 804–807 (11 February 2010).
Marissa Cevallos, "Quantum compass for birds," Science News (7 January 2011).
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Malika Ihle et al, "Fitness benefits of mate choice for compatibility in a socially monogamous species," PLoS Biology (14 September 2015).
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"Speed-dating birds," The Economist (19 September 2015).
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Sara Goudarzi, "Gay animals out of the closet?," NBC News (16 November 2006).
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Primal Urges
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Penny Sarchet, "Fickle female guppies fancy fresh faces," New Scientist (30 September 2014).
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Pavol Prokopa & Michael R. Maxwell, "Gift carrying in the spider Pisaura mirabilis: nuptial gift contents in nature and effects on male running speed and fighting success," Animal Behaviour 83(6): 1395–1399 (June 2012).
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Oversexed Marsupial Mice
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Sex Ratios
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Colin Barras, "Zoologger: sex in the city no lure for urban owls," New Scientist (28 March 2014).
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Cooperative Breeding
Maynard J. Smith & M.G. Ridpaht, "Wife sharing in the Tasmanian native hen, Tribonyx mortierii: a case of kin selection?," American Naturalist 106(950): 447–452 (1972).
Turkey Strut
C.R. Watts & A.W. Stokes, "The social order of turkeys," Scientific American (June 1971).
Malcolm J. Coe, " Cooperation of three males in nest construction by Chiromantis rufescens (Amphibia : Rhacophoridae)," Nature 214: 112–113 (1 April 1967).
Egg Laying
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David Malakoff, "An emergency hatch for baby lizards," Science (4 April 2013).
"Mum’s hormones could make female magpie chicks more adventurous," University of Lincoln (1 September 2014).
"Why robin eggs are blue," ScienceDaily (27 May 2016).
David C. Lahti & Daniel R. Ardia, "Shedding light on bird egg color: pigment as parasol and the dark car effect," The American Naturalist 187(5) (May 2016).
Kaisa Rokka et al, "Sex-specific differences in offspring personalities across the laying order in magpies Pica pica," Behavioural Processes 107: 79–87 (September 2014).
P. George Lovell et al, "Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail," Current Biology (17 January 2013).
Smart Eggs
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Water Bugs
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Viviane Callier & H. Frederik Nijhout, "Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis," PNAS 108(35): 14664–14669 (30 August 2011).
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A. Göth & D.T. Booth, "Temperature-dependent sex ratio in a bird," Biology Letters (1):31–3 (2005).
D. Steadman, Extinction and Biogeography in Tropical Pacific Birds, University of Chicago Press (2006).
Bird Eggs
Dexter Palmer, "Hatching a new hypothesis about egg shape diversity," Princeton University (22 June 2017).
"How eggs got their shapes: adaptations for flight may have driven egg-shape variety in birds," (22 June 2017).
Mary Caswell Stoddard et al, "Avian egg shape: form, function, and evolution," Science 356(6344): 1249-1254 (23 June 2017).
Sam Wong, "Bird eggs may be shaped by the way their mother flies," New Scientist (28 June 2017).
Claire N. Spottiswoode, "The most perfect thing, explained," Science 356(6344): 1234-1235 (23 June 2017).
Tim R. Birkhead et al, "The point of a Guillemot's egg," Ibis 159: 255-265 (2017).
"Researchers ponder the shape of birds' eggs," ScienceDaily (23 February 2017).
Live Birth
Live Birth Brian Handwerk, "Evolution in action: lizard moving from eggs to live birth," National Geographic News (1 September 2010).
Parental Care
David J. Siveter et al, "Exceptionally preserved 450-million-year-old Ordovician ostracods with brood care," Current Biology (13 March 2014).
Junchang Lü et al, "Post-natal parental care in a Cretaceous diapsid from northeastern China,"Geosciences Journal (October 2014).
Blue discus photo courtesy of Patrick Farrelly. Jennifer L. Stynoski et al, "Evidence of maternal provisioning of alkaloid-based chemical defenses in the strawberry poison frog Oophaga pumilio," Ecology 95(3): 587–593 (March 2014).
Donal M. Windsor et al, "Subsocial neotropical Doryphorini (Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae): new observations on behavior, host plants and systematics," ZooKeys (19 September 2013).
Katharina Mahr et al, "Female attractiveness affects paternal investment: experimental evidence for male differential allocation in blue tits," Frontiers in Zoology 9:14 (2012).
Susan Milius, "Hatch a thief," Science News 172: 372 (15 December 2007).
Julie Morand-Ferron et al, "Food stealing in birds: brain or brawn?," Animal Behaviour 74(6): 1725-1734 (December 2007).
Elizabeth S. Eaton, "Seabirds negotiate parenting duties," Science News (8 July 2017).
Common Crèche
"Come into my parlour," The Economist (26 January 2013).
Lena Grinsted et al, " Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders," Naturwissenschaften (October 2012).
Simon W. Townsend et al, "A simple test of vocal individual recognition in wild meerkats," Biology Letters (12 October 2013).
"Meerkat predator-scanning behaviour is altruistic, experts say," ScienceDaily (4 February 2013).
"Meerkat predator-scanning behaviour is altruistic, experts say," ScienceDaily (4 February 2013).
Nicolas Perony & Simon W. Townsend, "Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats," PLoS One (18 February 2013).
K.J. MacLeod et al, "Factors predicting the frequency, likelihood and duration of allonursing in the cooperatively breeding meerkat,"Animal Behavior (4 October 2013).
"Infanticide linked to wet-nursing in meerkats," (7 October 2013).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Helping out the family, especially in good times," The New York Times (22 August 2011).
R.D. Estes & J. Goddard, "Prey selection and hunting behavior of the African wild dog," Journal of Wildlife Management (1967).
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H. Kummer, Social organization of Hamadryas baboons: a field study, University of Chicago Press (1968).
Brood Parasites
Brood parasite photo courtesy of Dario Sanche.
W. Vogl et al, "Cuckoo females preferentially use specific habitats when searching for hot nests," Animal Behaviour 64: 843–850 (2002).
G.S. Olson & B. van Horne, "Dispersal patterns of juvenile Townsend's ground squirrels in southwestern Idaho," Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 2084–2089 (1998).
William E. Feeney et al, "Social learning of a brood parasite by its host," Biology Letters (23 August 2013).
Rose Thorogood & Nicholas B. Davies, "Cuckoos combat socially transmitted defenses of reed warbler hosts with a plumage polymorphism," Science 337(6094): 578–580 (3 August 2012).
"Cuckoos impersonate hawks by matching their 'outfits'," (16 October 2013).
Johanna Mappes & Leena Lindström, "How did the cuckoo get its polymorphic plumage?," Science 337(6094): 532–533 (3 August 2012).
"Naughty nesters," The Economist (8 May 2008).
Sindya N. Bhanoo, "Cuckoo finches come up with a new con," The New York Times (30 September 2013).
Martin Stevens et al, "Repeated targeting of the same hosts by a brood parasite compromises host egg rejection," Nature Communications (24 September 2013).
Mary Caswell Stoddard et al, "Pattern recognition algorithm reveals how birds evolve individual egg pattern signatures," Nature Communications (18 June 2014).
"Birds evolve 'signature' patterns to distinguish cuckoo eggs from their own," ScienceDaily (18 June 2014).
Sonia Kleindorfer et al, "Females that experience threat are better teachers," Biology Letters (7 May 2014).
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Burying Beetles
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Sea Otter Moms
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Slave Rebellion
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Hermit Crabs
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African Wild Dogs
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Social Dominance
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Gall Aphids
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Empathy & Altruism
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Coerced Altruism
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Interspecies Bonding
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Gabe Bergado, "Tiger becomes best friends with a goat he was supposed to eat," The Daily Dot (27 November 2015).
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Altruistic Algae
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James F. Cheeseman et al, "Way-finding in displaced clock-shifted bees proves bees use a cognitive map," PNAS (4 June 2014).
Worm Charming
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Great Tits
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Lars Lewejohann et al, "Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs," Frontiers in Zoology (25 March 2010).
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Theory of Mind
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Attila Andics et al, "Voice-sensitive regions in the dog and human brain are revealed by comparative fMRI," Current Biology 24(5): 574–578 (20 February 2014).
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Fiona Macrae, "Why your dog is as intelligent as a two-year-old," The Daily Mail (9 August 2009).
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Brian Hare & Vanessa Woods, "Why dogs are smarter than cats," The Wall Street Journal (1 February 2013).
Kat Arney, "Dog brains respond to calls just like human brains," New Scientist (20 February 2014).
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Sindya N. Bhanoo, "When a dog's dish seems half empty," The New York Times (11 October 2010).
"Man's best friend," The Economist (30 June 2012).
Zubeora Marcos, "Dogs feel your pain," Science (7 May 2012).
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Dogs vis-à-vis Wolves
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John Bohannon, "Who's (socially) smarter: the dog or the wolf?," Science (28 May 2013).
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Defining Intelligence
Merriam-Webster's Third Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam Co. (1981).
Expectation & Purpose
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Fruit Fly Song "What singing fruit flies can tell us about quick decisions," (20 March 2014).
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Fighting Damselflies "Damselfly war games: flying insects take note of opponents' strengths, abilities before entering into a fight," ScienceDaily (25 March 2015).
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Mantis Shrimp
Mantis shrimp drawing courtesy of R.A. Lydekker.
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Coral Trout Alexander L. Vail et al, "Fish choose appropriately when and with whom to collaborate," Current Biology 24(17): R791–R793 (8 September 2014).
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Irukandji Jellyfish Robert Courtney et al, "Prey capture ecology of the Cubozoan Carukia barnesi," PLoS One (13 May 2015).
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Collective Intelligence Takao Sasaki et al, "Ant colonies outperform individuals when a sensory discrimination task is difficult but not when it is easy," PNAS 110(34): 13769–13773 (20 August 2013).
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Insect Colonies
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Rock Ant Real Estate
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Fish Shoals
Maksym Romenskyy & Vladimir Lobaskin, "Statistical properties of swarms of self-propelled particles with repulsions across the order-disorder transition," The European Physical Journal B (March 2013).
"Follow my leader," The Economist (24 February 2011).
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Caddisfly net photo courtesy of Clinton & Charles Robertson.
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Spider Silk
European garden spider photo courtesy of Gnissah.
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Emily Conover, "How spiders mastered spin control," Science News (8 August 2017).
Spider Webs
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Sid Perkins, "Bees buzz each other, but not the way you think," Science (27 March 2013).
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Darwin's Bark Spider
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Common House Spider
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Bolas Spider
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Susan Milius, "Ant lions hunt despite sealed lips," Science News 186(10): 4–5 (12 July 2014).
Skink Mansions
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Nicholas Bakalar, "A lizard that builds with the family in mind," The New York Times (16 May 2011).
"Stay-at-home parents make for a cooperative family of lizards," ScienceDaily (12 May 2011).
Bird Nests
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Helen Thomson, "Birds colour-match their nests for camouflage," New Scientist (6 October 2014).
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Village Weavers
Village weaver photo courtesy of Bernard Dupont.
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Beaver photo courtesy of Theodore Moniodis.
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Tool Use
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Assassin Bugs
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Archerfish drawing courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman.
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Andy Coghlan, "Spitting archerfish shoot at prey above and beneath the water," New Scientist (20 July 2017).
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Wolverine Refrigerators
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Banded Mongooses
Banded mongoose photo courtesy of Derek Keats. David AWAM Jansen et al, "Segmental concatenation of individual signatures and context cues in banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) close calls," BMC Biology (3 December 2012).
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Tanimbar Corella
Tanimbar corella photo courtesy of Lip Kee Yap.
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Math Skills
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Rafael L. Rodríguez et al, "Nephila clavipes spiders (Araneae: Nephilidae) keep track of captured prey counts: testing for a sense of numerosity in an orb-weaver," Animal Cognition 18(1): 307–314 (January 2015).
Cornelia Buehlmann et al, "Path integration controls nest-plume following in desert ants," Current Biology 22(7): 645–649 (10 April 2012).
Peter Bruger, "Chicks with a number sense," Science 347(6221): 478 (30 January 2015).
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Road Signs
Susan Milius, "Birds know road speed limits," Science News (20 August 2013).
Pierre Legagneux & Simon Ducatez, "European birds adjust their flight initiation distance to road speed limits," Biology Letters (23 October 2013).
Optimal Foraging
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Gretchen Parker, "Bumblebee math," National Geographic (February 2012).
Rachel Ehrenberg, "Bees fast to find shortest route," Science News, 17 (20 October 2012).
Starfish Geometry
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Emily Conover, "Baby starfish whip up whirlpools to snag a meal," Science News (23 December 2016).
Virginia Morell, "No joke: pigeons ace a simple math test," Science (22 December 2011).
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Kirsten Weir, "Bird brainiacs: the genius of pigeons," New Scientist (4 May 2014).
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"Punk Amazon bird is an ancient European emigrant," New Scientist 221(2956): 17 (15 February 2014).
Amy Maxmen, "Jungle search gives global count of arthropods," Nature (13 December 2012).